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Early Cold War

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Early Cold War
EOC Review
U.S. History
Causes of the Cold War
• During WWII, the U.S. and the Soviet Union
were allies.
• After WWII, there was distrust between
both countries.
• Causes for distrust:
• Different economic systems (U.S. –
Capitalist | U.S.S.R. – Communist)
•
•
•
•
Fear of spreading their systems
U.S.S.R was allied with Hitler
U.S. was late in entering the war
U.S. kept the atomic bomb a secret
President Truman & the Cold War
• After FDR’s death, Vice-President Harry
Truman will become the President and
the first to deal with the Cold War.
• An agreement (Potsdam Conference)
between Stalin & Truman was met that
would divide Germany into 4 zones at
the end of WWII.
• President Truman will respond to Soviet
expansion by creating the containment
policy.
The Iron
Curtain
Iron Curtain:
Imaginary line
separating
capitalist
Europe from
Communist
Europe.
Capitalism &
Democracy
Communism &
Totalitarianism
Containment
Truman’s Secretary of
State, George Marshall,
began a policy of
Containment in 1947
– Strong resistance to the
USSR would stop
Russian expansion &
the spread of
communism
– The U.S. initiated
containment in 3
phases: Truman Plan,
Marshall Plan, & NATO
Truman Doctrine
■Soviet pressure on Greece &
Turkey led to U.S. fears of
Russian influence on 3
continents
– If they turn Greece & Turkey
communist, they could
spread further into Asia,
Africa and all of Europe
(Domino Theory).
■The Truman Doctrine offered
U.S. assistance to any nation
threatened by Communism
Marshall Plan
■European nations had
difficulty recovering after
WW2 which led to U.S.
fears of Communist taking
advantage of Europe
■The Marshall Plan offered
aid to help Europe recover
– Industry revived &
Western Europe became a
market for U.S. trade &
consumer goods
– The “Communist threat”
ended
NATO & The Warsaw Pact
■Fears of Soviet aggression led to
the formation of the North
Atlantic Treaty Organization in
1949:
– Provides collective security for
Western Europe & the USA
– The Cold War now had an
ideological (Truman Doctrine) &
economic (Marshall Plan) base &
military enforcement (NATO)
– In response to NATO, the Soviet
Union will form the Warsaw Pact
(alliance of communist countries)
Berlin Blockade & Berlin Airlift
• In 1948, the USSR
responded to
Containment by
cutting off all traffic to
Berlin in East
Germany
• Truman sent food,
fuel, & supplies to be
airlifted into West
Berlin
• The standoff lasted 2
weeks until Stalin
lifted the blockade
The Cold War Expands
• U.S & Soviet Union will develop the hydrogen bomb.
• U.S. will increa$e military $pending
• Dept. of Defense, CIA & National Security Council & Air Force created
Cold War in Asia
• There is a Chinese Civil War
• 2 sides, Nationalist – backed by the United States
& Communists backed by the Soviet Union.
• Truman loses China to the communists in
1949.
• Nationalist escape to small island called
Taiwan
Chinese Civil War
VS.
