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COMMUNITY TOURISM AWARENESS INFLUENCE AGAINST TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH TAPANULI REGENCY, INDONESIA

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Volume 10, Issue 03, March 2019, pp. 951–966, Article ID: IJCIET_10_03_093
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=3
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
© IAEME Publication
Scopus Indexed
COMMUNITY TOURISM AWARENESS
INFLUENCE AGAINST TOURISM
DEVELOPMENT AND REGIONAL
DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH TAPANULI
REGENCY, INDONESIA
Dimposma Sihombing
Doctoral Program Student, Regional Planning Study Program, Universitas Sumatera Utara,
Medan, Indonesia
Marlon Sihombing, Suardi Lubis
Faculty of Social and Political Science, University of Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
H.B. Tarmizi
Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
ABSTRACT
Tourism Awareness is a condition that describes the active participation of the
community in encouraging the realization of a climate conducive to the growth and
development of tourism in a region. It requires empowerment efforts, in order to play a
more optimal role with two reasons, such as realizing their responsibility as a good host
for tourists and understanding tourist rights as a manifestation of basic needs for
recreation. Tourism Awareness as an essential element in supporting the development
of tourism destinations needs to be developed and implemented by all stakeholders.
Based on the results of the Regression analysis and descriptive analysis of the responses
of 100 samples of tourism actors in North Tapanuli Regency concluded: Community
Tourism Awareness has a positive and significant effect on Tourism Development in
North Tapanuli Regency; The government needs to carry out a program to increase
community tourism awareness, to support government programs in the Development of
Lake Toba Tourism Area to attract tourist movements to the region. This will have an
impact on regional development through increasing Domestic Revenue, community
income, employment and the dissemination of local culture; Parties for allotment of
tourist sites in particular in order to maintain the cleanliness and beauty of the
environment, create order, security, and comfort for visitors who are diverse, religious,
racial and national.
Key words: Tourism Awareness, Tourism Development, Regional Development.
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Cite this Article: Dimposma Sihombing, Marlon Sihombing, Suardi Lubis, H.B.
Tarmizi, Community Tourism Awareness Influence Against Tourism Development
and Regional Development in North Tapanuli Regency, Indonesia, International
Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology 10(3), 2019, pp. 951–966.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=10&IType=3
1. INTRODUCTION
At the moment the tourism sector in the Lake Toba area requires more professional
management, as well as planning and cooperation between local governments. The Lake Toba
area has natural tourism potential, among others: natural beauty, forest tourism objects, beach
tourism objects, water/lake tourism objects; Tourist objects of ancient buildings and others.
Also has artificial tourism potential such as Cultural tourism objects, past physical heritage
tourism objects, sports tourism/water transportation, water sports infrastructure facilities, and
flyovers. The Lake Toba area has been designated as a National Strategic Area in the
development of tourism with the establishment of the Lake Toba Tourism Authority by the
Indonesian Ministry of Tourism. Then the development of the area will also be carried out based
on the study of territorial scope.
The theme "Indonesia Incorporated Towards 20 Million Foreign Tourists in 2019" was
created by the Ministry of Tourism in developing national tourism towards achieving the target
of 20 million tourists in 2019. Minister of tourism, Arief Yahya explained, the key to the success
of national tourism development is inseparable from the participation of all stakeholders. The
collaboration of all elements of tourism as Indonesia Incorporated is a force in realizing tourism
as the leading national economic sector. " Tourism is set as the leading sector because, in the
short, medium and long term growth is always positive. The role of world tourism in
contributing to global Gross Domestic Product (GDP) reaches 9.8%; contribution to total world
exports of US $ 7.58 trillion and foreign exchange earnings in the tourism sector grew by
25.1%; and tourism opens extensive employment opportunities, 1 in 11 jobs in the tourism
sector. The growth of world tourism has had a positive impact on Indonesian tourism. In 2019,
Indonesia's tourism is targeted to contribute to the national GDP of 8%, the foreign exchange
generated is IDR 280 trillion, create employment in tourism as many as 13 million people, the
number of foreign tourists visit 20 million and the movement of tourists 275 million, and
Indonesia's tourism competitiveness index ranked 30th in the world.
The North Tapanuli District Government is doing its utmost to be able to build tourism in
the area. The number of tourists visiting this area is quite large and continues to grow. Seeing
a large number of tourists visiting, the possibility of these tourists adding to the visit days is
very large, because of the attractiveness of the uniqueness of the attractions in North Tapanuli,
such as the only soda water in Indonesia (there are only 2 in the world), tourism spiritual (the
spread of Christianity), and equipped with airports.
