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IOT M2M Study Paper

Internet of Things (IOT) /M2M
Abstract: - It has been estimated by GSMA (GSM Association) and Machina Research
(World’s leading advisor on M2M, Internet of Things and Big Data) that there may be 24
billion connected devices globally by 2020. Ericsson has projected this to be 50 billion. Such
projections entice the industry to explore and tap a wide range of oppurtunities that the
M2M (Machine to Machine) communication concept offers, enabling novel business cases,
enhanced workflow, efficiency and improved quality of life. To understand the concept, brief
of IOT (Internet of things), M2M
basic architecture & applications in different verticals,
Global / Indian scenario has been described. Prominent telecommunications standards
bodies such as 3GPP, ETSI, OneM2M and other SDOs are largely involved in providing
recommendations and standards in the context of M2M. OneM2M is expected to release first
set of workable standards in July 2014. [8]
1. Internet of things (IOT)
Communication between computers started with the Electronic Data Interchange that made
direct communication possible between two PCs. All the computers connected to the
Internet can talk to each other. Use of mobile phones for connecting internet has
revolutionized the entire scenario. With Internet of Things the communication is extended
via Internet among all the things that surround us.
At the first look, it may appear that Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications and IoT
denote the same thing. In reality, M2M is only a subset of IoT. IoT is a more
includes Human-to-Machine
communication (H2M). Radio
(RFID), Location-Based
Services (LBS), Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC), sensors, Augmented Reality (AR), robotics and vehicle
telematics, which are some of the technology innovations that employ both M2M and H2M
communications. Their common feature is to combine embedded sensory objects with
communication intelligence and transporting data over a mix of wired and wireless
networks. A typical view of IOT is given in figure-1*.
*Source – IERC 2012, [3]
Figure – 1
1.1. The data so generated acts as vital input for intelligence for planning, management,
policy, and decision making. Some of the important properties of Internet of Things are as
A Unique Internet Address by which each connected physical object and device will be
identified, and therefore be able to communicate with one another.
A Unique Location—can be fixed or mobile—within a network or system (for example, a
smart electricity grid) that makes sense of the function and purpose of the object in its
specified environment, generating intelligence to enable autonomous actions in line with
that purpose.
An Increase in Machine-Generated and Machine-Processed Information that will surpass
human-processed information, potentially linking in with other systems to create what
some have called "the nervous system of the planet."
Complex New Capabilities in Security, Analytics, and Management, achievable through
more powerful software and processing devices, that enable a network of connected
devices and systems to cluster and interoperate transparently in a "network of networks."
Time and Location Achieve New Levels of Importance in information processing as
Internet-connected objects work to generate ambient intelligence; for example, on
the Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) efficiency of a building, or to study
soil samples and climatic change in relation to crop growth.
1.2.The enabling technologies for Internet of Things are sensor networks, RFID, M2M, mobile
Internet, wired & wireless communication network, semantic data integration, semantic
search, IPV4 / IPv6, etc. In wireless communication Wi-Fi, ZigBee, 6LOPAN, Bluetooth
technology may be used for short range connectivity of devices / devices to the gateway and
GSM 2G/ 3G/ 4G or WiMax for connecting M2M gateway to server.
1.3. IPV4 addresses are going to exhaust. Standarisation and adoption of IPV6 in telecom
and ICT organisations will provide an opportunity of having billions of devices which can be IP
enabled and seamlessly addressable through mobile or wired broadband connections.
1.4. Application areas of IOT: - Potential applications of the IoT are numerous and diverse,
permeating intopractically all areas of every-day life of individuals, enterprises, and society
as a whole. The 2010 Internet of Things Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) has identified and
described the main Internet of Things applications, which span numerous application domains
such as smart energy, smart health, smart buildings, smart transport, smart living and smart
1.5. Smart Energy Grid / Internet of Energy: - Concept of Internet of Energy requires web
based architectures to readily guarantee information delivery on demand and to change the
traditional power system into a networked Smart Grid that is largely automated, by applying
greater intelligence to operate, enforce policies, monitor and self-heal when necessary. This
requires the integration and interfacing of the power grid to the network of data represented
by the Internet, embracing energy generation, transmission, delivery, substations,
distribution control, metering and billing, diagnostics, and information systems to work
seamlessly and consistently.
