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US History Notes

US History Notes
US History Notes .................................................................................................................................................... 1
European Exploration .......................................................................................................................................... 2
Colonization ........................................................................................................................................................ 3
Causes of the American Revolution .................................................................................................................... 8
The Atlantic Slave Trade ...................................................................................................................................... 10
Major Events of American Revolution ............................................................................................................. 14
End of Revolution ............................................................................................................................................. 16
Constitutional Convention................................................................................................................................. 19
First President- Washington .............................................................................................................................. 21
Second President- Adams.................................................................................................................................. 24
Causes of the War in 1812 ................................................................................................................................ 27
The First Five Presidents ................................................................................................................................... 29
Jackson’s Presidency ......................................................................................................................................... 31
Events that Led to the Civil War ....................................................................................................................... 34
European Exploration
 In the 1400, Europeans did not know much about the world.
 Most Europeans had never been outside Europe
 European map of the world included only Europe, Asia, and the top of Africa.
 Believed there was only one ocean, the Ocean Sea
 Many people thought the world was flat
 Educated Europeans knew that it was round
 Had no idea how large the world was
Europeans had traveled across some dangerous territory (land) into Asia because of the spices, silks, and
other precious items. Many explorers thought there was a faster sea route from Europe into Asia.
Christopher Columbus
 Reason: to find a Western Sea Route to Asia
 Sponsored by: Spain (Queen Isabela and King Ferdinand)
 Obstacles: had no maps, crew were frightened
 Success: revealed the existence of the Natives to the Europeans
 Ships: Niña, Pinta, Sta. Maria
 2 ½ months travel
John Cabot
 From Great Britain
 Discovered Canada
 Reason: to find a Western Sea Route to Asia
 Sponsored by: England
 Obstacles: had no maps
 Success: explored the East Coast of North America
Juan Ponce de Leon
 Reason: looking for riches and the “Fountain of Youth”
 Sponsored by: Spain
 Obstacles: fought with the American Indian
 Success: first European in Florida; discovered the Gulf of Stream
Vasco Nuñez de Balboa
 Reason: looking for Voyages
 Sponsored by: Spain
 Obstacles: had to cross jungles of Panama: fought with Indians
 Success: first European to reach the Pacific Ocean from the East
Jacques Cartier
 Reason: to find Northwest passage to Asia
 Sponsored by: France
 Obstacles: no route, cold weather, sick crew
 Success: explored the Eastern Canada and St. Lewis River
Henry Hudson
 Reason: to find Northwest passage to Asia
 Sponsored by: England
 Obstacles: no route, cold weather, crew mutinied
 Success: explored the Hudson River and Hudson Bay
Indigenous People
- Theories but not available
- Settled, civilized
- People lived here
Age of Exploration
- Spanish
- Portuguese
- French
- English
- Italian
- Dutch
1. Trade Route to Asia
2. Gold Riches
Europe- depleted from Natural Resources
- Political, religious, and just general unrest
2 new continents
Colonization- rush to claim (1500’s- start of Colonization)
Exploration & Colonization of the Americas
I. First Immigrants-Native Americans
Archeological Theory: Ancient Asians migrated across a land bridge formed during the last Ice Age in search
of food. Approximately 30,000 years ago.
-These first Americans hunted game and gathered available fruits and vegetables. They then developed farming
techniques so that they could live in one place without roaming.
-Several large civilizations developed:
Aztecs-Central Mexico
Mayas-Central America
*All were highly developed with large cities and calendars
*They were far more civilized earlier than European settlements
U.S. Civilizations
Anasazi-Southwest-built large pueblo apartment
Plains Indians-Great Plains-tracked large buffalo herds
Eastern Woodlands-hunted small game and fed off abundant forests
Iroquoi-New York-built longhouses and formed League of Iroquois-5 tribes
II. Exploration
A. Why Explore? Gold, God, Glory
Gold-European monarchs needed money to finance armies
God-Many wanted to spread Christianity
Glory-A sense of adventure and heroism attracted many explorers
B. Age of Discovery
Explorers-All wanted to find a quicker route to Asia. China's riches were the grand prize.
1. Hernando Cortes(1521)-conquered the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan with his army &
100,000 Indians who hated the
2. Francisco Pizarro(1533)-conquered the Inca in Peru.
C. Different Nations=Different Goals
Spanish-Spread Christianity and conquer to build an empire
French-Establish trading posts
III. Colonization
In the late 1500's, colonies led by individuals failed miserably.
Joint-stock companies developed-Groups of investors who bought shares in the colony.
The first English attempt was by Sir Walter Raleigh on the Outer Banks of North Carolina.
This resulted in a failure and the “Lost Colony.”
Virginia Dare-first European child born in the Americas
A. Virginia-founded at Jamestown in 1607
1. Land chosen was swampy, unfit for farming, and full of disease.
2. Colonists were "gentlemen", rather than farmers and workers.
3. Colonists spent too much time searching for gold and silver.
1. John Smith took over and forced colonists to work.
2. New type of tobacco introduced that grew well in Virginia.
1. 1618-headright system gave colonists 50 acres and increased immigration. Most immigrants were
still indentured servants, however.
2. 1619-First Africans arrived, most likely as indentured servants.
3. 1619-July 30-22 representatives called burgesses met to outline laws for the colony
4. 1624-After large loss of colonists and the bankruptcy of the Virginia Company,
King James I revoked its charter, taking total control. Virginia was now a royal colony.
B. Massachusetts-founded at Plymouth in 1620
-2 Groups, 1 Reason: Religious freedom
-Anglican Church in England persecuted religious dissenters (people who disagreed).
1. Puritans-wanted to purify & reform the Anglican Church.
-Humans were naturally sinful-original sin
-Your fate was predetermined-predestination
-Harsh punishment for drunkenness, theft, swearing, and idleness
-Ministers led congregations, not bishops
2. Separatists-wanted to separate from the Anglican Church
Plymouth-Separatists made a financial deal with the Virginia Company. They called themselves Pilgrims and
sailed on the Mayflower.
-The group had aimed for the northern coast of Virginia, but missed badly, landing near Cape Cod.
-Native Americans named Squanto and Samoset helped the Pilgrims survive with farming techniques
and making peace.
*Mayflower Compact*-since they were out of the Virginia Company's territory, 41 men drew up this
agreement to outline "just and equal laws...for the general good of the colony."
Importance: Landmark in development of the tradition of rule by the people. (democracy)
They elected William Bradford as governor.
Massachusetts Bay-John Winthrop formed the Massachusetts Bay
-Company and founded the colony at Boston with 1000 colonists.
-Very successful and well supplied, the colony eventually absorbed the Plymouth Colony.
C. Other Colonies
Rhode Island- Roger Williams-1631- banished from Massachusetts, he and a group of followers founded
-It became a safe haven for dissenters.
New York(New Netherlands)-founded by the Dutch on Manhattan Island as a trading post.
-English took over and renamed the colony in 1664.
Maryland-Sir George Calvert and his son, Lord Baltimore (Catholics)
1649-Maryland passed the Act of Toleration= freedom of worship
Georgia-Founded by James Oglethorpe in 1733 with 2 purposes:
1. Place where debtors could start over
2. Military protection from the Spanish
D. Proprietary Colonies: Land grants given as gifts by the English king.
Carolinas- founded by a group of 8 supporters called Lords Proprietors
Pennsylvania- William Penn-1680-Quakers
Beliefs: Tolerant of other religions, disliked ceremonies, pacifists, inner light
Delaware-divided from Pennsylvania
IV. Diverse Colonial Life
Colonies found products to export for profit.
Cash crops-crops sold so colonists could buy other items.
-South Carolina-rice & indigo
-North Carolina-wood products
A. Plantation Economics
-These cash crops created 3 specific things:
1. large farms around rivers
2. need for lots of labor
3. wealthy class of plantation owners
B Slave Trade
1. First slaves were Indian captives or prisoners of war. By 1700, the African slave trade flourished.
Slaves came mostly from West Africa and Central Africa.
2. The voyage over, called the Middle Passage, killed many before they arrived in America.
3. Virginia & Maryland-Slaves worked on tobacco farms with white overseers. Many became artisans
skilled in a trade such as blacksmithing
or carpentry.
4. South Carolina-Large rice plantations meant large groups of slaves & very few artisans.
A. Port Cities-these cities grew quickly as a result of trade.
Largest colonial cities were Boston, Philadelphia, New York, Charles Town. Most people were still small
farmers who relied on barter.
B. Triangle of Trade-Trade Routes between the colonies, Europe, and the West Indies.
----V. English Power in the Colonies
A. Mercantilism-theory that a nation becomes powerful through trade
1. England used colonies to provide products they could not.
2. Naval power developed to protect trade interests.
3. Shipbuilding and fishing became important industries.
B. Navigation Acts of 1660 and 1663-passed to protect English mercantilism
1. Forced colonists to use English ships and trade directly with England
2. Massachusetts was investigated and had their charter revoked in 1684 for violations
VI. Colonial Democracy
A. Traditions
1. Legislatures-people’s voice in the government.These varied from colony to colony.
2. Protection of Rights
3. Voting-privilege of the wealthy and educated
4. Religious freedom-Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson established
5. Freedom of the Press-John Peter Zenger in 1735 was tried for printing damaging stories about the
governor of Pennsylvania. Jury found him not guilty because the stories were true.