The implementation and development of tourism in North Tapanuli Regency, experiencing
some problems that have the potential to significantly disrupt tourism development in the area
include: community tourism awareness behavior that is still low, so that there is a lack of
friendliness and public awareness to be able to receive visits from other communities visiting
the area. Pathways to tourism objects that are often visited by tourists have been met by selling
places of souvenirs that are built irregularly so that souvenir stalls have blocked the scenery that
can initially be enjoyed from the streets. Like around the cross of love for North Tapanuli,
Indonesia, there are still many who sell "omprengan" around the cross of love [1].
Regional development is an act of developing the area or building an area or region to
improve the level of welfare of the community [2]. Several parameters, among others, can
measure regional development, increasing community income, increasing employment, income
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distribution [3]. It is clear that the tourism sector is a strategic sector to be developed at the
national and regional levels. The development of the tourism sector will be part of regional
development efforts that can be seen from the socio-economic pillar.
The question is, is aware of community tourism influencing tourism development and its
relation to regional development? This study aims to determine and analyze the influence of
conscious tourism on the development of tourism and its relation to the development of the
North Tapanuli Regency.
2. THEORIES
2.1. Regional Development and Development
Development is a process of change in a better direction through planned efforts . The value
system determines development goals. The value system in the community is very diverse and
growing [4].
Regional development is an effort to spur socio-economic development, reduce the
disparity between regions, and preserve the environment in an area [5]. The primary objective
of regional development is to harmonize various development activities in the sector and region
so that the use of space and resources in it can optimally support community life activities by
the expected regional development goals and objectives [6]–[8]. Science of regional
development needs to be sustained by six pillars, such as biogeophysical analysis, institutional
analysis, economic analysis, social analysis, environmental analysis, location analysis [9].
Thus it can be concluded, regional development is an act of planning, implementing and
developing or building a region or region based on consideration of the conditions and potential
of physical, economic and socio-cultural, institutional and environmental conditions in the
region so that the utilization of space and resources in it can be optimal support to improve the
level of welfare of the community in accordance with the expected regional development goals
and objectives. The government carries out various development programs to improve the
standard of living of the people, where development is based on the notion of human
development and the development of all Indonesian people.
2.2. Tourism Development as a Social and Economic development sector
According to social development theorists, among others; Garry Jacobs, Harlan Cleveland, and
Robert MacFarlane from the International Center for Peace and Development provided the
following points: development requires four types of infrastructure and resources, such as
physical, social, mental, and psychological factors [10]. Physical factors are limited, while
others are infinite; and the most critical factor in the development process is human beings, with
their increasing thinking ability that can create the resources needed for development, the
implementation of the human intelligentsia that can turn a natural resource into an economic
resource [11].
Economic indicators or commonly referred to as economic development is a branch of
economics that analyzes the problems faced by the state and obtains ways to overcome these
problems so that the state can develop its economy more quickly. There are several economic
development indicators commonly used by experts: Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Economic
Structure, Economic Growth Rate, Foreign Trade, Inflation, tax rates, and others.
Tourism can also be interpreted as a trip that is carried out many times or in circles, from
one place to another [12]. As a concept, tourism can be viewed from a variety of different
aspects. Tourism can be seen as an activity to travel from home with the intention of not doing
business or relaxing. Tourism can also be seen as a business that deals with the supply of goods
and services for tourists and concerns any expenditure by or tourists/visitors on their journey.
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Tourists on travel trips are based on the motivation of the purpose of the trip, can be grouped
into four categories, such as physical motivation, cultural motivation, personal motivation and
motivation for status and prestige. Giving the purpose of tourism is solely to enjoy tourist
attraction, then the most important thing to note is the comfort and satisfaction of tourists during
tourist trips/visits to tourist objects. For that, in order to increase tourist visits, it needs to be
supported by a tourist awareness attitude local people in serving and interacting with tourists
[13].
In the framework of tourism development, one of the fundamental aspects is the creation of
a conducive environment and atmosphere that encourages the growth and development of
tourism activities in a place. The favorable climate or environment is mainly associated with
the realization of Tourism Awareness that is consistently developed among the people who live
around tourist destinations.