This concept would enable the ability to produce, store and efficiently use energy, while
balancing the supply/demand by using a cognitive Internet of Energy that harmonizes the
energy grid by processing the data, information and knowledge via the Internet. Internet of
Energy will leverage on the information highway provided by the Internet to link computers,
devices and services with the distributed smart energy grid that is the freight highway for
renewable energy resources allowing stake holders to invest in green technologies and sell
excess energy back to the utility.
1.6. A typical diagram of Internet of Things for Energy Applications is as given below in figure
Figure – 2: Internet of Things embedded in Internet of Energy applications.
*Source – IERC 2012, [3]
1.7. RFID and wireless sensor network, being important components of IOT are being
described below:1.7.1. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID):- RFID technology is a major
breakthrough in the embedded communication paradigm which enables design of microchips
for wireless data communication. They help in automatic identification of anything they are
attached to acting as an electronic barcode. The passive RFID tags are not battery powered
and they use the power of the reader‘s interrogation signal to communicate the ID to the
RFID reader. This has resulted in many applications particularly in retail and supply chain
management. The applications can be found in transportation (replacement of tickets,
registration stickers) and access control applications as well. The passive tags are currently
being used in many bank cards and road toll tags which is among the first global
deployments. Active RFID readers have their own battery supply and can initiate the
communication. Of the several applications, the main application of active RFID tags is in
port containers for monitoring cargo.
1.7.2. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN):- Recent technological advances in low power
integrated circuits and wireless communications have made available efficient, low cost, low
power miniature devices for use in remote sensing applications. The combination of these
factors has improved the viability of utilizing a sensor network consisting of a large number
of intelligent sensors, enabling the collection, processing, analysis and dissemination of
valuable information, gathered in a variety of environments. Active RFID is nearly the same
as the lower end WSN nodes with limited processing capability and storage. The scientific
challenges that must be overcome in order to realize the enormous potential of WSNs are
substantial and multidisciplinary in nature. Sensor data are shared among sensor nodes and
sent to a distributed or centralized system for analytics. The components that make up the
WSN monitoring network include:
a) WSN hardware - Typically a node (WSN core hardware) contains sensor interfaces,
processing units, transceiver units and power supply. Almost always, they comprise of
multiple A/D converters for sensor interfacing and more modern sensor nodes have the
ability to communicate using one frequency band making them more versatile.
b) WSN communication stack - The nodes are expected to be deployed in an ad-hoc manner
for most applications. Designing an appropriate topology, routing and MAC layer is critical
for scalability and longevity of the deployed network. Nodes in a WSN need to communicate
among themselves to transmit data in single or multi-hop to a gateway / base station. Node
drop outs, and consequent degraded network lifetimes, are frequent. The communication
stack at the sink node should be able to interact with the outside world through the Internet
to act as a gateway to the WSN subnet and the Internet.
1.8. M2M is in a smaller concept whereas IOT is a bigger one comprising various verticals as
described in figure 3*.
Figure – 3
2. Having explainedvarious components of IOT, we now deal with M2M communication.
M2M:-M2M stands for “machine-to-machine” communications. Essentially, it is the
exchange of data between a remote machine and a back-end IT infrastructure. Transfer of
data can be two way:
 Uplink to collect product / usage information.
 Downlink to send instructions.
Machine to Machine refers to the technologies that allows wired / wireless system to
communicate with the devices of same ability. M2M uses a device (sensor, meter, etc.) to
capture an ‘event’ (temperature, inventory level, etc.), which is relayed through a network
(wireless, wired or hybrid) to an application (software program), that translates the
captured event into meaningful information (e.g., items need to be restocked).
Thus M2M holds a big prospect of reviving and redefining the operating models for Telecom
Equipment manufacturers and Telecom Operators alike.