B. Roots
The American System derived from these main sources
1. Ancient Greece and Rome
2. Magna Carta (1215)-limited the power of the king.
3. English Bill of Rights (1689)-Parlaiment listed the rights of all citizens
4. John Locke-2 ideas:
1. Natural Rights-life, liberty, and property
2. Social Contract-people have agreed to be governed if the government protects them. If it does
not, they do not have to obey. (consent of the governed)
5. Montesquieu-French philosopher-separation of powers-prevented tyranny
VII. Britain Tightens Control
As colonies became more difficult to control, Britain tried to force them to obey. Britain also needed money to
pay off war debts.
A. Acts of Parliament
Royal Proclamation of 1763-No colonists past the Appalachian Mountains
Sugar Act (1764)-taxed certain imports like sugar and molasses
Quartering Act (1765)-required colonists to house and supply British troops
Stamp Act (1765)-required stamps on all printed material
B. Colonial Reaction
"No taxation without representation" -Patrick Henry
Believed that since the colonies were not represented in Parliament, they had no right to tax them.
Protests: Sons of Liberty and Daughters of Liberty organized boycotts of British goods.
Merchants also created nonimportation associations, agreeing not to buy British goods.
C. More Acts
1766-Parlaiment repealed the Stamp Act
Declaratory Act (1766)-said that Parliament did have the right to pass laws in the colonies.
Townshend Acts (1767)-taxed wine, tea, paper, glass, and lead. This taxation went against mercantilist
D. Tensions Explode-Boston Massacre March 5, 1770
Boston had become the center of colonial protest and disobedience. Troops were sent to the city to
enforce laws.
7 British soldiers fired on an angry mob of colonists, killing 5.
E. Final Events
-Colonies established committees of correspondence to communicate.
-Boston Tea Party-Dec. 16, 1773-Sons of Liberty disguised as Indians boarded 3 ships and dumped
15,000 pounds of tea in Boston Harbor.
-Intolerable Acts (1774)-passed to punish Boston. Closed Boston harbor and sent more troops.
-Continental Congress-Sept. 1774-representatives from colonies met and voted for: total boycott of
British goods, raising militia, repeal of all Parliamentary laws.
VIII. Colonial Independence
A. Second Continental Congress-May 10, 1775
Benjamin Franklin-Pennsylvania
John Hancock-Mass., chosen as president
George Washington-chosen to lead the army
Thomas Jefferson-Virginia
Decisions: Printed money, established post office, created committees to communicate.
*Olive Branch Petition-Congress offered peace, but George III refused to read it.
B. Common Sense-Thomas Paine
Pamphlet called for complete independence. Said that independence was the “destiny” of all Americans.
He said that independence would create a better life in the colonies. He blamed the king for tyranny.
500,000 copies of it were sold and it helped influence colonists in favor of independence.
C. The Declaration of Independence
Thomas Jefferson selected by the Congress to write it.
Issues debated: Slavery, women’s rights, total independence.
4 Sections:
1. Preamble-introduction
2. Social Contract-philosophy
3. Grievances-complaints
4. Proclamation of independence
Causes of the American Revolution
Patriots-American colonists who believed that the colonists had the right to govern themselves.
Loyalists-American colonists who were loyal to the British government
Neutralists-Did not support either side. Thought both groups had good reasons but neither were strong enough
to fight a war over. (The war was to far away so why bother)
Proclamation of 1763
To keep colonists and Native Americans from fighting with each other the British government drew a line down
the crest of the Appalachian Mountains. Settlers had to stay east of that line.
Views – Proclamation of 1763
British/Loyalists- Defending the frontier is to expensive. Colonists would have to pay for troops
What Happened?
Most colonists ignored the new law and stayed put or continued to migrate pass the mountains.
The British army sent 7,500 men to keep peace on the frontier
Stamp Act
-The War debt from French and Indian War had to be paid.
-The law required all colonists to buy a stamp for every piece of paper they used.
-Wills, licenses, playing cards, newspapers, etc.
-Tax collectors collected money from the colonists
Money was divided between Parliament and the King
Views of the Stamp Act
British and Loyalists – British citizens have been paying taxes on everything. The colonists are taxed the least,
so why shouldn’t they pay off the debt of the French and Indian War
Patriots – “ No Taxation without Representation” Parliament had no right to pass a tax unless the colonists had
a voice in Parliament (British Government). It is a violation of Rights
What happened?
Colonists (Patriots and Loyalists) protested by sending petitions and appeals to Parliament or refused to buy the
Sons of Liberty- Protest group that took violent action. Attacked tax collectors
Stamp Act was repealed, but Quartering Act was issued. Colonies must provide food, shelter, and supplies to
British soldiers. Was seen as another tax.
Townshend Acts
Parliament passed a duty on certain goods the colonies imported from Britain to pay British debts. These goods
included glass, paper, lead, ink, and tea
Views of the Townshend Act
Loyalist/British- Believed that the colonists bad behavior made it more important to keep an eye on them.
Colonists must pay for the Army sent there to protect them
Patriots – Duties were a tax in disguise. They violated colonists rights. “Taxation without Representation”
What Happened?
The Sons of Liberty organized a Boycott (refusal to buy British products). Boycotts were peaceful, everybody
could support.
Women (Daughters of Liberty) used home spun cloth, made tea from pine needles, and bought only American
made products
Duties were repealed because British merchants were losing money. Only TEA will be taxed
The Boston Massacre- Mob violence breaks out. Patriots started throwing rocks and snowballs at British troops.
British fire on rioters, five die
Views of Boston Massacre
British/ Loyalist – It was proof more troops were needed to control Patriot hot heads
Patriots – used it as propaganda to stir up the people. It was proof that all troops need to leave colonies
Tea Act
After the Townshend Acts were repealed a tax on tea was left. British allowed one British tea company have a
monopoly on tea in the colonies. American merchants could not set their own prices.
Views of the Tea Act
British and Loyalists – The British East Indian Tea Company needed to be saved. The boycotts have put it close
to bankruptcy
Patriots – If they can place a monopoly on tea, what will stop them from doing it to other products
What Happened?
Boston Tea Party- The Son’s of Liberty dressed up as Indians and boarded a tea ship. They dumped 90,000 lbs.
in Boston Harbor
Intolerable Acts
They were designed to punish Massachusetts
Boston Harbor is closed
Massachusetts government was suspended
More troops sent to Boston
Views of the Intolerable Acts
British and Loyalists- It is no longer about Taxes it was about British control of her colonies
Patriots- If the King could do this to one colony what will stop him from doing it to others.
What Happened?
Colonies Unite- Other colonies support Massachusetts by sending aide.
Committees of Correspondence- Information of British abuses would be shared between the colonies through
First Continental Congress- Delegates from 12 colonies met to discuss issues. They sent a message to the king
and called for another boycott
The Atlantic Slave Trade
The Atlantic Slave Trade
The Main Idea
To Meet their growing labor needs, Europeans enslaved millions of Africans in forced labor in the Americas.
Terms and Names
Atlantic Slave Trade
Triangular trade
Middle Passage
Setting the Stage
Sugar plantations and tobacco farms required a large supply of workers to make them profitable for their
owners. Since most of the Native Americans that were used for labor had died, they turned to Africa for a new
source of labor.
The Evolution of African Slavery
Slavery in Africa, as in other parts of the world, had existed for ages
Slavery is thought to be as old as civilization itself
New agricultural techniques created a need for more labor, and prisoners of war were put to use
Evolution of African Slavery
African rulers justified the sale of slaves through their Muslim beliefs.
Between the years 650 and 1600, black and white Muslims transported 4.8 million African to Muslim lands in
SW Asia.
In African and Muslim societies, slaves had rights and the opportunity for social mobility.
Slavery in African and Muslim societies was NOT hereditary.
The Desire for Africans
The Portuguese were the first Europeans to Explore Africa.
They were more interested in trading for gold than for slaves.
The colonization of the Americas changed the focus of trade.
WHY???? Answer with partner.
There were several advantages in using Africans:
They had been exposed to European diseases
They had experience in farming
They had little knowledge of the land and there were no familiar tribes
This trade for slaves became the Atlantic Slave Trade
Between 1500 and 1600, about 300,000 slaves were taken to the Americas.
During the next 100 years, the number jumped to 1.5 million, and by 1870 the number was about 9.5 million.
Spain and Portugal lead the way
During the 1600’s, Brazil dominated the sugar market – and as it grew, so did the need for slaves.
During the late 17th century, nearly 40% of the slaves from Africa were taken to Brazil.
