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genepool of pearl millet11

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Gene pool of pearl millet
Presented by,
S.Divya( 2017600805)
I M.SC (GPB)
INTRODUCTION TO PEARL MILLET
GENE POOL & ITS TYPES
GENE POOL IN PEARL MILLET
PEARL MILLET GENE POOL MAINTAINANCE IN ICRISAT
INTRODUCTION
• Pennisetum glaucum (L.) is an important food and forage crop in Africa and
Asia, and important forage in the Americas
• It has great potential because of its suitability to the extreme limits of
agriculture
• Defused belt stretching from Senegal to Western Sudan is the center of
origin of pearl millet
• Domesticated 4000 years ago and reached Eastern Africa, then spread to
India 3000 years ago and to southern Africa 2000 years ago
• Many wild relatives of pearl millet that have adapted to diverse climates and
developed resistance to pests and diseases exist in nature, and are useful in
pearl millet improvement
Gene pool classification
Gene pool is a simple device to bring a genetic focus to bear on the
taxonomies (Harlan & de wet, 1971). In this system the total array of variation is
partitioned in to primary, secondary tertiary gene pool.
primary gene pool:Includes all the variation of P.glaucum, the wild progenitor violaceum
(monodii) and weedy form stenostachyum. It includes all taxa that naturally cross
with cultivated type it is based on accepted concept of biological species.
Secondary gene pool:It includes all the those species that can be crossed with crop species by
overcoming the crossability barriers such as poor chromosome pairing, sterility,
lethality or poorly adapted hybrid derivatives. Some of the species that can be
crossed with cultivated species.
1. Napier grass - P. purpureum S. with A'&B' genome
2.
------ P. schweinfurthii
Tertiary gene pool:The wild species can be crossed with cultivated on but hybrids are lethal.
The species other than P. purpureum come under this.
Interspecific hybrid :
Pearl millet x Napier grass
The interspecific cross between pearl millet x napier grass triploid
sterile hybrids.
P.glaucum x P.purpureum
2n=14
2n=28
(diploid) ↓ (tetraploid)
F1 2n=3x=21 triploid sterile
Variable F1
perennial
NB 21 is a superior clone that was selected from among progeny of
an interspecific cross.
In TNAU, five forage hybrid viz., Co1 to Co5 has been developed.