With connectivity, traditional hardware makers currently earning margins on a one-time, perdevice basis can realize new recurring revenue and profit streams. Connected device providers
can also reduce or eliminate support costs by allowing their connected machines to be serviced
remotely. The ability for any device or machine to communicate wirelessly—not just cell phones
and PDAs—enables value beyond what we can even imagine today.
Through connectivity, new value, new products, and new applications that were not possible
even a few years ago are being brought to market as manufacturers realize enormous benefits
from their ability to:
Create new recurring revenues from ongoing services.
Develop whole new product lines that rely on real-time two-way connectivity
Perform diagnostics and repairs remotely
Monitor machine status and usage in real time
Increase profitability by lowering service costs and improving product
2.1. M2M network :-In the past, the high cost of deploying M2M technology made it the
exclusive domain of large organizations that could afford to build and maintain their own
dedicated data networks. Today, the widespread adoption of cellular technology has made
As shown below in figure-3*, wireless M2M applications include connectivity-enabled
devices that use a cellular data link to communicate with the computer server. A database
to store collected data and a software application that allows the data to be analyzed,
reported, and acted upon are also key components of a successful end-to-end solution.
*Source: [5]
Capillary Network: - The sensors, communication and processing units act as endpoints of
M2M applications and together constitute the capillary network. The devices will
interconnect amongst themselves over various PAN and LAN technologies in both Wireless
and Wireline domain. Their primary components are sensors, processors, and radio
transceivers. The primary WPAN technology enablers in this space are ZigBee and
Bluetooth. The sensors also known as smart nodes form Bluetooth piconets or ZigBee
networks used for coordination and transmission of the collected data to the Gateway.
M2M Gateways:-The Gateway module provides control and localization services for data
collection. The gateways also double up in concentrating traffic to the operator’s core.It
supports Bluetooth, Zig Bee, GPRS capabilities. It supports wireless communication
standards like GSM/GPRS, IEEE 802.11, Bluetooth/IEEE 802.15.1 (supports communication
links between devices on short distances) and ZigBee /IEEE 802.15.4 (used for low speed
data transfer between low-power consumer devices).
M2M communication network serves as infrastructure for realising communication between
M2M gateway and M2M end userv application or server. For this cellular network (GSM
/CDMA), Wire line network and communication satellites may be used. Satellite
communication being costlier may be used in remote locations. Cellular network being
cheaper and having wide coverage is being used world wide for M2M deployment.
Finally when the data reach the M2M application center, it can be analyzed, reported or
acted upon by the user or the process depending upon the specific system design.
2.2. M2M applications:-M2M applications as per industry are given below*:S.No.
Industry / Vertical
Utilities / Energy
Financial /Retail
Health care
Public Safety
M2M applications
Passenger vehicle anti theft / recovery, monitoring
/maintenance, safety/control, entertainment.
manufacturing and logistics.
Smart metering, smart grid, Electric line monitoring, gas
/ oil / water pipeline monitoring.
Commercial and home security monitoring, Surveillance
applications, Fire alarm, Police / medical alert
Point of sale (POS), ATM, Kiosk, Vending machines,
digital signage and handheld terminals.
Remote monitoring of patient after surgery (e-health),
remote diagnostics, medication reminders, Tele-medicine
Highway, bridge, traffic management,
security, police, fire and emergency services.
*Source: Heavy reading and pyramid research 2012
3. Global Scenario:-The Internet revolution led to the interconnection between people at
an unprecedented scale and pace. The next revolution will be the interconnection between
objects to create a smart environment. Today the connected device is dominated by mobile
phones but in future it will change to new era of smart phones, tablets, consumer
electronics and M2M connects every thing from cars to health services and even entire
GSMA (Mobile world congress), in partnership with Machina research has
predicted the
bussiness impact of connected devices to be worth US $ 4.5 trillion in 2020 when the total
connected devices will reach to 24 billion world wide.
As per Machina research, total number of connected devices is expected to increase from 9
billion today to 24 billion in 2020 and within this, mobile connected devices will grow from
approx. 6.5 billion today to 12 billion in 2020.
As per GSMA and Machina Research, top ten connected apploications with approx. business
impact is as given below:S.No.