Brazil, by the end of the slave trade, had 10 times the amount of slaves than in North America.
Slavery Spreads
England then dominated the slave trade from the 1690 until 1807.
By 1830, there were nearly 2 million African slaves in North America.
African merchants, with the help of local rulers, captured fellow Africans to be enslaved.
They delivered them to the Europeans in exchange for gold, guns and other goods.
Forced Journey
The trade routes formed a Triangle, becoming known as the triangular trade.
Manufactured goods from Europe to Africa
Slaves from Africa to the Americas
Rum, and other goods from the Americas to Europe
Forced Journey
The voyage across the Atlantic was dehumanizing, and deadly
Nearly 1/3 died between capture and sailing
Another 1/3 died in the crossing
Forced Journey
Many Africans jumped overboard to their deaths rather than be enslaved.
Diseases ravaged the “passengers”
Cruel treatment ravaged more
Forced Journey
The second part of the journey, from Africa to the Americas was known as the Middle Passage.
Formula – 2 slaves per tonne
Loose Pack and Tight Pack
The Slavers
Small and narrow ships
Two slaves per ship tonnage formula
Most captains are “tight packers”
ignored formula in the name of profits
Crowded, unsanitary conditions
Slaves ride on planks 66” x 15”
only 20”– 25” of headroom
Males chained together in pairs
Kept apart from women and children
High mortality rates
1/3 perish between capture and embarkation
Provisions for the Middle Passage
Slaves fed twice per day
Poor and insufficient diet
Vegetable pulps, stews, and fruits
Denied meat or fish
Ten people eating from one bucket
Unwashed hands spread disease
Malnutrition ~ weakness ~ depression ~ death
The Crossing
Canary Islands to the Windward Islands
40 to 180 days to reach the Caribbean
Pirates attacked Spanish ships
Frightening experience
Growth of the Atlantic Slave Trade
Harsher in the Americas
Based on race
Most were males
Believed they were stronger laborers than females
Agricultural workers
Resistance and Revolt at Sea
Uprisings were common
Most rebellions before sailing
Some preferred death to bondage
Justification for harsh treatment by slavers
Middle passage horrors exaggerated
Exceptionally cruel
Slaves had half the space allowed indentured servants and convicts
Slavery suitable only for non-Christians
Brutal treatment by crew members
African Women on Slave Ships
Less protection against unwanted sexual attention from European men
African women worth half the price of African men in the Caribbean markets
Separation from male slaves made them easier targets
The End of the Journey
One-third died
men died at a greater rate than women
Adapt to new foods
Learn a new language
Creole dialect well enough to obey commands
Psychological ~ no longer suicidal
Africans retain culture despite the hardships and cruel treatment
Created bonds with shipmates that replaced blood kinship
Landing and Sale in the
West Indies
Bathe and exercise
Oil bodies to conceal blemishes and bruises
Hemp plugs
Modify behavior and attitude
Preparation for north American planters
slaves born in the Americas
worth three times price unseasoned Africans
Old Africans
Lived in the Americas for some time
New Africans
Had just survived the middle passage
Creoles and old Africans instruct new Africans
IX. The Ending of the Atlantic Slave Trade
Cruelties help end Atlantic slave trade
Great Britain bans Atlantic slave trade in 1807
Patrols African coast to enforce
United states congress outlaws slave trade in 1808
Guinea and western central African kingdoms oppose banning slave trade
Nine to eleven million Africans brought to the Americas during three centuries of trade
Millions more died
Most arrived between 1701 and 1810
Only 600,000 reached the British colonies of north America
Consequences of the Atlantic Slave Trade
In Africa, numerous cultures lost generations of their strongest members, both men and women.
The slave trade introduced guns to the African continent
African slaves contributed greatly to the cultural and economic development of the Americas.
Africans brought their culture to the Americas
Major Events of American Revolution
Major Events of the
American Revolution
Lexington & Concord, New York, The Crisis, Trenton, Saratoga, Valley Forge, Yorktown, Treaty of
Continental Army
Commander: Gen. George Washington
 Highly motivated – fighting for cause
 Home field advantage – knew the land
 Good leadership from Washington
 Foreign aid after 1778
 Not enough men – short enlistments
 Poor training – few professional soldiers
 Lack of supplies and money – paid with paper, not gold & silver
 No navy – few privateers vs. world’s best navy
British Army
Commanders: Gens. Howe and Clinton
 Large army and navy – superpower
 Well trained, experienced forces
 Plenty of money and supplies
 Aided by Loyalists in colonies
 “Away team” – great distance from home
 Not familiar with land
 Weak leadership – allowed Washington to keep fighting
 Lack of motivation at home – Lost support of British people
Lexington & Concord
• British troops from Boston sent to capture hidden weapons and arrest Adams and Hancock
• April 19, 1775: met by colonial militia – aka Minutemen - at Lexington, MA – fired the “shot heard
‘round the world”
• Marched on to Concord – found few weapons but more militia
• Fired on by Minutemen on march back to Boston – heavy casualties
Importance of battle:
1. First battle of the American Revolution – while not official, war had begun
2. 2nd Continental Congress created Continental Army under General George Washington
New York
• August 1776 – General Howe landed at Long Island, NY with large British army and navy
Outnumbered Americans took 1,400 casualties, but Washington led escape back to PA – British failed to
end war right there
The American Crisis
America’s best propaganda writer, Thomas Paine, published The American Crisis – urged Americans to keep
fighting for independence
“THESE are the times that try men's souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis,
shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and
• After months of defeats, Washington needed to give Americans hope for victory
• December 25, 1776: Crossed Delaware River overnight to attack Hessians (hired soldiers) at Trenton,
• Surprised Hessians - captured supplies, cannons, and ammo with no casualties
• Boosted American morale and army recruitment
• Trenton
Importance of battle:
1. Gave American cause hope when nearing collapse
2. Shows American strengths – Washington’s leadership and motivation to fight
• Part 2: The Tide Turns
• By 1777, British had given up trying to conquer New England
• Believed more Loyalists in Middle and Southern colonies
• Goal - isolate New England, use Loyalists to wear down resistance to British rule
• Plan - send three armies to Albany, NY to cut off New England colonies …
• Only one army, under Gen. John Burgoyne, continued toward Albany
• Met by Continental forces under Gen. Horatio Gates
• Burgoyne surrounded – surrendered army at Saratoga, NY in October 1777
• Major American victory and British defeat
• Saratoga
Importance of battle:
1. British plan to divide colonies failed
And this is HUGE …
2. Ben Franklin in France trying to win foreign
assistance – victory convinced France and
Spain to join American side
3. Saratoga was the TURNING POINT of the war
Valley Forge
• British captured American capital of Philadelphia
• Winter 1777 – Washington’s army camped for 6 months at Valley Forge, PA
• Lack of food, clothing, medicine, and shelter – miserable conditions
• 1/4 of 10,000 troops died during winter
Foreign Allies
• Baron Freidrich von Steuben – German officer who aided Washington at Valley Forge
Taught army how to use bayonets – drilled troops into better, disciplined army
Marquis de La Fayette – 19 yr. old French noble and friend to Washington who believed in American
Convinced French king to contribute money and troops to aid Americans
• Britain tried to conquer Southern colonies
• 1781 – British General Cornwallis moved army to Yorktown on VA coast
• Wanted port location for support by British navy
• Washington moved army south to attack British by land …
• French Aid Leads to Victory
• French navy defeated British fleet off VA coast
• Cornwallis trapped between American and French armies on land and French navy by sea
• October 19, 1781 – Cornwallis and army of 8,000 surrendered to Washington
• War in America over!
Importance of battle:
• Last battle between Americans and British
• Parliament cut off support for war – started negotiating for peace
• 1783 – Treaty of Paris officially ended American Revolution
Treaty of Paris - 1783
1. Britain recognized America’s independence
2. Set U.S.-Canada border – U.S. reached Mississippi River
3. American fishermen allowed to fish in Canadian waters
4. British to leave frontier forts (broken)
5. U.S. to return property to Loyalists (broken)
6. British to return escaped slaves in Canada (broken)
End of Revolution
Revolution and the Early Republic
Colonial Resistance and Rebellion
England is in Debt
The French and Indian War cost way, way too much money.
England started taxing the American Colonies to pay the debt back.
They also started tightening control over the colonies.
The Colonies get Upset!
Sugar Tax, Stamp Tax (tax on all types of paper goods)
Colonies upset – they felt that it was unfair to be forced to pay a tax without having representation in
The Colonies get Upset (cont.)
Colonists began to protest and boycott all the paper goods – it worked, England repealed the Stamp Tax.
Then, England passed the Townsend Acts – tax on glass, lead, tea and other goods.
Colonists boycotted again, it worked again, England repealed the taxes – except on tea.
Things Start to Happen
Boston Massacre – a bunch of colonists are killed while harassing British soldiers.
Boston Tea Party – in protest of the Tea Act, a bunch of colonists dump English tea in the harbor.