2.2.1. Forms and Types of Tourism
The type of tourism is determined based on the motives of tourist travel destinations so that
they can be distinguished as follows: cultural tourism, travel tours, health and recreation tours,
sports tourism, political tourism, convention tours, commercial tourism/trade affairs, maritime
tourism, tourism works [14]. The elements of tourism development include attractions,
transportation, accommodation, service facilities, and infrastructure.
Some principles of decent tourism, and can increase the benefits of tourism activities
include: actively encouraging the continuity of heritage in an area-culture, history, and nature;
emphasizing and displaying regional identity as something unique; interpret their own heritage
to guests; help maintain local lifestyles and values; "intercultural" which means that guests and
hosts alike receive mutually enriching experiences; representing programs that can be applied
at every level of tourism development and all tourism conditions; display a "value added"
approach to tourism; display an approach towards the development of sustainable tourism, etc
[15].
From the description above, it can be seen that tourism development is related to aspects:
the tourism industry; tourism destination; marketing; accommodation; tourism institutions;
tourism awareness; attractions; transportation; prevent social conflict; and facilities/facilities.
2.2.2. Tourism Awareness
Tourism Awareness is a condition that describes the participation and support of all components
of society in encouraging the realization of a climate conducive to the growth and development
of tourism in a destination or region [16]. Increasing the role of the community in tourism
development requires various empowerment efforts so that people can play a more active and
optimal role and at the same time receive positive benefits from development activities carried
out to improve their welfare. Community Empowerment in the context of tourism development
can be defined as: "Efforts to strengthen and enhance the capacity, role and initiative of the
community as one of the stakeholders, to be able to participate and play an active role as a
subject or actor as well as beneficiaries in sustainable tourism development". This definition
confirms the critical position of the community in development activities, such as the
community as a subject and at the same time as beneficiaries of development [17].
Tourism Awareness is described as a form of public awareness to realize its role and
responsibility as a good host for guests or tourists to create a conducive environment and
atmosphere as stated in the slogan Sapta Pesona, and realize their rights and needs to become
tourist actors or tourists to travel to a tourist destination is a manifestation of basic needs for
recreation. Conscious Tourism and Sapta Enchantment as an essential element in supporting
the development of tourism destinations indeed cannot be realized automatically. Sapta Pesona
is: "7 elements of charm that must be realized for the creation of a conducive environment and
ideal for the development of tourism activities in a place that encourages the interest of tourists
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to visit" [18]. Sapta Pesona is a description of the Tourism Awareness concept that is related to
the support and role of the community as a host in an effort to create a conducive environment
and atmosphere that can encourage the growth and development of the tourism industry,
through the realization of safe, orderly, clean, cool, beautiful, friendly and memories.
The realization of the seven elements of Sapta Enchantment in the development of tourism
in the region will lead to Increased interest in tourist visits to destinations; The growth of a
prospective tourism business climate, and an increase in employment and income opportunities,
as well as the multiple economic impacts of tourism for the community. In this case, the
Tourism Awareness Group or the tourism driving group as an informal institutional form
formed by community members is one of the elements of stakeholders in the community that
has a connection and an essential role in developing and realizing Tourism Awareness in the
area.
The objectives of the establishment of Tourism Awareness Groups are: 1) Increasing the
position and role of the community as important subjects or actors in tourism development, and
can work together and partner with relevant stakeholders in improving the quality of tourism
development. 2) Building and fostering positive attitudes and support of the community as hosts
through the realization of the values of Sapta Pesona for the growth and development of tourism
in the region and its benefits for regional development and community welfare, and 3)
Introducing, preserving and utilizing the potential of existing tourist attractions in each region
[19].
2.3. Tourism in the Regional Development Perspective
The development of the number of tourists visiting the Pandan Coast region has a positive
influence on regional income and the community [20][21]. Regional income can be seen from
the increase in taxes and excise drawn by the regional government towards entrepreneurs
around tourist areas, as well as increasing people's incomes, as well as the increasing amount
of tax deposited by the public to the government and regional governments. The earlieer
research also shows the link between tourism and human development in Central Java Province
[22]. The development of the tourism sector is closely related to the collection of regional taxes
and retributions, especially hotel taxes, restaurant taxes, and entertainment taxes. Thus, the
development of the tourism sector indirectly has the potential as a basis for tax revenue. That
way, the development of tourism has an impact on increasing regional revenues so that it is
expected to be able to increase regional capacity in improving people's welfare. It is clear that
there is a tourism development link in the Regional Development perspective [23].
3. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND HYPOTHESIS
Tourism development is very dependent on the attitude of tourism awareness of the local
community, which is characterized by the increasing number of tourists visiting and the time
of stay of these tourists. Activities and expenditures incurred by tourists will have a positive
influence on the welfare of the community in the area development perspective. The conceptual
framework can be shown in the following figure.
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Area Development
Community Tourism
Awareness (X)
Tourism Development (Y)
Figure 1. Conceptual Framework
Based on the background and formulation of the problem, the hypothesis of this study is:
There is a conscious positive influence on community tourism on tourism development in the
perspective of regional development in North Tapanuli Regency, Indonesia.
4. METHODOLOGY
4.1. Research Design
The location of this study is the entire North Tapanuli Regency which consists of 15 subdistricts, 241 villages, and 11 sub-districts. Whereas the research locus is tourism objects spread
in the North Tapanuli Regency, Indonesia. The study uses a cross-sectional design, such as by
studying the object of research and simultaneously describing and analyzing data from the
variables studied to produce the information needed by the problems and objectives of the study
[24]. The causal design is useful for measuring relationships between research variables or is
useful for analyzing how one variable affects another variable. By using this causal design, to
find out the relationship and influence between the variables that will be studied, tourism
development is influenced by community tourism awareness in the perspective of regional
development.
4.2. Population and Sample
The study population is those who have a relationship with tourism, which consists of hoteliers,
souvenir traders, tourism office staff, regional legislative members, tourist management, and
sub-district heads, with a total population of 209 people. The total population can be seen in the
following table. Based on the total population, the sample size was taken using the Taro
N
209
Yamane formula [25]: n = Nd2 + 1 then n = 209+ (0,1)2 + 1 n = 99,51 the sample was rounded up
to = 100 people. Information: n = sample, N = population, d = precision (10 %) .
The sampling technique used was purposive sampling, based on certain criteria found in the
respondents and considered to be representative of the population [26]. The Probability
technique calculates the sample size by stratification. The population is first arranged in 6 strata,
then a fraction sample (f) is needed for each subpopulation as its multiplier. The formula
Ni
calculates the value of f: fi= N where : f = sample fraction; Ni = Total population in the i
strata; N = Total population; so that the total number of sample sizes is 100 people, complete,
population strata, population, number of samples, fraction sample can be seen in Table 1.
Table 1 Number of Populations and Research Samples
No.
Population Strata
Total population
1
2
3
4
5
Hotel Entrepreneurs
Souvenir Traders
UPTD Tourism Office staff
DPRD Members
Tourist Management Manager
22
97
6
35
34
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956
Sample
Fraction
(%)
11
46
3
17
16
Total Sample
(people)
11
46
3
17
16
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6
Camat
15
209
Total
7
100
7
100
4.3. Variables, Operational Definition, Indicators and Measurements
According to the type of data, this study uses qualitative and quantitative data. Qualitative data
is quantified into quantitative data in the form of interval scales [27]. Quantitative data is
sourced from agency reports. According to data sources, this study uses primary data and
secondary data. Secondary data was obtained in the form of available data, BPS of North
Tapanuli Regency, BPS of North Sumatra Province and Central BPS, website and
documentation of other relevant agencies as relevant data sources.
Table 2. Operational Definition of Variables, Indicators and Measurements
Variable
Tourism
Development
(Y)
Community
Tourism
Awareness
(X)
Operational definition
an effort to develop or
advance a tourist object to
make it better and more
attractive in terms of
places and objects in it to
attract tourists.
increasing the role of the
community in tourism
development in order to
play an active and
optimal role and at the
same time receive
positive benefits from
tourism development
activities carried out to
improve their welfare.
Indicator
Tourism Tourism Level
Length of visit
Number of installers
Amount of money spent
Regional food / beverage
purchases
Development of business
opportunities
Finance obtained
Operating revenues
Additional family income
Security
Order
Cleanliness
Coolness
Hospitality
Beauty
Memories
Willingness to help
Willingness to give
information
Creating a sense of comfort
Measurement
Scale
Ordinal
Ordinal
Ordinal
Ordinal
Ordinal
Ordinal
Ordinal
Ordinal
Ordinal
Ordinal
Ordinal
Ordinal
Ordinal
Ordinal
Ordinal
Ordinal
Ordinal
Ordinal
Ordinal
4.4. Data Measurement
The measurement scale is a scale used to identify the variables to be measured so that there is
no error in determining data analysis and the next step of the research [28]. Variables are
translated into indicators, then used as a starting point for compiling items in the research
instrument. The respondents' answers obtained were quantified, and 5 alternative answers were
made, and were scored with the Likert Scale as follows: For option (1) is "Strongly Agree"
given a score of 5; option (2) is "Agree" given a score of 4; option (3) is "enough to agree"
given a score of 3; option (4) is "Disagree" given a score of 2; and option (5) "Strongly
Disagree" is given a score of 1.