Top Ten Connected Applications in 2020
Connected Car
Clinical Remote Monitoring
Assisted Living
Home and Building Security
Pay-As-You-Drive Car Insurance
New Business Models for Car Usage
Smart Meters
Traffic Management
Electric Vehicle Charging
Building Automation
Value to the Connected
US$600 billion
US$350 billion
US$270 billion
US$250 billion
US$245 billion
US$225 billion
US$105 billion
US$100 billion
US$75 billion
US$40 billion
According to the GSMA, this amounts to $1.3 trillion revenue opportunities for mobile
network operators alone spanning vertical segments such as health, automotive, utilities
and consumer electronics. The users span from an individual to national level organizations
addressing wide ranging issues. [9]
4. Indian Scenario :- As per projections by Ericssion, Indian M2M market may rise from 30 Million
in 2013 to more than 250 million in 2020. Automotive (connected vehicles) is having a market share
of 45% and Energy (smart meters) 23%. Other applications are Point of sale (POS), health care,
security and surveillance, intelligent buildings, smart homes etc. M2M applications will make the
living smart and improve the quality of life. Communication elements of the smart network are
shown in the figure-4 given below*:-
Figure- 4
Many industries are being transformed with respect to their business processes, resulting
from engineering market changes driven by substantial increase of M2M pervasiveness. E.g.
in the energy sector, smart metering increases business efficiencies and decreases
operational expenses for energy companies; transportation tracking solutions improve route
optimization and safety for vehicles on the road; the healthcare industry is also looking into
improvement of patient care through instant device communications, remote monitoring
and disease management
Mobile broadband plays an important role in connecting the devices. It is forecast that the
M2M communication industry’s upcoming rapid increase is driven mainly by new initiatives
by major mobile operator groups mostly from Europe and North America (Telenor, Orange,
Vodafone, T-Mobile, Telefónica, AT&T, Verizon, Sprint), which are geographically main
market areas with about 60 percent of the total number of M2M connections worldwide.
Among industry verticals benefitting from M2M paradigm, automotive industry is assessed
as the largest as it alone accounted for approximately 40 percent of total number of
wireless M2M connections.
5. Service provider challenges
1. A complex and fragmented value chain:-The Internet of Things value chain is
expected to be complex and fragmented into various niche applications, devices, modules,
vertical markets and services. It will include product, system and content providers and
solution integrators. Because no single company can provide all components of a complete
solution, it is not clear who will play what role. Partnership can help.
2. Network requirements :-Network challenges result from increasing network
traffic, caused by an extremely high number of short messages (SMS) with high
signaling overhead:
3. Availability:-Connectivity will be required in locations not yet considered in current
4. Reliability:-If networks are critical parts of the business, they must be as reliable
as any other critical equipment.
5. Scalability:-Service providers must manage the significant additional traffic load of
the Internet of Things and ensure that each application’s (voice, video, data, IoT)
communication requirements and service level agreements are met.
6. Flexibility:-With the varied needs of different applications, enterprises will demand
flexible pricing schemes that match their network utilization needs.
7. Security:-Lack of security could derail Internet of Things applications. Devices
provide access to a network with applications and data; all of them including the
communication have to be secured.
8. Response time: Service providers need the ability to define flexible priorities for
services with different response times, ranging from real-time responses to
uncritical long delays.
6. Machine to Machine Applications (M2M) for rural areas in India: - M2M will ensure
optimal utilization of limited resources such as energy and water for agriculture, using
remotely controlled applications through smart phones by the rural masses. Several mobile
applications that aid automation, surveillance, remote monitoring and data gathering may
also be used in rural areas for better agriculture production and improving the quality of life.
Various types of M2M applications such as e-health, vehicle tracking, security, surveillance,
e-education, food supply chain management system (FSCM) may be implemented in rural
areas. Agriculture related M2M services such as remote controlled water pump solution,
water level monitoring, data gathering for milk & agro cooperatives, fisheries, poultry & soil
analysis may also be extended in near future.
E-Health can be used for offspring care (Control of growing conditions of the offspring in
animalfarms to ensure its survival and health). M2M application will make it easier for
locating and identifying of animals grazing in openpastures or location in big stables.