Nationalist Leader
Chiang Kai-shek
(Kuomintang)
Communist Leader
Mao Zedong
Truman and Korea
■In 1950, the government creates NSC-68:
– Pledged the U.S. not only to contain communism but to
liberate communist countries
– Recommended the expansion of U.S. military, stockpiling
nuclear weapons, & covert operations
• After WW2, Korea was divided along the 38 Parallel with
USSR in the North & the USA in the South
• Soviet-trained North Korea attacked across the 38° in 1950
and invades South Korea
• The U.S. sends troops to defend South Korea
• 1953 – Under President Eisenhower an armistice is signed
to end the Korean War
In the 1950s, President Eisenhower escalated the
Cold War by using brinkmanship: threatening to use
nuclear weapons & willingness to go to the brink of war
If the USSR
attacked a
NATO member,
the U.S. would
use massive
retaliation:
attack every
major Soviet city
& military target
As a result,
the USA & USSR
began stockpiling
nuclear weapons
& building up
their militaries
With the USA & USSR in possession of large nuclear
stockpiles, each side could destroy each other:
this was known as Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)
Throughout the
Cold War, the
USA & USSR
looked for ways
to gain first
strike capability
(Arms Race)
U.S.-Soviet relations changed in 1953 when Stalin died
after 30 years of absolute rule over the Soviet Union
In 1955, Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
formed a communist
took over and began to
alliance to rival NATO,
aggressively challenge
called the Warsaw Pact
U.S. influence in the world
In 1956, the Soviet Union
threatened expansion
into the Middle East
President Eisenhower
responded with the
Eisenhower Doctrine,
pledging the USA to
protect the Middle East
from Communism
Fears of a nuclear attack and spread of communism
led to a Red Scare in the late 1940s & 1950s
Americans grew worried
about Communists
& Soviet spies living in
America
The Loyalty Review Board
was created to investigate
& dismiss “disloyal”
government employees
The House Un-American
Activities Committee
(HUAC) investigated
suspected communists
in the entertainment &
other industries
From 1947-1951, 3.2 million gov’t employees were
investigated & 212 were dismissed as security risks
(2,900 resigned rather than face investigation)
In 1947, numerous Hollywood writers & executives
were investigated by HUAC; 500 were blacklisted
from the film industry & some were sent to prison
for refusing to testify (the “Hollywood Ten”)
Red Scare fears in America were heightened by
the discovery of spies working for the USSR:
State Department
employee Alger Hiss
was convicted of
spying for the USSR
Julius & Ethel Rosenberg
were executed for passing
atomic bomb secrets to
the USSR
In 1950, Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy emerged
as the leader of the anti-communist Red Scare
He attacked Truman for
allowing communists to
infiltrate the government
He used public trials
to make unsupported
accusations against
suspected communists in
the State Department &
the U.S. military
“McCarthyism” did not
result in a single
confirmed communist or
spy in the U.S. gov’t
To combat American fears of a nuclear attack, the
U.S. government responded in a number of ways
National and local
governments
prepared citizens
for a Soviet nuclear
attack on the
United States
Citizens built fallout
shelters in their
backyards
Cities and schools
practiced building
evacuations and
“duck & cover” drills
In 1957, the USSR used Sputnik shocked Americans
its first ICBM to launch
who feared the U.S. had
Sputnik, the first
fallen behind the USSR in
satellite into space
science & technology
As a result of Sputnik, the Cold War escalated into a
space race to show American & Soviet dominance
Cuba in the Cold War
• CIA attempts to overthrow
Fidel Castro in Cuba.
• Bay of Pigs Operation
(Failure)
• JFK refuses to provide
necessary support
• Operation Mongoose
• CIA tries to kill Castro
(exploding cigars, poisoned
daiquiri, cyanide croquetas)
Cuban Missile Crisis
• Soviets place missiles in Cuba facing
U.S.
• Kennedy has to weight his options
• Decides on blockading Cuba
• 13 Days world is on edge
• Decision = Soviets take missiles out of
Cuba & U.S. promises not to invade
Cuba.
• U.S. also removes missiles it had in
Turkey that were facing Soviet Union.
EOC Review Questions
• The development of the Marshall Plan and the formation of the North
Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) were part of President Harry
Truman’s effort to
a. end the Korean War
b. limit the spread of communism
c. provide aid to Asian nations
d. promote an isolationist foreign policy
EOC Review Questions
• How did the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO) and the Warsaw Pact intensify the Cold War?
A. by establishing military alliances based on political philosophies
B. by creating economic unions based on political borders
C. by providing funds for nuclear laboratories
D. by identifying locations for military bases
EOC Review Questions
• “An attack on one shall be considered an attack on all.” This
statement summarizes the foreign policy known a
• A. colonialism
• B. nonalignment
• C. appeasement
• D. collective security
EOC Review Questions
• Shortly after World War II, the cold war developed mainly as a result
of the
• a. United States refusal to send economic aid to European nations
• b. Soviet domination of Eastern Europe
• c. competition between the superpowers to explore outer space
• d. continuation of the pre-World War II balance of power
EOC Review Questions
• During the Cold War era, the United States and the Soviet Union were
hesitant to become involved in direct military conflict mainly
because of
• a. the threat of China to both nations
• b. pressure from nonaligned nations
• c. the potential for global nuclear destruction
• d. mutual dependence on Middle East petroleum
EOC Review Questions
EOC Review Questions
EOC Review Questions
EOC Review Questions