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11-Conflict&Negotiation

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Conflict
Conflict: “The process in which one party perceives that its interests
are being opposed or negatively affected by another party.”
Functional (Constructive) conflict serves the
organization’s interests while
dysfunctional conflict threatens
the organization’s
interests.
Brown’s Conflict Continuum
Outcomes
Positive
Appropriate
Conflict
Neutral
Negative
Too Much
Conflict
Too Little
Conflict
Low
Moderate
Intensity
Highe
Traditional
Transitions
in Conflict
Thought
Human
Relations
Interactionist
The Conflict Process
Perceived
Conflict
Sources of
Conflict
Manifest
Conflict
Felt
Conflict
Conflict
Outcomes
A Conflict Model (Figure 10-8)
Aftermath of
Preceding Episode
Latent Conflict
Organizational
and ExtraOrganizational
Tensions
Conflict
Resolution
Mechanisms
Felt Conflict
Environmental
Effects
Perceived Conflict
Manifest Conflict
Conflict Aftermath
AttentionFocus and
Diversion
Mechanisms
Strategic
Considerations
A Conflict Model
• Latent Conflict. Latent conflict is essentially conflict
waiting to happen.
• Felt Conflict. Felt conflict is experienced as
discomfort and tension.
• Perceived Conflict. Perceived conflict is the
awareness that we are in a conflict situation.
• Manifest Conflict. After conflict is perceived and felt,
it may or may not become open, or manifest.
• Conflict Aftermath. Conflict is likely to breed more
conflict and, when it does, that conflict is likely to take
on a life of its own.
Desired Outcomes of Conflict
Agreement: Strive for equitable and fair agreements that
last.
Stronger relationships: Build bridges of goodwill and
trust for the future.
Learning: Greater self-awareness and creative problem
solving.
Types of Conflict

Line – Staff Conflict

Intrapersonal Conflict
Approach-Approach
Approach - Avoidance
Avoidance – Avoidance