PRIMARY GENE POOL
Species name
P. monodii (Maire) Brunken (P.violaceum)
Genepool and ploidy - Primary genepool,
2n=2x=14
Traits of importance -Progenitor, source for new
cytoplasm and fodder
Life cycle and Reproduction- Annual, Sexual
Species name
P. mollissimum Hochst
Genepool and ploidy - Primary genepool,
2n=2x=14
Traits of importance -Fodder
Life cycle and Reproduction- Annual, Sexual
SECONDARY GENE POOL
Species name
P. schweinfurthii Pilger
Genepool and ploidy - Secondary gene pool,
2n=2x=14
Traits of importance - Source for large seeds
and fodder
Life cycle and Reproduction- Annual, Sexual
Species name
P. purpureum Schum. (Napier/elephant grass)
Genepool and ploidy - Secondary gene pool,
2n=4x=28
Traits of importance -Good source for cut and
carry green fodder. Used as living fence,
thatching, hay and silage, and in paper making
Life cycle and
Vegetative/Sexual
Reproduction-
Perennial,
TERTIARY GENE POOL
Species name
P. alopecuroides (L.) Spreng. (Swamp foxtail)
Genepool and ploidy – Tertiary gene pool,
2n=2x=14
Traits of importance – Ornamental
Life cycle and Reproduction- Annual, Sexual
Species name
P. hordeoides Steud
Genepool and ploidy – Tertiary gene pool,
2n=2x=18
Traits of importance – Fodder
Life cycle and Reproduction- Annual,
Sexual/Apomixis
Species name
P. pedicellatum Trin. (Deenanath grass)
Genepool and ploidy – Tertiary gene pool,
2n=4x=36
Traits
of
importance
–
Downy
mildew
resistance. Used as good green fodder, used for
thatching and making mats
Life cycle and Reproduction- Annual, Sexual
Species name
P. polystachion L. Schult. (Mission grass)
Genepool and ploidy – Tertiary gene pool,
2n=6x=54
Traits of importance – Downy mildew and rust
resistance, good fodder, hay for horses
Life cycle and Reproduction- Annual/ Perennial,
Sexual/Apomixis
Species name
P. ramosum (Hochst.) Schweinf
Genepool and ploidy – Tertiary gene pool,
2n=2x=10
Traits of importance –Used as forage before
flowering
Life
cycle
and
Sexual/Apomixis
Reproduction-
Biannual
Species name
P. cenchroides Rich
Genepool and ploidy – Tertiary gene pool,
2n=4x=36
Traits of importance – Fodder
Life cycle and Reproduction- Perennial, Sexual
Species name
P. ciliare L. Mant. Syn: Cenchrus ciliaris L. Mant.
(Buffel grass)
Genepool and ploidy – Tertiary gene pool, 2n=4x=36
Traits of importance – Permanent pasture, hay and
silage, drought tolerance
Life cycle and Reproduction- Perennial,
Sexual/Apomixis
Species name
P. clandestinum Hochst. Ex Chiov. (Kikuyu grass)
Genepool and ploidy – Tertiary gene pool, 2n=4x=36
Traits of importance – Pasture grass, soil binder
Life cycle and Reproduction- Perennial/vegetative/
Sexual
Species name
P. divisum (Forssk.) Ex. Gmel
Genepool and ploidy – Tertiary gene pool,
2n=4x=36
Traits of importance – Fodder
Life cycle and Reproduction- Perennial/
Sexual
Species name
P. flassidum Griseb
Genepool and ploidy – Tertiary gene pool,
2n=4x=36
Traits of importance – Ornamental fodder
Life cycle and Reproduction- Perennial/
Sexual/Apomixis
Species name
P. hohenackeri Hochst. Ex Steud. (Moya grass)
Genepool and ploidy – Tertiary gene pool,
2n=2x=18
Traits of importance –Used for thatching, rope
and paper making
Life cycle and Reproduction- Perennial/
Sexual/Apomixis
Species name
P. lanatum Leeke
Genepool and ploidy – Tertiary gene pool,
2n=2x=18
Traits of importance – Forage
Life cycle and ReproductionPerennial/Apomixis
Species name
P. macrostachyum (Brongn.) Trin
Genepool and ploidy – Tertiary gene pool,
2n=7x=63
Traits of importance – Ornamental
Life cycle and Reproduction- Perennial/Sexual
Species name
P. macrourum Trin. (Needle grass)
Genepool and ploidy – Tertiary gene pool,
2n=4x=36
Traits of importance – Fodder
Life cycle and ReproductionPerennial/vegetative
Species name
P. mezianum Leeke
Genepool and ploidy – Tertiary gene pool,
2n=4x=32
Traits of importance – Source for drought
tolerance
Life cycle and Reproduction-Perennial/
Sexual/Apomixis
Species name
P. orientale L.C. Rich
Genepool and ploidy – Tertiary gene pool,
2n=4x=36
Traits of importance – Drought tolerance, good
soil binder and forage grass
Life cycle and Reproduction-Perennial/
Sexual/Apomixis
Species name
P. setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov. (Fountain grass)
Genepool and ploidy – Tertiary gene pool,
2n=6x=54
Traits of importance - Ornamental, used as
hedges
Life cycle and Reproduction-Perennial/
Sexual/Apomixis
Species name
P. squamulatum Fresen
Genepool and ploidy – Tertiary gene pool,
2n=6x=54
Traits of importance - Source for winter
hardiness, green fodder
Life cycle and Reproduction-Perennial/Apomixis
Species name
P. thunbergii Kunth.
Genepool and ploidy – Tertiary gene pool,
2n=2x=18
Traits of importance - Ornamental
Life cycle and Reproduction-Perennial/Sexual
Species name
P. villosum Fresen. (Feather top)
Genepool and ploidy – Tertiary gene pool,
2n=5x=45
Traits of importance - Ornamental
Life cycle and ReproductionPerennial/Sexual/Apomixis/Vegetative
• ICRISAT genebank at Patancheru, India conserves 22,211 germplasm accessions
including 750 accessions of 24 wild species of genus Pennisetum, from 51
countries
• Of over 140 species of genus Pennisetum, only 24 are conserved at the ICRISAT
genebank
• Small seed samples of wild accessions are available for research use under the
Standard Material Transfer Agreement (SMTA) from the ICRISAT genebank.
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