Poor telecom services in rural India may be a bottleneck in fast provisioning of M2M services
in the rural areas and giving benefits to rural masses. As per TRAI report of June 2013,
urban India has reached a teledensity of 146%, whereas rural India stands only at 42%.
There are approx. 144 million subscribers accessing internet through wireless phones. Out
of this approx. 10 % to 15% subscribers may be from rural areas. A study paper on
”Telecommunications / ICT in rural and remote areas of India” has already been prepared
which provides detail of Govt. of India initiative for providing OFC backbone in NOFN
project, costing Rs. 20000/- Cr. (US $3.3 Billion). Project is likely to be completed by 2017.
7. Challenges: - M2M has been developing differently in each region of world such as USA,
Europe, China and South Pacific. As globally acceptable standards are not available, services
are being provided on proprietary standards. Piecing together an end-to-end network is a
huge effort.
8. Standardization efforts in the M2M domain:The industry has become more active in the standardization process in the M2M domain
because of the market demands. Although, M2M is mostly related to the application level
(i.e. an area typically outside the scope of the standard bodies) some wireless access
standard groups (e.g. IEEE, 3GPP and ETSI) are looking into the impacts to the existing
network due to potentially heavy use of M2M devices.
8.1. Standards of the European Telecommunications Standards Institute:The ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) produces globally-applicable
standards for Information and Communications Technologies, including fixed, mobile, radio,
converged, broadcast and Internet technologies. A new ETSI Technical Committee is
developing standards for M2M Communications. This group aims to provide an end-to-end
view of M2M standardization cooperating with ETSI's activities on Next Generation Networks
and 3GPP standards initiative for mobile communication technologies.
In the M2M domain, ETSI standards mostly consider different use cases (i.e. TR 102 691,
TR 102 732, TR 102 857, TR 102 897, TR 102 898). Nevertheless, some efforts have been
also put in defining M2M concepts (i.e. TR 102 725), as well as in standardizing M2M service
requirements (i.e. TS 102 689) and functional architecture (i.e. TS 102 690).
Data security is being pushed at the top of the priority list for M2M configurations.
Standards Development Organizations (SDOs) such as the Telecommunications Industry
Association (TIA) and the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) are
focusing on M2M security standards.
8.2. GSC M2M Standardization Task Force:Within Global Standards Collaboration (GSC), the world’s leading telecommunications and
radio standards organizations meet to promote innovation and collaboration on a broad
spectrum of standards topics. Some hundred participants from Participating Standards
Organizations (PSO) and the Geneva-headquartered International Telecommunication Union
(ITU, a specialized agency of the United Nations) attend, along with observers from
additional groups.
Current Global Standards Collaboration Participating Standard Organizations, in addition to
the ITU:
Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB) Japan
Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS) USA
China Communications Standards Association (CCSA) China
European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) Europe
Information and Communications Technology Standards Advisory Council of Canada
(ISACC) Canada
Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) USA
Telecommunications Technology Association (TTA) Korea
Telecommunication Technology Committee (TTC) Japan
Revised M2M Resolution creating the GSC MSTF: GSC-16/30
8.3. List of work items in oneM2M:Release 1 (a set of core specifications) is expected to be available in July 2014.
Work Item
oneM2M use case collection
Part 1: Analysis of the architectures proposed for consideration by oneM2M
Part 2: Study for the merging of architectures proposed for consideration by WG2
Terms and Definitions
Roles and Focus Areas
TR 0006
Study of Management Capability Enablement Technologies for Consideration by WG5
TR 0007
oneM2M Abstraction and Semantics Capability Enablement
TR 0008
Analysis of Security Solutions for the oneM2M System
TR 0009
oneM2M Protocol Analysis
TR 0010
oneM2M Device / Gateway Classification
oneM2M Functional Architecture
M2M Requirements
TS 0003
oneM2M Security Solutions
TS 0004
oneM2M Protocol Technical Specification
8.4. 3GPP:- optimization of underlying network, in order to better use operator’s resource /
lower down the cost of LTE UE for Machine Type Communication (M2M).