England Tightens Control
Intolerable Acts – punishment for the Boston Tea Party
Closed Boston Harbor
Quartering Act – forced people to let soldiers stay in their homes
Placed Boston under military control
Made some gun ownership illegal
Lexington and Concord
British troops march to from Boston to Concord to capture a supply of rifles.
70 Colonists ambushed them in Lexington and open fire (only 1 British soldier died).
On the way back they are ambushed by over 3000 colonists (LOTS British soldiers die).
Colonies Raise an Army
Second Continental Congress (the group of colonial leaders) decide to raise a militia (army) and select
George Washington as the commander.
More Trouble in Boston
Colonial Militia and tries to free Boston.
Battle of Bunker Hill (over 1000 British soldiers die).
Colonials capture Boston.
British Navy blockades Boston Harbor.
Moving Toward Independence
Ideas of John Locke – Enlightenment Philosopher
Believed that people were born with natural rights (life, liberty, property).
It is the government’s responsibility to protect people’s rights.
If a government does not, then people have the right to rebel against that government!
…Toward Independence (cont.)
Common Sense – pamphlet/essay written by Thomas Paine.
Written to promote rebellion against English rule (chance to create a new society, better control over
trade, etc.).
Declaration of Independence
Colonists finally decide that they should fight to become a new nation (not just to earn better treatment from
Now all they had to do was win the war!
The War for Independence
Opposing Sides
For Independence
Patriots – colonists fighting for against England.
Help and money from the French, Dutch, Polish.
For English Control
English Soldiers
Hessians (hired mercenaries from Germany).
Loyalists – colonists who were loyal to the King.
The War
Patriots lost many battles early on.
The first major battle we won was the Battle of Saratoga – which convinced France to help.
After five years of fighting, the British surrendered after the Battle of Yorktown (1781).
Why the Colonies Won
Colonial soldiers fought hard to defend their homes.
Colonial soldiers knew the land better (used guerilla tactics).
The British made several mistakes.
The war was unpopular in England, cost too much money… so they decided to stop fighting.
Treaty of Paris (1783)
Officially ended the war.
Confirmed that the Colonies were independent.
Set the boundaries of the new nation.
Confederation and Constitution
Articles of Confederation
Now that they were independent, the colonies had to make a government.
Articles of Confederation – created a WEAK central government with little cooperation among the states.
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
Could not collect taxes from the states.
Each state had one vote (regardless of size).
9 out of 13 states had to agree to pass laws.
No executive branch.
No national court system.
Could not regulate interstate commerce (business).
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Plan for settling the Northwest Territory.
Would create 3-5 new states (ignored the rights of Native Americans).
This was the only successful thing that was accomplished by the Articles of Confederation.
Shay’s Rebellion
Massachusetts farmers protested increased state taxes.
Protests became a riot, state militia ended up killing some farmers.
Scared all of the colonies – people decided that a stronger government was needed to solve the county’s
Constitutional Convention
Meeting of colonial leaders to discuss a plan to fix the Articles of Confederation.
They ended up creating a whole new form of government:
Federalism – system where the central (federal) government shares power with the states.
Conflict over Representation
Large states wanted representation in congress based on population.
Small states wanted each state to be represented equally.
Great Compromise – two houses of congress: one based on population (House of Representatives), one with
equal representation (Senate).
Conflict over Slaves
Southern states wanted slaves to be counted for representation.
Northern states did not want them counted.
Three-Fifths Compromise – they agreed that a slave would be counted as 3/5ths of a person for
representation (and taxing).
Separation of Powers
Legislative Branch – makes the laws.
Executive Branch – enforces the laws.
Judicial Branch – interprets the laws and settles disputes.
Checks and balances – each branch can prevent the others from becoming too powerful.
Ratifying the Constitution
Federalists – favored the Constitution.
Anti-federalists – against the Constitution.
Bill of Rights – first 10 Amendments that guaranteed people’ individual rights – protected against
government becoming too powerful.
Launching the New Nation
Washington is President
Judiciary Act of 1789 – created the Supreme Court (and other federal courts).
Cabinet – the president’s main advisors.
Secretary of State – Thomas Jefferson
Secretary of War – Henry Knox
Secretary of Treasury – Alexander Hamilton
Political Differences
Alexander Hamilton
Favored strong federal government
Favored business interests
Loose interpretation of the Constitution
Thomas Jefferson
Favored states having more power – “states rights”
Favored farming interests
Strict interpretation of the Constitution
Problems Facing the Nation
Financial problems (debt from the Revolution) Created the National Bank.
Protective Tariffs– taxes on imported goods (designed to encourage local production).
Foreign Affairs
stayed neutral in conflict between England and France.
Conflict over the National Bank
Federalists felt that it was necessary to manage the nation’s economy.
Anti-federalists felt that it was unconstitutional (the constitution didn’t give the federal government the right
to do it).
John Adams is President
Adams was a Federalist
Alien and Sedition Acts –
Extended the length it took for immigrants to become citizens to 14 years.
Made it illegal to make statements against the US government.
Nullification – principle that says that states can nullify/ignore any law that they believe is unconstitutional
(it never became a law).
Inspired by the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Constitutional Convention
I. Constitutional Convention (1787):
- Closed (not open to public) meeting between the delegates (representatives) from the 13 states.
- Meeting took place in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania between May 25th and September 17th, 1787.
- Delegates planned to amend (change) The Articles of Confederation.
 Delegates decided to scrap The Articles of Confederation and develop a new form of government.
 It was a very long process which required a lot of compromise between states.
*George Washington was nominated to be president of the Convention.
**James Madison took very careful notes of the debates and discussions during the Convention.
II. Major Arguments During The Constitutional Convention:
1. Representation of Large & Small States:
- Large & small states argued over how their state would be represented.
- Large (population) states felt they should have more say (power).
- Small (population) states felt they should have equal say (power).
 Two plans were proposed.
 The debates over the issue of representation got so heated, the Convention almost ended.
a. Virginia Plan:
- Favored the large states.
- Each state would be given a number of votes / delegates based on their states’ population.
- Proposed by James Madison of Virginia.
b. New Jersey Plan:
- Favored the small states.
- Each state would be given the same number of votes / delegates regardless of their states’ population.
- Proposed by William Paterson of New Jersey.
A. Solution = The Great Compromise:
- Used parts of both the Virginia & New Jersey Plan.
- Set up a bicameral (two-house) legislature.
- Proposed by Richard Sherman of Connecticut.
Senate (small states):
2 Senators per state regardless of population.
100 Senators total (today)
**from New Jersey Plan
House of Representatives (large states):
Votes / delegates per state based on population.
435 members of the House (today).
**from Virginia Plan
2. Slavery:
- Some delegates from northern states wanted to abolish (end) the slave trade and slavery.
- Many delegates from southern states threatened to leave the union if the slave trade or slavery were
abolished in the U.S.
 The word slavery does not appear in the Constitution.
 Delegates agreed that;
a. The slave trade would not be discussed in Congress until 1808.
b. A $10 tax would be placed on the importation of each slave.
c. Runaway slaves would be returned to a state of slavery.
*Slavery was formally abolished with the ratification of the 13th Amendment (1865).
“The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit,
shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or
duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person”.
“No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in
Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be
delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due”.
3. Representation of the Slave Population:
- Southern states wanted to count their slave population toward representation.
Southern states would get more delegates in The House of Representatives & have more electoral votes
for the presidency.
- Northern states did not want the slave population counted.
 Solution = The 3/5’s Compromise:
 Every 5 slaves counted as 3 free people for both taxation and representation.
*Without the 3/5’s Compromise, Thomas Jefferson would not have won the election of 1800.
4. Ratification of the Constitution:
- ratification = approval, acceptance
- 9 of 13 states had to ratify (accept) the Constitution before it became law.
 Two groups fought over this issue (Federalists & Anti-Federalists).
A. Anti-Federalists:
- Opposed the new Constitution.
- Believed the Constitution would create too strong a central (federal) government that would threaten
individual freedom.
- Wanted individual freedoms (Bill of Rights) to be outlined in the Constitution.
- Anti-Federalists were supported by men like Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams, and George Clinton, New
York’s first governor.
B. Federalists:
- Supported the new Constitution.
- Argued that a much stronger central (federal) government was needed to preserve (keep) the United
- Believed the U.S. would not survive under the Articles of Confederation.
- Federalist Papers = a series of essays written in favor of the Constitution that were printed around the
- Federalists papers were written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay**
III. The Constitution Was Ratified (1789):
- 11 of 13 states’ delegates ratified the Constitution.
- The delegates had to get approval from their states’ legislature.
- The Preamble (Introduction) clearly states where the power to govern came from; “We The People…”
 It took almost 2 ½ years for all 13 states to ratify the Constitution.
 Many delegates believed that a bill of rights needed to be added to the Constitution to protect individual
rights, liberties, and freedoms.