Interpersonal Conflict

Intergroup Conflict

Cross – Cultural Conflict

Task Conflict
Antecedents of Conflict
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Incompatible personalities or value systems.
Overlapping or unclear job boundaries.
Competition for limited resources.
Interdepartment /intergroup competition.
Inadequate communication.
Interdependent tasks.
Organizational complexity.
Unreasonable or unclear policies, standards, or rules.
Unreasonable deadlines or extreme time pressure.
Collective decision making.
Decision making by consensus.
Unmet expectations.
Unresolved or suppressed conflict.
Sources of Conflict
Goal
Incompatibility
• Goals conflict with goals of others
Different Values
and Beliefs
• Different beliefs due to unique
background, experience, training
• Caused by specialized tasks, careers
• Explains misunderstanding in crosscultural and merger relations
Sources of Conflict
Goal
Incompatibility
Different Values
and Beliefs
Task
Interdependence
Three levels of interdependence
Pooled
Resource
A
B
C
Sequential
A
B
Reciprocal
C
A
B
C
Sources of Conflict
Goal
Incompatibility
Different Values
and Beliefs
Task
Interdependence
Scarce
Resources
• Increases competition for resources
to fulfill goals
Ambiguity
• Lack of rules guiding relations
• Encourages political tactics
Sources of Conflict
Goal
Incompatibility
Different Values
and Beliefs
Task
Interdependence
Lack of opportunity
--reliance on stereotypes
Scarce
Resources
Lack of ability
Ambiguity
Lack of motivation
Communication
Problems
-- arrogant communication
heightens conflict perception
-- conflict causes lower motivation to
communicate, increases
stereotyping
Conflict Management Styles:
Orientations
• Win-win orientation
– You believe parties will find a mutually beneficial
solution to their disagreement
• Win-lose orientation
– You believe that the more one party receives, the
less the other receives
– Tends to escalate conflict, use of power/politics
Tips for Managers Whose Employees Are
Having a Personality Conflict
1. Follow company policies for diversity, antidiscrimination, and sexual harassment.
2. Investigate and document conflict.
3. If appropriate, take corrective action (e.g.,
feedback or B Mod).
4. If necessary, attempt informal dispute
resolution.
5. Refer difficult conflicts to human resource
specialists or hired counselors for formal
resolution attempts and other interventions.
Minimizing Inter-group Conflict: An
Updated Contact Model
Level of perceived
Inter-group conflict tends
to increase when:
• Conflict within the
group is high
• There are negative
interactions between
groups (or between
members of those
groups)
• Influential third-party
gossip about other group
is negative
Recommended actions:
• Work to eliminate specific negative
interactions between groups (and
members).
• Conduct team building to reduce
intragroup conflict and prepare
employees for cross-functional teamwork.
• Encourage personal friendships and
good working relationships across
groups and departments.
• Foster positive attitudes toward
members of other groups (empathy,
compassion, sympathy).
• Avoid or neutralize negative gossip
across groups or departments.
Skills and Best Practices: How to Build
Cross-Cultural Relationships
Behavior
Be a good listener
Be sensitive to the needs of others
Be cooperative, rather than overly competitive
Advocate inclusive (participative) leadership
Compromise rather than dominate
Build rapport through conversations
Be compassionate and understanding
Avoid conflict by emphasizing harmony
Nurture others (develop and mentor)
Rank
1
2
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Tie
Stimulating Functional Conflict
Devil,s Advocacy
Dialectic Method
Concern for Others
Conflict Management Styles
High
Integrating
Obliging
Compromising
Low
Dominating
Avoiding
High
Low
Concern for Self
Conflict Management Styles
• Competing. Involves trying to win at the other party’s
expense. Generally leads to antagonism and festering
resentment.
• Avoiding. Attempts to avoid or smooth over conflict
situations. Generally unproductive.
• Accommodating. Involves acceding completely to the other
party’s wishes or at least cooperating with little or no attention
to one’s own interests.
• Compromising. Involves an attempt to find a satisfactory
middle ground (“split the difference”)
• Collaborating. This problem-solving style is mutually
beneficial. Requires trust, open sharing of information, and
creativity.
Fitting Conflict Style to the Situation
Conflict Style
Appropriate Situation
Competing
Time is short and we're sure we're correct.
The other party would take advantage of a
collaborative approach.
Avoiding
The conflict is trivial.
We need a temporary, cooling-off tactic.
Accommodating
The other party has great power.
The issue isn't important to us.
Compromising
There is little chance of agreement, both
parties have equal power, and there are
time constraints.
Collaborating
This is the "ideal" style to be sought
unless the parties to conflict have perfectly
opposing interests.
Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
View of Ethics in Conflict Management
Utilitarian
Golden Rule
Kantian/ Rights
Enlightened Self Interest
Justice Approach
Conflict Premises
• Conflict and disagreement are normal in human relationships.
• Conflict may be good.
• The way in which conflict is framed may influence its nature and
outcomes.
– Relationship/task
– Emotional/intellectual
– Cooperate/win
• A mutually acceptable solution can often be found.
• Any of the parties to conflict can contribute to its resolution by
taking personal responsibility and initiating communications.
• Trusting behavior can evoke trusting behavior.
• Consensus and synergy are likely only when people choose to
cooperate in a win-win relationship rather than compete.
• Some conflicts may never be resolved because of fear, rigidity,
intolerance, paranoia, or other emotional impairment.
Approaches to Conflict Resolution
Focus on
Larger Goals
Bring Parties
Together to Foster
Understanding and
Cooperation
Separate
Conflicting
Parties
Improve
Communications
Reduced
Conflict
Use Third
Parties as
Mediators
Clarify Job
Responsibilities
Develop
Employees’
Negotiating Skills
Communication Guidelines to Build More
Productive Relationships
1. Be honest; say what’s on your mind now. Be open.
2. Be specific; provide examples.
3. Don’t use the words never and always.
4. Listen in depth; reflect and paraphrase what you hear.
5. Ask questions to clarify the meaning of what the other person is saying.
6. Focus on behavior that the other person controls.
7. Maintain good eye contact.
8. Focus on only one specific issue or behavior at a time.
9. Don’t interrupt.
10. Stay there. Don’t walk away mentally, emotionally, physically, or
psychologically.
11. Be direct and tactful.
12. Use I statements rather than you statements (e.g., “When this happens, I feel
…” rather than “When you do this, it makes me feel …”).
13. Don’t attack the other person by ridiculing, taunting, or otherwise being rude
and hostile.
14. Don’t defend yourself by blaming others, avoiding, or withdrawing.
Negotiating
Negotiation: “A give-and-take decision-making process
involving interdependent parties with different preferences.”
Distributive negotiation: Single issue; fixed-pie; win-lose.
Integrative negotiation: More than one issue; win-win.
The Two Types of
Bargaining Strategies
Bargaining
Characteristics
Distributive
Bargaining
Integrative
Bargaining
• Available Resources
• Fixed Amount
• Variable Amount
• Primary Motivations
• I Win, You Lose
• I Win, You Win
• Primary Interests
• Opposed
• Congruent
• Focus of Relationships
• Short-Term
• Long-Term
An Integrative Approach:
Added-Value Negotiation
Clarify interests.
Identify options.
Design alternative deal
packages.
Select a deal.
Perfect the deal.
Situational Influences on
Negotiation
• Location
• Physical Setting
• Time Investment and Deadlines
• Audience
.
Bargaining Zone Model
Your Positions
Initial
Target
Resistance
Area of
Potential
Agreement
Resistance
Target
Opponent’s Positions
Initial
Decision-Making Biases That
Impede Negotiations
• Escalation of commitment
• The mythical fixed pie
• Anchoring and adjustments
• Framing negotiations
• Availability of information
• The winner’s curse
• Overconfidence
Effective Negotiator Behaviours
• Plan and Set Goals
• Gather Information
• Communicate Effectively
• Make Appropriate Concessions
..
Improving Negotiation Skills
• Research your opponent
• Begin with a positive overture
• Address problems, not personalities
• Pay little attention to initial offers
• Emphasize win-win solutions
• Create an open, trusting climate
Third – Party Negotiations
Mediator
Arbitrator
Conciliator
Consultant
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)
Techniques
Facilitation: Third party gets disputants to deal directly and constructively
with each other.
Conciliation: Neutral third party acts as communication link between
disputants.
Peer review: Impartial co-workers hear both sides and render decision that
may or may not be binding.
Ombudsman: Respected and trusted member of the organization hears
grievances confidentially.
Mediation: Trained third-party guides disputants toward their own solution.
Arbitration: Neutral third-party hears both sides in a court-like setting and
renders a binding decision.
Unethical Negotiating Tactics
1. Lies
2. Puffery
3. Deception
4. Weakening The Opponent
5. Strengthening One’s Own Position
6. Information Exploitation
7. Nondisclosure
8. Change of Mind
9. Distraction
10. Maximization
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