4.5. Data Analysis Techniques
To analyze the problem of this study used Simple Linear Regression statistical analysis
techniques with the help of SPSS Application Program version 21. To test hypotheses, the
Linear Regression equation model [29] is shown by the following formula.
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Y = a + bX + e
Where: Y = Tourism Development; a = Constant (Intercept); b = Regression coefficient; X
= Community Tourism Awareness; e = Standard error.
4.6. Test Validity, Reliability and Normality
To determine valid or invalid every question or statement in the research instrument, can be
done by correlating the number of factor scores with the total score. If the value of the results
of the correlation test for each of these factors has a positive value and the value of ≥ 0.30 then
the factor is a strong or valid construct factor. The measuring instrument used is to compare
between r count with r table. If the value of r-count ≥ r-table then the instrument is said to be
valid, conversely if the value of r-count < r-table then the instrument is said to be invalid.
The reliability of a variable construct is said to be good if it has Cronbach's Alpha > 0.60.
An instrument can be classified in the category of high reliability if Cronbach's Alpha if the
item Deleted (r-count) value is between 0.70 - 0.90 [30]. The importance of reliability testing
is to measure the level of consistency of a research instrument used in measuring the same
symptoms at different times. The reliability value of the research instrument was carried out
using the Croanbach's Alpha method. Instruments are declared reliable if the alpha coefficient
is greater or equal to 0.50 (α ≥ 0.50). To simplify the implementation in calculating the
reliability of all statements on the instrument on each variable.
This normality test is needed because to do the t-test assumes that the resdual value follows
a normal distribution. The basis of decision making in the normality test is if the significance
value is ˃ 0.05 then the data is classified as normal distribution. Conversely, if the significance
value ˂ 0.05, the data is classified as abnormal distribution. If there is a plot of dots spread
around the diagonal line, then the data distribution is normal [31].
4.7. Goodness of Fit
Value The coefficient of determination (R2) can be used to see how far the diversity explained
by the independent variable on the non-independent variable if the value of R2 is higher, the
better the model because of the more significant the diversity of non-independent variables that
can be explained by the independent variable.
4.8. T-Test
To test the significance of individual parameters (t-test), decision making is done by comparing
statistical values with critical points according to the table. If the statistical value of t-count >
t-table value, then we accept the alternative hypothesis which states that an independent variable
individually affects the dependent variable. After that, it is necessary to do a significance test,
to find out whether conclusions can be drawn inductively to the entire population or sample.
Significance test of the variable correlation coefficient is used by a comparison of t-count value
with t-table with the formula:
t1.2 =
𝒓𝟏.𝟐√𝒏−𝟑
√𝟏 – 𝒓 𝒑 𝟐
Conclusion: if t count ≥ t-table then Ho is rejected, and vice versa, if thitung <t-table then
Ho is accepted. At the level of α = 0.050 or significance 95% (1 - α). Testing using such SPSS
output can be done by looking at the value of t calculated with its significance value, if the
significance value <0.05 means reject H0. Refusing H0 means giving Ha (alternative
hypothesis).
5. RESEARCH RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
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5.1. General Description of the Research Area
The research area is North Tapanuli Regency with the capital of Tarutung, which is
geographically located at an altitude of 150-1,700 meters above sea level, with an area of
3,793.71 km2, and has a surface area of Lake Toba of 6.60 km2. Of the 15 subdistricts, the most
extensive sub-district is Garoga Subdistrict, around 567.58 km2 or 14.96% of the total area, and
the smallest sub-district, Muara District, is 79.75 km2 or 2.10%. Residents living in North
Tapanuli Regency in 2016 were 293 399 people with 67,805 households spread over 15 subdistricts such as Parmonangan, Andiankoting, Sipoholon, Tarutung, Siatas Barita, Pahae Julu,
Pahae Jae, Purbatua, Simangumban, Pangaribuan, Garoga, Sipahutar , Siborong borong,
Pagaran, and Muara. Some tourist locations in North Tapanuli Regency are as noted in the
following table.