First President- Washington
George Washington’s Presidency
April 30, 1789 Washington (Virginia) is inaugurated (sworn in) as President.
John Adams (Mass.) becomes the Vice-President.
George Washington’s Presidency
Washington establishes many governmental precedents.
PRECEDENT: an example that would become a standard practice.
Establishment of the
Court System
 Federal Judiciary Act of 1789: passed by Congress.
1. Created an independent federal court system with the Supreme Court and lower level courts.
2. The U.S. Supreme Court is to have a Chief Justice and five associate justices. Currently we have 9
total justices.
3. Washington appoints John Jay as Chief Justice.
Establishment of the
Presidential Cabinet
A. The Constitution allows Congress to create departments to help the President – the Cabinet.
B. The first Presidential Cabinet had four departments:
• The First Presidential Cabinet
1. Secretary of War (Henry Knox) oversee the nation’s defenses.
2. Secretary of State (Thomas Jefferson) oversee the relations between the U.S. and other countries.
3. Secretary of the Treasury (Alexander Hamilton) to manage the government’s money.
4. Attorney General (Edmond Randolph) to advise the government on legal matters.
Hamilton’s Financial Plan
NOTE: Alexander Hamilton believed that the federal government should be stronger than the state
Hamilton’s Financial Plan
A. Pay off the war debt to develop the trust of other nations for trade.
B. Raise the federal government’s revenues through tariffs and taxes.
TARIFFS – a tax on imported goods.
Hamilton’s Financial Plan
C. Tariffs would…
1. encourage the growth of American industry (buy American-made).
2. raise money for the federal government.
Hamilton’s Financial Plan
1. safe place to keep the government’s money.
2. can make loans to businesses.
3. would issue paper currency.
4. strengthen the federal government.
Debate on Interpretation
of the Constitution
• STRICT CONSTRUCTION: only what the Constitution clearly states – favored by Jefferson and
• LOOSE CONSTRUCTION: the Constitution should be flexible to meet the needs of the country
(Elastic Clause) – favored by Hamilton and Adams.
 Jefferson and Hamilton argue these points on the creation of the National Bank.
• Assumption of State Debts
• Cement states to national government.
• States with large debts favored (MA); states with little to no debt did not (VA)
• Became a north v. south issue
• Compromise: north got assumption of debts while south got national capital moved to Potomac
Foreign Affairs Britain
• Jay’s Treaty 1794: Britain will remove forts, new trade treaty, Britain will pay for ships when America
pays Tory debt. But they did not stop impressment, nor recognize American neutrality. Republicans
Major Events During
Washington’s Presidency
A. Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794) the American army defeats a confederation of Indians over tension in
the Northwest Territory.
• Treaty of Greenville (1795) 12 tribes cede much of present-day Ohio and Indiana to the U.S.
Major Events During
Washington’s Presidency
The Whiskey Rebellion (1794) Hamilton has sponsored in 1791 a $.07 per gallon of
whiskey excise tax to help pay the debt. The tax favors large eastern producers, Western
farmers resist payment for years.
• Whiskey Rebellion
• Pennsylvania farmers refuses to pay new tax on Whiskey.
• George Washington (and Hamilton) leads 13,000 troops to restore order.
• The rebels all went home before the arrival of the army, and there was no confrontation. Less than20
men were arrested, but all were later acquitted or pardoned.
• First display of federal government “ensuring domestic tranquility”
• Democratic Republicans condemned action as a “brutal display of force” and gained more followers.
The rise of political parties
• The Federalists
• Hamilton & Adams
• Trusted elite
• Promote manufacturing & commerce
• Pro British
• Strong central government
• High tariff- internal improvement
• Bank of the United States (BUS)
• Army and navy
Democratic Republicans
• Jefferson & Madison
• Trusted the common man
• Agricultural economy: yeoman farmer
• Pro French: pro French Revolution
• State’s rights, local rule
• Low Tariff, low internal improvements
• Afraid of Bank of US
• No standing army
Major Events During
Washington’s Presidency
C. The French Revolution (1789-1793) the French people overthrow the French monarchy by executing
King Louis XVI.
• Neutrality – the U.S. would not side with any European country in wartime.
Major Events During
Washington’s Presidency
D. Pinckney’s Treaty (1795) Spain gave the Americans the right to freely travel on the Mississippi River
and use the port of New Orleans.
Washington Retires
 Established the precedent of only a two-term presidency, which becomes the 22nd Amendment in 1951.
• Washington’s Farewell Address
• Avoid partisan fighting
• Avoid foreign entanglements
• “The nation which indulges toward another nation an habitual hatred or an habitual fondness is in some
degree a slave. It is a slave to its animosity or its affection, either of which is sufficient to lead it astray
from its duty and its interest.”
Second President- Adams
Our Early Presidents…
Day 1
Miss Springborn- Team 6
The First Five…
1. George Washington 1789-1797
2. John Adams 1797-1801
3. Thomas Jefferson 1801-1809
4. James Madison 1809-1817
5. James Monroe 1817-1825
George Washington- #1
Elected as our first president of United States
He was a great leader and well respected hero of the American Revolution
Americans felt he had a strong character, was honest, and full of patriotism.
Perfect role model for new nation
Important People that helped Washington…
Vice President- John Adams
Secretary of Treasury- Alexander Hamilton
Secretary of State- Thomas Jefferson
Secretary of War- Henry Knox
Attorney General- Edmund Randolph
First Lady/Wife- Martha Washington
Events from Washington’s Presidency…
1789- Congress passes the Judiciary Act
 Creates the Supreme Court
 Creates a federal court system for nation with three levels
 Washington makes John Jay the first Supreme Court Chief Justice (head judge)
Hamilton’s great idea…
We are in debt from the war and need to find a way to cover our taxes
Hamilton believes we need a National Bank to stabilize our economy and help with debt
1791- Congress agrees and charters the Bank of the United States
 The bank received taxes, was a place for deposits, loaned out money for development, and issued
our paper money
The Great Divide…
How to interpret the Constitution.
Should we take it word for word exactly as written? For example “The sky is blue,” therefore the sky must
always be blue, never gray, yellow, dark blue, etc…
OR, should we interpret the meaning of what the constitution says? For example “Be home before 9” could
mean be home at 8:30 or 8:45 or even 8:59.
Exact meaning vs. Interpreted meaning
Loose vs. Strict
People divided into two groups
Loose Constructionist believed that the government can take any reasonable actions that the Constitution does
not specifically forbid it from taking i.e. create a bank
Strict Constructionist believed that the government should do only what the Constitution specifically says it
can do
Two points of view…
Some loose constructionists were Alexander Hamilton, John Adams
Some strict constructionists were James Madison, Thomas Jefferson
“Necessary and Proper clause”
In the Constitution is says that congress has the power to “make all laws that are necessary and proper” for
governing the nation
How would you interpret that????
1793- The French Revolution begins (similar to the American Revolution)
French want our help…What to do???
1793- Proclamation of Neutrality issued by Washington
 Told the world that the United States would NOT take sides with countries at war
 Washington thought this would be safe for such a young country
Should the United States have helped out the French?
Think about the American Revolution and how they helped us…
Britain is after us again!!!
British start taking over our ships of goods heading to the French West Indies
They threaten our neutrality…What to do???
John Jay heads to Britain to try and avoid war
1794- Jay’s Treaty signed
 British will pay damages for goods they took
 United States agreed to pay back pre-war debts still owed
Spain is mad at us now…
Spain disputes their border with us
They closed the port of New Orleans
BAD!!! We need to use this port for trading!!!
Thomas Pinckney goes to Spain and to help.
 1795- Pinckney treaty agreed upon
 Spain reopened New Orleans for us
 We agreed to change our border with Florida
Washington says goodbye…
Washington decides NOT to run for a third term, he says he is a President, not a King
1796/1797- Washington’s Farwell Address- He warns the United States against..
1. Foreign Entanglements- STAY NEUTRAL and out of foreign problems
2. Political Parties- STAY UNITED, don’t get split apart
Lasting effects of Washington’s Presidency…
PRECEDENTS- an action or a decision that serves as an example for later generations
Big precedents set by Washington…
1. Created a Cabinet of Advisors… every president after him does this too
2. Only serves 2 terms as president…”I am not a king, only a president. The people are the country’s
true leaders”
Early Presidents Notes….
Second President- John Adams
Ran for the Federalist Party and wins a narrow victory over Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson is elected as his vice president even though he is from a different political party, the
Many saw him as hard working, honest, and intelligent.
XYZ Affair… (nothing to do with pants)
1798- French officials (aka X,Y, and Z) tried to bribe our American diplomats on a peace seeking mission.
Adams feared war might break out over this incident
Adams does create a large navy and army but is able to avoid war over this insult
Alien and Sedition Acts… not from Mars or Venus
In response to the incident with France and a possible war
Congress passed this law in 1798 that said
1. President could remove any foreign resident for “treasonous behavior”
2. Made it illegal for citizens to “write, print, utter, or publish” any false or hostile words against
the government or its politics
3. Citizens could not plot against any government actions
What is wrong with the Alien and Sedition Acts?