8.5. Highlights of Current M2M Standards Activities at IEEE
IEEE 802.16P “M2M task Group” Initiated on 11 November 2010.
Scope: This amendment specifies IEEE 802.16 MAC & PHY enhancements to support lower
power consumption at the device, support by the base station of significantly larger
numbers of devices, efficient support for small burst transmissions, and improved device
Other M2M-related standards at IEEE
 IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi®)
 IEEE 802.15.3 (Zig bee®)
IEEE 1451 (sensor networks)
IEEE 2030 (smart grid)
8.6. Focus Group on M2M in ITU-T: - Focus group on M2M has been established in
2012 on “M2M service layer”. A common M2M service layer, agreed at the global level
involving stakeholders from the M2M and vertical market communities, would provide a
cost-efficient platform, which can be easily deployed in hardware and software, in a multivendor environment, and across sectors.
The Focus Group on the M2M service layer (FG M2M) will study activities currently
undertaken by various standards developing organizations (SDOs) in the field of M2M
service layer specifications to identify key requirements for a common M2M service layer.
FG M2M will identify a minimum set of common requirements of vertical markets, focusing
initially on the health-care market and application programming interfaces (APIs) and
protocols supporting e-health applications and services, and draft technical reports in these
The Focus Group does not intend to duplicate other efforts and will benefit from existing
work and expertise. Therefore, FG M2M aims at including vertical market stakeholders that
are not among the traditional ITU-T membership, such as Continua Health Alliance and the
World Health Organization (WHO) for health-care, and will collaborate with M2M
communities worldwide (including research and academia), SDOs, forums and consortia. FG
M2M initial focus is on e-health.
Within the Focus group, a no. of working groups have also been created to carry out the
different activities. WG1: Use cases and service models, WG2: Requirements and
architectural framework of the M2M Service Layer, WG3: API and protocols.
The parent group is ITU-T Study Group 11. FG M2M will work in close collaboration with all
ITU-T Study Groups, especially SG 11, SG 13 and SG 16. [10]
9. Conclusion:-Number of interconnected devices will exceed the overall population count
by 2020. Therefore, it is of vital importance to be able to understand Internet of things
(IOT) and Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication. As per projection by Ericsson,
connected devices may rise from 30 million at present to more than 250million by 2020 in
India. Connected vehicles and smart metering will have approx. 70% share. Other
applications will be security and surveillances, retail, Health care, smart homes, smart
buildings, smart agriculture etc. All these applications will make the living smart.
1. 4G Wireless Broadband to Boost M2M services. Posted by Neil | May 21, 2013 |
2. Internet of Things (IoT): A Vision, Architectural Elements, and Future Directions
Jayavardhana Gubbi, a Rajkumar Buyya,b* Slaven Marusic,a Marimuthu Palaniswamia
a. Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Vic
- 3010, Australia
b. Department of Computing and Information Systems, The University of Melbourne, Vic
- 3010, Australia
3. IERC_cluster_book_2012_Web on Internet of Things.
4. Jeffrey O. Smith, Ph.D. Chief Technology Officer of Numerex (NASDAQ: NMRX,
www.numerex.com) Chair of the GSC M2M Standardization Task Force (GSC MSTF)
([email protected]).
5. Basic principles of Machine-to-Machine communication and its impact on
telecommunications industry byV. Galetić*, I. Bojić**, M. Kušek**, G. Ježić**, S. Dešić*, D.
Huljenić* , * Ericsson Nikola Tesla Krapinska 45, Zagreb, Croatia, ** Faculty of Electrical
Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, Unska 3, Zagreb, Croatia
6. ETSI M2M / oneM2M and the need for semantics by Joerg Swetina (NEC)
([email protected]).
7. M2M solution, testing and prototype in emerging global M2M standards,
M2M Summit 2013, Dr. Ing Adel Al Hezmi, FRAUNHOFERFOKUS.
8.M2M standards
9. GSMA press release, February 27, 2012.
10. M2M standardization in ITU-T and its perspective, Hyoung Jun Kim, ETRI
([email protected]), Chair of WP3 in ITU-T SG13, Vice-chair of FG on M2M in ITU-T SG11
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