Table 3. List of names of tourist attractions in North Tapanuli Regency
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
Name of Attraction
Salib Kasih
Gereja Dame
Kantor Pusat HKBP
Makam Munson dan Lyman
Tugu Nomensen
Hariara Onan Sitahuru
Seminarium Sipoholon
Makam Pendeta Johannes
Makam Pendeta Johannes
Siregar
Zetun Silangit
Rura Silindung
Sitakka
Panorama Alam Hutaginjang
Pantai Muara
Pulau Sibandang
Pantai Nambunga
Air Panas Hutabarat
Air Panas Parbubu
Air Panas Sait Nihuta
Air Panas Ugan
Air Panas Sipoholon
Air Panas Butar
Air Panas Tamaro
Air Soda
Sopo Partungkoan
Gedung Dprd Tapanuli Utara
Situs Hopong
Tugu Raja Sisingamangaraja
XII
Perkampungan Tradisional
Goa Siboru Natumandi
Vanana Garden
Perkebunan Jeruk Pagar Batu
Pacuan Kuda
Areal Gantolle Hutaginjang
Type of
Tourism
Spiritual
Spiritual
Spiritual
Spiritual
Spiritual
Spiritual
Spiritual
Spiritual
Spiritual
Siatas Barita,
Tarutung,
Tarutung,
Diankoting
Tarutung,
Tarutung
Sipoholon
Siatas Barita
Muara
Spiritual
Natural
Natural
Natural
Natural
Natural
Natural
Bathhouse
Bathhouse
Bathhouse
Bathhouse
Bathhouse
Bathhouse
Bathhouse
Bathhouse
Culture
Culture
Culture
Culture
Siborongborong
Tarutung
Tarutung
Muara
Muara
Muara
Muara,
Tarutung,
Tarutung,
Tarutung,
Tarutung,
Sipoholon,
Siborongborong,
Tarutung
Tarutung,
Tarutung
Tarutung
Simangumban
Tarutung
± 32
±3
± 32
± 45
± 51
± 52
±2
±4
±1
±6
±6
± 25
±3
±3
±
± 65
-
Culture
Culture
Agro
Agro
Sports
Sports
Muara,
Tarutung,
Tarutung,
Sipoholon
Siborongborong
Muara
± 45
±2
±3
± 15
± 26
± 32
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Address
Distance from
Tarutung (km)
±7
±2
±1
± 17
±2
±2
±6
±2
± 45
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5.2. Number of Tourist Visits
Tourism in an area is categorized as successful or not depending on the number of visits. If the
higher the number of visitors who come, the more advanced and more needed tourism services
in the region. With the number of visitors coming, merchandise also sold well, which resulted
in an increase in people's incomes which automatically increased people's welfare. However,
in reality, the arrival of visitors to a tourist location is also influenced by the financial ability of
these visitors, so that many visitors come to tourist sites taking into account the cost of travel
to the tourist sites, and consider the prices of goods, food-drinks, lodging costs at tourist sites,
this is in line with the results of research by Dewi [32] which states that the cost of travel to
tourist sites is very influential on the frequency of tourist visits. Travel costs spent by tourists
will be income for the community and the government in tourist destinations. The amount of
total domestic tourist visits in North Tapanuli Regency 2012-2014 has decreased and increased
again in 2015. Unlike the case with foreign tourists who show an increasing trend every year
as shown in Table 4..
Table 4. Number of Foreign and Domestic Tourists to North Tapanuli Regency for the 2012-2015
Period
No.
Year
1
2
3
4
2012
2013
2014
2015
Traveler
Foreign
732
480
1.500
1.665
Domestic
98. 094
96.361
91.647
108 117
Total
98.826
96.841
93.147
109.782
5.3. Testing Validity, Reliability and Normality
The reliability of a variable construct is said to be good if it has Cronbach's Alpha > of 0.60.
An instrument can be classified in the category of high reliability if Cronbach's Alpha if the
Deleted Item (r-count) has a value between 0.70 - 0.90. The reliability test results concluded
that all question items in the research instrument had met the reliability requirements. Therefore
it can be continued to normality test and t-test for regression significance test. On the histogram
curve, the model meets the normal assumption if the shape of the curve is symmetrical or does
not deviate either left or right. The following are the results of the normality test using the
histogram curve.