Do you think they are fair?
Wait a minute!!! Keep thinking …
How does the Alien and Sedition Acts violate the Bill of Rights?
Election of 1800- Big Issues…
Adams runs for re-election, Jefferson, Burr, and Pinckney run against him.
Jefferson and Burr won 73 electoral votes each while Adams won 65 and Pinckney won 64.
How do we handle this???
There was nothing in the Constitution about what to do…
 So they sent the issue to the House of Representatives for a vote which resulted in another
tie…and for 30 more times after that!!
 Finally, so many people refused to vote overall and Jefferson ended up winning
 Because of this the 12th amendment was passed in 1803 creating a separate ballot for President
and Vice President to avoid ties
Third President- Thomas Jefferson
Jefferson was a Democratic- Republican Party Candidate…believes in less government control over issues
Wanted the people to be in charge
Wanted to be fair
Important people for Jefferson…
Secretary of State- James Madison
Chief Justice of Supreme Court- John Marshall
Rival- Alexander Hamilton
1803- Marbury vs. Madison
Established Judicial Review… gave the Supreme court its power of declaring laws unconstitutional.
What Happens…
 Marbury sues Madison saying that he Madison illegally stopped Marbury from getting his job as
a federal judge as was his right under the Judicial Act of 1789
 The court rules that the Judicial Act was WRONG and did not follow the Constitution therefore
it was invalid or illegal
 This is the FIRST time the supreme court has done this
1803- Louisiana PurchaseLand anyone???
France needs money to fight a war and offers to sell us some land
This DOUBLES the size of the United States and gives us the control of the Mississippi and Port of New
Orleans for trade
Jefferson is able to purchase the land owned by France at the price of $15 million dollars
This is called the LOUSIANA PURCHASE
Some fun facts…
What cost $15,000,000 million in 1803 would now cost $204,768,579.15 TODAY in 2009.
It came down to less than 3 CENTS and ACRE!!!!
An acre is about ¾ of a football field… imagine all that land for less than 3 CENTS!!!
Time to go exploring…
Jefferson commissions the Corp of Discovery in 1804 to go and explore our new land.
Expedition led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, famous native guide Sacagawea (a female)
It took 3 years to travel from St. Lewis to the Pacific Ocean, creating maps and discovering new animals and
tribes along the way
A map of the journey…
Think about it…
Why did Jefferson buy the Louisiana Purchase even though the Constitution did not give him this power?
1807- Embargo Act…
Good or bad idea?
Passed in 1807 and banned all trade with foreign countries
It was meant to hurt British and French merchants
Wanted to stop the illegal seizures of American ships by the British
Who do you think really got hurt???
1809- Congress says…
Let’s try that again
They get rid of the Embargo act and instead create the Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 that banned trade only
with Britain, France and their colonies. ( a little better I guess?)
Meanwhile out on the Frontier…
nothing to write on this slide…
The Native American tribes are starting to threaten American power
It boils over at the Battle of Tippecanoe on November 7th, 1811 when Natives attack a camp of Americans
In response, the American forces destroy the native village, crushing their support of further attacks
The British are at it again…
Many thought the British were behind the native attacks on the frontier and called for war
James Madison, elected president in 1808, spoke to Congress in early 1812 urging them to declare war on
The “War Hawks” gained support in Congress and were able to get a declaration of war against Great Britain
in early June of 1812
Why do you think Britain kept antagonizing (going after) the United States after the American Revolution?
Think about it…
Coming Attractions…
The War of 1812…The British are at it again!
Causes of the War in 1812
War of 1812
Notes on…
Jefferson’s Foreign Policy
War of 1812
Era of Good Feelings
Jefferson’s Foreign Policy
Impossible to avoid foreign affairs
1. American merchants engaged in trade all over the world
2. Louisiana Purchase opened country to westward expansion
Problems with France and England
British did not want Americans supplying food to enemies
British set up partial blockade
only some American ships sail to Europe
France became angry = enacted their own laws
American shippers --difficult position- either way ships might be seized
Trade as a Weapon
Congress passed the Embargo Act of 1807
American ships no longer sail to foreign ports
American ports closed to British ships
Most harmful to US
American farmers, merchants, Southerners, Westerners, shippers, New Englanders
EVERYONE suffered!
Election 1808, the embargo was major issue
James Madison won ---4th president
War Hawks
Anti-British feelings grew in the South and West.
Demanded war against the British
Wanted more land = push Brits from Canada
New Englanders
Merchants & businessmen opposed war
Relied on trade with Britain
The War of 1812
Causes of the War of 1812
British arming Natives in the Ohio River Valley
British impressment of American sailors
Britain began impressing (kidnapping) American sailors to work on British ships.
1803-1812, impressed about 6,000 Americans
The United States military was weak when war began.
Navy had 16 ships
Army had fewer than 7,000 poorly trained men
Little equipment
Inexperienced officers
Battles concentrated around:
-Great Lakes
-Washington DC
The Burning of D.C.
British troops marched into city
Dolly Madison (First Lady)gathered important papers and a portrait of George Washington then fled south
British troops burned the executive mansion (White House) and the capitol
The British move and attacked Fort McHenry at Baltimore
The commander of Fort McHenry requested a large flag so “the British will have no difficulty seeing it!”
American Flag flew high
Francis Scott Key detained on a British ship – watched the all-night battle. The next morning, He expressed
his pride in what became the national anthem, “The Star-Spangled Banner”
The Americans
The British
Battle of New Orleans
The British prepared to attack New Orleans = cut off Americans trade on the Mississippi
Andrew Jackson waiting for the British!
Jackson’s American soldiers and pirates defeated the Brits
Jackson’s men dug trenches to defend themselves. British soldiers charged the American trenches. More than
2,000 British fell. Only seven Americans died!
Battle of New Orleans
Final, most deadly battle for the British
Andrew Jackson became a hero.
The battle took place two weeks after peace treaty signed!
Treaty of Ghent 1814
Ghent, Belgium
Signed December 24, 1814
Ended War 1812
None of the issues causing war addressed---“Nothing was adjusted, nothing was settled.” return matters as
before the war
Americans pride in their country.
“The people are now more American. They feel and act more as a nation.”
Era of Good Feelings
Time after War 1812 people not divided over political issues or war
The Effects of the War/Era of Good Feelings
Increased American Patriotism
Weakened Native American Resistance
US manufacturing grows
Was issued by President James Monroe in 1823
Was actually written by his Secretary of State, John Quincy Adams
Let the world know that the U.S. was now the “protector” of the western hemisphere
No more colonization in North America, Latin America, or South America
The U.S. would not interfere with European affairs, and thus Europe should not interfere in American affairs
The U.S. was prepared to take its place among the most powerful nations in the world
The First Five Presidents
The First Five Presidents of the United States of America
George Washington: The First President of the United States
Highlights of George Washington’s Presidency
1) Political parties develop in this time, opposed Washington’s hopes for a united government.
Highlights of George Washington’s Presidency
2) The new, constitutional government’s ability to suppress the Whiskey Rebellion, demonstrated its power and
Highlights of George Washington’s Presidency
3) Established 1st National Bank with Alexander Hamilton. Used “implied powers” to defend its existence.
John Adams: The Second President of the United States
Highlights of John Adams’ Presidency
Alien & Sedition Acts = Restriction on immigration
XYZ Affair/Quasi-War with France: Second international conflict experienced by the US. Draws support for a
maritime force (Navy).
Treaty of San Lorenzo = US & Spain Alliance
11th Amendment = Ruled Federal supremacy in state affairs.
Thomas Jefferson: The Third President of the United States
Highlights of Thomas Jefferson’s Presidency
He bought Louisiana from FRANCE. This is known as the “Louisiana Purchase”.
Believed it was the destiny of the US to spread west, across the known continent. Also wanted room for
growing population of the US.
The Louisiana Purchase
Highlights of Thomas Jefferson’s Presidency
2) LEWIS AND CLARK explored new land west of the Mississippi River.
Highlights of Thomas Jefferson’s Presidency
3. Embargo Acts: Made illegal to export materials from the US. Severely decreased international trade.
4. Marbury v. Madison = Judicial Review
James Madison: The Fourth President of the United States
Highlights of James Madison’s Presidency
The WAR OF 1812 caused European nations to gain respect for the United States.
Most of the fighting occurred in Virginia, but also in Canada (British Controlled)
Highlights of James Madison’s Presidency
Impact of the War of 1812
-Removal of British forces from the Northwest.
-Stimulated migration in the Northwest for those looking for economic opportunities.
-Caused the US to become industrialized, but resume a isolationist foreign policy.
-Caused a boost in morale for “‘Merica”!