Figure 2. Community Tourism Awareness Curriculum Chart of Tourism Development
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In the graph of normal residual standard P-P Plots of standardized regression, the model
satisfies the assumption of normality if the points on the curve coincide following the diagonal
line. Based on the results of data processing, a graph is obtained for each variable as follows:
Figure 3. Normal Graph of P-P PLOT Community Tourism Awareness (X)
Figure The graph of the conscious variable of community tourism to tourism development
states that the model fulfills the assumption of normality because the points on the curve
coincide following the diagonal line.
Figure 4. Normal Chart of Tourism Development P-P PLOT (Y)
5.4. Effects of Community Tourism Awareness on Tourism Development
From the results of data processing presented in table 5.29 a model of Community Tourism
Awareness on Tourism Development can be made with a simple linear regression equation, Y
= 3.16 + 0.22X. The regression model means that before efforts to increase tourism awareness,
tourism development of 3.16 units and every effort to increase tourism awareness by 1 unit will
increase tourism development by 0.22 units. The results of the significance test showed a
significance value of 0.015 (0.015 α α) which gave a significant effect because the significant
coefficient value was ˂ α (0.05). To test the hypothesis of the Influence of Community Tourism
Conscious Variables on Tourism Development, the statistical hypothesis is formulated as
follows: H0: bi = 0. It means that Community Tourism Awareness (X) partially does not have
a positive and significant effect on Tourism Development (Y). Ha: bi ≠ 0. It means that
Community Tourism Awareness (X) partially has a positive and significant effect on Tourism
Development (Y). Criteria for concluding: Reject H0 If the value of t count ˃ value of t-table;
and Accept H0 if the value of t-count ˂ t-table value at the level of α is 5% (0.05). From the
results of data analysis, it is known that the value of t-count is 10.63 and the value of t-table is
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1.99 (the value of the t-count ˃ value of t-table) then H0 is rejected. It can be concluded that
Community Tourism Awareness has a positive effect on Tourism Development in North
Tapanuli Regency, Indonesia.
5.5. Hypothesis testing
It is seeing the effect of independent variables such as Community Awareness of Tourism
Development in the Regional Development perspective. The hypothesis testing criteria are as
follows: H0: bi = 0. This means that Community Tourism Awareness does not have a positive
and significant effect on Tourism Development. Ha: bi ≠ 0. It means that Community Tourism
Awareness has a positive and significant effect on Tourism Development. From the results of
the data analysis, it is known that the value of the calculation is 10.629 and the value of t table
is 1.987 (the value of t-count ˃ value of t-table) then H0 is rejected. Refusing H0 means
accepting Ha. Finally, it can be concluded that awareness of Community Tourism has a positive
and significant effect on Tourism Development.
The results of this study concluded that the factors that are one of the strengths of internal
factors are: the attitude of the local community towards tourism development, the support of
the Indigenous Village Institution and the Indigenous Village Empowerment Institute in the
Kintamani Tourism Area in Tabanan Regency. The tourism sector is one of the mainstay sectors
of the Indonesian government to generate foreign exchange. Therefore it needs serious attention
from the government by involving the role of relevant stakeholders and participation of all
levels of society in various policies and programs. Village communities did not yet have
adequate knowledge and skills in managing tourism villages. For this reason, it is necessary to
develop knowledge that can improve people's knowledge and skills in managing tourism
villages [33].
The attitude of conscious tourism from some people is still relatively low; it is characterized
by a lack of respect for the community with local tourists and foreign tourists so that there are
tourists who need help not getting the help expected from the community around tourist sites.
This is indicated by the lack of a clean environment, both caused by scattered garbage, irregular
arrangement of sales of souvenirs, and still wandering pets to enter tourist sites. Some people
assume that the arrival of tourists causes an increase in the prices of materials needed, and
related to the habits of the people who want to be respected more than others, because of the
assumption that all Batak people are children of the king who must be respected and served.
Likewise, for tourism conscious attitudes to maintain the security of tourist goods, it is
essential. There is a perception among the public that only maintaining the security of tourist
goods is the police. This is because the tasks of providing information are tourism services,\
while the community is not involved at all This situation is also influenced by language which
is a communication tool dominated by Indonesian, while the general language of the community
is still using Batak Language, this can be seen from brands shop, and other instructions still use
a lot of Batak Language and Batak writing.
Tourism awareness in North Tapanuli Regency must be increased again because the success
of tourism is closely related to public tourism awareness. Community awareness to maintain
and be involved in tourism services can be considered as participating.
The awareness of tourism in some communities around tourist sites in North Tapanuli
Regency is relatively minimal, even though they have received many positive benefits from
tourism activities, but because of the lack of tourism counseling and socialization, they receive
so that the nature of tourism is still to be developed. Counseling is intended to add insight and
knowledge of the community, this is in accordance with the understanding of counseling such
as a process of disseminating information in an effort to improve business/business methods to
achieve increased productivity, income and improvement of family/community welfare through
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development activities [34]. Counseling as an educational process, is an educational effort to
make people know, want and be able to be self-reliant; and Counseling as a social engineering
process, to create changes in people's behavior as desired in order to achieve improvements in
family and community welfare.
Based on the understanding of counseling above, it can be concluded that counseling in
tourist locations must be done so that tourism development can succeed well. This is in line
with the research from Arevin [35] that the concept of tourism development is oriented to
community strength and has a natural environment and upholds the traditional local cultural
values that need to be developed in a planned manner. For this reason, tourism awareness
counseling is needed so that the community plays an active role in developing tourism in the
region. Dissemination by implementing sapta charms in everyday life in homes, workplaces,
entertainment venues and places of worship. The charm that is socialized in counseling is safe,
orderly, cool, clean, beautiful, welcoming, and memorable.
The influence of tourism development on indicators of regional development from the
economic sector based on respondents' opinions is that there is an increase in the income of the
tourism business community which is dominated by increasing income ranging from Rp. 3.00
million to Rp. 3.50 million per month, as well as increasing new business development,
employment and expansion of local culture along with tourism development. This situation
illustrates that there has been an increase in the socio-economic community in North Tapanuli
Regency. The existence of the tourism sector in Pangandaran has created jobs, especially for
the total household income of residents. While in the pattern of cooperation between business
partners, the existence of the tourism industry strengthens the relationship between business
actors.
In North Tapanuli Regency, the dominant type of community tourism activity influences
regional development in the form of a large number of visitors, the economy as a contributor to
regional income, environmental sustainability is a spiritual tourism activity. Potential attraction
of tourism objects in economic development West Sumatra, concluded that the attractiveness
of West Sumatra tourism objects which are generally dominant in natural attraction, but its
development is in need of additional attraction such as the attractiveness of culture, the
attractiveness of the environment and the attractiveness of entertainment as an artificial
attraction to complement the natural attraction there are, as well as transportation infrastructure
and other public facilities. Likewise, regional tourism development is aimed at developing local
potential from natural, socio-cultural or economic sources in order to contribute to local
governments while increasing community welfare [36].
The type of tourism suitable to be developed at Papuma Beach is marine tourism,
ecotourism, and educational tourism. Marine tourism needs to be developed because it is by the
advantages of Papuma Beach, which is the sea so that it will increase knowledge about the
wealth of the sea in Papuma. Religious tourism could be proven by the development carried out
by the Kediri Regency Culture and Tourism Agency and the Puhsarang Pilgrimage
Management Agency on Puhsarang Religious Tourism has a socio-economic impact on the
community the community increased after the development of Puhsarang Religious Tourism.
In this study it was concluded that tourism awareness had a positive and significant effect
on tourism development in the perspective of regional development in North Tapanuli District,
measured from the socio-economic and environmental aspects. Based on the results of the
study, it was found that especially in North Tapanuli District, the most dominant activities of
community tourism affected regional developments were spiritual tourism and nature tourism.
Because it is still a type of tourism that can bring in Regional Original Income, and community
income, the number of tourists visiting is dominated by tourists visiting religious tourism sites,
the most absorbing labor compared to other tours, as well as the preparation of tourism location
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development carried out by the North Tapanuli Regency government is a tourist statue of Jesus
Christ that is not far from the Cross of Love, it can be mentioned significant tourism developed
in North Tapanuli Regency is tourism from a Christian religious, spiritual tourism.
6. CONCLUSIONS
Based on data analysis, the results and discussion above obtained several research conclusions.
Community Tourism Awareness has a positive and significant effect on Tourism Development
in North Tapanuli Regency. The North Tapanuli Regency Government needs to carry out a
program to increase community tourism awareness because of the development opportunities
of the tourism sector in the Development of the Lake Toba Tourism Industry Area to increase
tourist movement and accessibility to tourist sites in the North Tapanuli Regency area. It will
have an impact on the development of the region through increased sources of Regional
Original Income and Gross Regional Domestic Revenue, community income, employment and
dissemination of local culture. Users of the allotment of tourist locations in particular in order
to maintain the cleanliness and beauty of the environment, prevent environmental damage,
create order, security, and comfort for visitors who are diverse, religious, racial and national.
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