James Monroe: The Fifth President of the United States
Highlights of James Monroe’s Presidency
1) He introduced the MONROE DOCTRINE warning European nations not to interfere with the Western
Highlights of James Monroe’s Presidency
2) Missouri Compromise of 1820
An effort by Congress to settle state differences on the issue of slavery.
Practice EOC Questions
To help you better understand the EOC format and the types of questions used, we will be examining three
EOC evaluates on 3 levels.
Level 1: Basic factual questions
Level 2: Analytical questions
Level 3: Application questions (usually with text)
Example #1
Which of the following events was most responsible for the sharp decline of international trade during the early
nineteenth century?
The passage of the Embargo Acts
The election of James Madison
The chartering of the national bank
The completing of the Louisiana Purchase
What level is this question?
Example #2
John Jay believed the Articles of Confederation needed changes that would:
“Let Congress legislate. Let others execute. Let others judge.”
Jay’s words express what constitutional principle?
Bipartisan compromise
Separation of Powers
What level is this question? Why?
Example 3
Base your answer to this question on the passage below and on your knowledge of Enlightenment thinkers:
“…that to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the
consent of the governed, —that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the
right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, …”
-Declaration of Independence, 1776
This passage demonstrates that Thomas Jefferson was directly influenced by:
George Whitefield
Isaac Newton
John Locke
Thomas Hobbes
Jackson’s Presidency
President Andrew Jackson and “Jacksonian Democracy”
• The Election of 1824
In 1824 there was heated race for president. There were four men hoping to replace James Monroe as
president. These four men were John Quincy Adams (the son of John Adams), William Crawford, Henry Clay
(“the great compromiser”) and Andrew Jackson.
John Quincy Adams
Jackson won the popular vote but did not receive the electoral vote. According to the Constitution, if one
person wins a majority of electoral votes, the House of Representatives must choose the president. The House
of Representatives choose John Quincy Adams to be the 6th president.
Jackson is Upset!!
Jackson felt that Adams had stolen the presidency from him. He was so upset he was determined to run
again in the next election and win as president in 1828.
Democratic Republican Party Splits
For the next four years, the gap in the Democratic-Republican Party grew wider and the party was about
to split in two. Some in the party supported Jackson and others supported Adams.
“Common Man”
Andrew Jackson claimed that he represented the “common man.” He said that Adams represented
people who were privileged and wealthy. The division eventually created two parties. The Democrats came
from the supports of Jackson and the National-Republicans supported Adams.
President for the “Common Man”
During his campaign for president Andrew Jackson claimed that he represented the “common man”.
He promised to look out for the interests of average people, not just the rich and well-educated. Jackson
was determined to have the majority rule, regardless of one’s education or wealth. This idea of the majority rule
has become known as “Jacksonian Democracy”.
Andrew Jackson Wins Election!
Large numbers of Western farmers and workers in the nations cities turned out to vote for Andrew
Jackson. With an overwhelming number of votes, Andrew Jackson won the 1828 race for president making
him the 7th president of the United States.
The People’s President
So who was Andrew Jackson? Well, Andrew Jackson had a hard life growing up on a frontier farm. At
the age of 13 he and his brother were taken prisoner by the British during the Revolutionary War. While being
held captive, he apparently refused to shine the boots of a British officer. The officer then hit Jackson with a
sword cutting both his hands and face and leaving ugly scars.
After his experience being held prisoner by the British when he was 13 he developed a strong hatred for
anything British. At the age of 35, Andrew Jackson was given the chance to fight the British during the War of
“Old Hickory”
Jackson was appointed to be a general in the American Army. At the Battle of New Orleans in 1815,
Jackson crushed the British army even though his troops were greatly outnumbered. He became a national war
hero. He earned the nickname “Old Hickory,” after a solider said he was as “tough as a hickory tree.”
Jackson Becomes President
Shortly after Jackson won the election of 1828 his wife Rachel died of a heart attack. Andrew Jackson
looked thin, pale and sad during his inauguration on March 4, 1829.
Jackson’s Inauguration
Thousands of people were there to celebrate Jackson becoming president. One person wrote, “all sorts
of people, from the highest and most polished, down to the most vulgar and gross in the nation were there.”
The crowd got so rowdy people broke glasses and grabbed for food and drink. The pushing and shoving
of the crowd forced the new president to flee from the White House.
Spoils System
When Andrew Jackson became president he fired many of the government officials and replaced them
with his friends and supporters. This practice of giving government jobs to his political backers became known
as the “spoils system.” In many ways Andrew Jackson was spoiling his friends by giving them jobs in
Native Americans in the Southeast
Since the 1600s, white settlers pushed Native Americans westward as they took more and more land.
However, by 1820 there were still about 100,000 Native Americans living east of the Mississippi River.
Native Americans
Some whites hoped that these Native Americans could adapt to the white people’s way of life. Others
believed the Native Americans were “uncivilized” and refused to live near them.
Cherokee Nation
More than any other Southeastern tribe, the Cherokee Indians had adopted white culture. The Cherokee
had their own Constitution, they spoke English, they sent their kids to missionary school, and some even owned
Jackson’s Removal Policy
However, gold was discovered on Cherokee land in 1828. The discovery of gold made the Cherokee
land very desirable and whites wanted it!!! In 1830, Andrew Jackson passed the Indian Removal Act that
required Native Americans to give up their land and relocate west. Andrew Jackson gave them one year to
The Trail of Tears
In 1838, federal troops rounded up over 16,000 Cherokee men, women and children and forced them
into camps. Soldiers then gave the people a hour to pack up everything from their homes and get ready to leave.
Most people ended up with nothing more than the clothes on their backs.
The Trail of Tears
Over the fall and winter of 1838-1839, these Cherokees set out on the long journey west. Forced to
march in the cold, rain and snow without proper clothing or food many grew weak and died. It is estimated that
¼ of the 16,000 Cherokee people who were forced to march west died (that’s 1 out of every 4). This harsh
journey of the Cherokee from their homeland to Indian Territory in Oklahoma has become known as the Trail
of Tears.
Rising Sectional Differences
When Andrew Jackson took office the nation was divided into 3 main sections. The Northeast, South
and West. Legislators from these regions were arguing over 3 major economic issues: the sale of land, national
improvement such as canals and railroads, and tariffs (taxes).
North Vs. South
People in the north supported the idea of high tariffs (taxes on imported goods) because the tariffs meant
that people would want to buy the cheaper American made goods rather than imported products with the higher
The South however didn’t like the high tariffs. The South made their money by growing cotton and other
crops and selling them to foreign countries for credit rather than money. The tariffs would make the foreign
goods cost more.
Tariff of Abomination
In 1828 Congress passed a bill that greatly raised tariffs (taxes) on raw materials and manufactured
goods. People in the South were outraged!!! Southerners felt that the economic interests of the Northeast were
determining national policy and the South was being ignored by the national government. They hated the tariff
and called it the Tariff of Abominations.
(An abomination=
a hated/horrible thing)
Nullification Crisis
John C. Calhoun, Andrew Jackson’s vice-president understood the frustration of the Southern farmers
over the tariffs. Calhoun developed a plan called the Doctrine of Nullification. The Doctrine of Nullification
said that a state had the right to nullify (reject) a federal law that it considers unconstitutional.
South Carolina Threatens to Secede
President Jackson was against the Doctrine of Nullification but didn’t want the South to remain upset.
He asked Congress to lower the taxes and Congress agreed however South Carolina was still not happy.
South Carolina Threats to Secede
South Carolina threatened that if the tariffs weren’t lowered even more they would secede (break away)
from the United States and start their own country. Jackson was furious and said he would hang the first person
he got his hands on!!!!!!!!!
Andrew Jackson and the Bank
In 1832 when Andrew Jackson was elected for this 2nd term as president he vowed to destroy the
Second Bank of the United States run by Nicholas Biddle. Jackson believed that the Second Bank was evil and
only helped the rich, not the average man. Jackson vetoed (rejected) bill after bill that would renew the bank’s
charter. (The charter would that allowed the bank to stay open.)
Jackson’s War on the Bank
Jackson won the war on the bank the economy was hurt.
• King Andrew
Opponents (people who were against) Andrew Jackson called him a “King Andrew”. They said he
wanted too much power as a president and was more like a tyrant.
• Martin Van Buren Becomes President
When Andrew Jackson’s second term as president was over Martin Van Buren took over as the 8th
president of the United States. During Martin Van Buren’s presidency the US was going through a deep
The Rise of Whig Party
During the election of 1840, a new political party called the Whigs was created. They were given their
name after a British party that opposed power of the king. The leader of the Whigs thought that the name would
fit since he disliked Andrew Jackson and often called him “ King Andrew”.
Events that Led to the Civil War
events that Led to the american Civil War
Eliseo Lugo III
background information of events LEADING TO the CIVIL WAR
The economies of the North and South were developing differently
Northern economy was based on manufacturing. (Factories)
Southern economy was based on agriculture (Farming, plantations)
Economic differences created political tension between North & South
As the regions moved apart, politicians attempted to keep nation together
The institute of slavery would play a vital role in the growing tensions between the North and South
The 11 topics and events that will be analyzed in this powerpoint
1. Manifest Destiny
2. Mexican American War
3. Missouri Compromise of 1820
4. California Gold Rush of 1849
5. Compromise of 1850
6. Fugitive Slave Act
7. Uncle Tom’s Cabin
8. The Kansas-Nebraska Act
9.The Bleeding of Kansas
10. Dred Scott Case
11.Election of 1860
Manifest Destiny
First coined by newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan in 1845.
".... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which providence
has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federaltive development of selfgovernment entrusted to us."
Manifest Destiny came to be known as the expectation by all Americans that it was their “Destiny” to spread
the nation from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.
Sense of mission or national destiny.
Believed US had mission to extend boundaries of freedom to others by sharing idealism and democratic
institutions—to those capable of self-government (not Native Americans or Mexicans)
Based on the idea that God had determined America should stretch from the East Coast to the Pacific Ocean.
The Mexican-American War
It all started with Americans living in Texas which at the time was a part of Mexico.
At first Mexicans encourage American settlement.
The settlers and Mexican government began to have conflicts over cultural issues, including slavery
Americans who live there a rebellious bunch—start to clamor for independence.
Texas declares itself independent.
Conflicts continue with Mexico over American claims and boundary disputes.
In 1846: President Polk orders troops to march from the Nueces to the Rio Grande, thus starting the Mexican
American War
The American Army provoked the Mexican Army into firing first
The Mexican-American War ends
Not all Americans are in favor of a War with Mexico
Southerners want the war because they believe it will expand slavery
Northerners oppose it for exact same reason
Future U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant who fought in the war called it one of the most unjust wars he was ever
a part of.
The United States would win the majority of the battles of the war and force Mexico into a treaty
The Treaty that ended the Mexican American war was the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalo in 1848.
Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio Grande River.
Mexico gave the U. S. California and New Mexico.
U. S. gave Mexico $15,000,000 and agreed to pay the claims of American citizens against Mexico (over
The United Stated would gain a ton of land (increased size of US by 1/3)
Prepared military and soldiers for Civil War
Led to Mexican resentment
Re-aroused issue of slavery
Results from the mexican-american war
The 17-month war cost $100,000,000 and 13,000+
American lives (mostly of disease).
New territories were brought into the Union which forced the explosive issue of SLAVERY to the center of
national politics. Brought in 1 million sq. mi. of land (incl. TX)
These new territories would upset the balance of power between North and South.
Created two popular Whig generals who ran for President.
Manifest Destiny partially realized.
The Missouri Compromise of 1820
Missouri had applied for statehood at a time when there were 11 free and 11 slave states
The Missouri Compromise concerned the territory acquired from the Louisiana Purchase, which both expanded
America's land holdings, while also posing a threat to the delicate balance achieved in Congress.
The dilemma began with the application of Missouri as a slave-state.
If admitted, Missouri would upset the even proportion of slave states and free states within the U.S. Senate
since at the time their were 11 free states and 11 slave states.
The Compromise to this problem would become known as the Missouri Compromise of 1820
The following would be the components of the Compromise which was put together by Henry Clay
Clay would later become known as the Great Compromiser for his various solutions to American problems
during this time in history
The Missouri Compromise of 1820
Missouri became a slave state
Maine became a free state
Louisiana Territory was divided at the 36 degree, 30 minute parallel; north of the line must be free territory;
south of the line could be slave territory
Entry of states into the Union have to be balanced – For every one free state there would be one slave state
The Missouri Compromise of 1820
GOLD found At Sutter’s Mill, 1848
The gold rush of 1849
Positive and negative effects of the gold rush
Positive Effects
Towns and cities were charted
Roads, schools, and churches were formed
Improved transportation between California and the east coast
These developments led to the statehood of California on September 9th, 1850 as the 31st state.
background of The Compromise of 1850
The U.S. had acquired vast territory as aresult of war with Mexico
The question that now faced the nation was: Should slavery be allowed?
California, as a result of the gold rush in 1849 had petitioned for statehood. The problem with their application
would be the imbalance that would be created in the states if another free state is added to the Union
Washington, D.C. not only allowed slavery, it ran the largest slave market in North America
The compromise of 1850
Henry Clay would once again come to the rescue of the nation and create the Compromise of 1850
The key points of the Compromise of 1850 were:
California would become a free state
There would be a stronger fugitive slave law
The slave trade would be abolished in the nation’s capital, Washington, DC but not slavery itself.
It Created the Utah and New Mexico territories without mentioning slavery
Many Americans had hoped that the Compromise of 1850 had settled the issue of slavery.
We now know that that would not be the case.
The Fugitive Slave Act
Required citizens in the entire nation to assist in recovery of runaway slaves
Anyone caught harboring fugitive slaves could be punished by fines and/or imprisonment
Runaway slaves would now have to travel to Canada to ensure their freedom and safety
Denied fugitive a right to a jury trial.
Increased the number of federal officials needed to enforce the act
Estimated 20,000 blacks move to Canada
Underground RR becomes more active
Harriet beecher stowe and uncle tom’s cabin
Abolitionist Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote a novel entitled “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” that led many Northerners to
further despise the institute of slavery
While Uncle Tom’s Cabin was a fictional story, its depiction of slavery and slave owners fueled Abolitionist
hatred towards the South
Uncle Tom’s Cabin tells the story of a fictional slave named Tom and his experieinces as a slave in the South.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
Created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska
Said popular sovereignty would decide slavery in both Kansas and Nebraska
Popular sovereignty is defined as: The people of a territory would decide whether or not they wanted slavery
Since both Kansas and Nebraska were north of the Missouri Compromise line, the Kansas-Nebraska Act
repealed the Missouri Compromise
The Republican Party was formed in opposition to the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
The “Bleeding” of Kansas
The “Bleeding” of Kansas was a term used to describe Kansas in the 1850’s
With the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, thousands of pro- and anti-slavery supporters flooded into the
Violent clashes soon occurred, especially once "border ruffians" crossed over from the South to sway the vote
to the pro-slavery side.
A border ruffian was a Pro-South sympathizer who went into Kansas to force the locals into selecting slavery.
Only a few of the Border Ruffians actually owned slaves; most were too poor. What motivated them was hatred
of Northeners and abolitionists
They also despised the idea of free blacks living in neighboring areas
Border Ruffians crossed into Kansas and affected the outcomes of several of these key elections by claiming to
be settlers and intimidating valid voters
Many historians argue that the Civil War actually started in Kansas.
The Dred Scott Case
( Also known as Scott v. Sandford)
Dred Scott was a slave whose owner at one point had moved with him into a free territory.
Scott sued for his freedom on the basis that since his owner had travelled with him to a free territory, he himself
was in fact free.
His case made it all the way to the United States Supreme Court. (Scott v. Sandford)
The Supreme Court ruled against Dred Scott.
The Dred Scott Case
( Also known as Scott v. Sandford)
It argued that since Dred Scott was a slave, he could not sue in federal court as he was not a citizen of the
United States
The Supreme Court also declared that African-Americans were not citizens of the United States
The Supreme Court also ruled that since slaves were considered property and not human beings, their owners
could travel wherever they wanted with their property
The Dred Scott Case
( Also known as Scott v. Sandford)
Since Congress had no power to prohibit slavery in the territories, the Missouri Compromise was
unconstitutional, thus opening up slavery to the entire nation.
The Dred Scott decision was a major victory for the South and a tremendous loss for the North.
What power did the Supreme Court use in Dred Scott v. Sandford?
Judicial Review!!
The election of 1860
Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln
Democrats split
Northern Democrats – Stephen Douglas
Southern Democrats – John Breckenridge
New party named Constitutional Union Party chose John Bell (moderate who wanted to keep the Union)
Lincoln was elected as President.
Election of 1860
Election of 1860 reaction
Southerners believed that the election of Lincoln meant the South no longer had a voice in government
In Dec. of 1860, South Carolina became the first state to secede (break away from Union)
In 1861- Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas also seceded.
Formed the nation the Confederate States of America
Jefferson Davis became their president.
The election of 1860 and the end of peace in the united states
When Lincoln took office he said, “In YOUR hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen, and not in MINE, is
the momentous issue of civil war…We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion
may have strained, it must not break our bonds of affection.” – Lincoln, First Inaugural Address
Unfortunately for Lincoln, these bonds of affection would not be enough to keep the nation out of war.
Soon after, the South would attack Ft. Sumter and the official start of the American Civil War would
". . . it presents the question whether discontented individuals too few in numbers to control administration
according to organic law in any case, can always upon the pretenses made in this case, or on any other pretense,
break up their government, and thus practically put an end to free government upon the earth. It forces us to ask:
Is there, in all republics, this inherent and fatal weakness? Must a government, of necessity be too strong for
the liberties of its own people or too weak to maintain its own existence?"
Lincoln - July 4, 1861
following Ft. Sumter