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Henretta - Chapter 20 - Politics & Progressives

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Chapter 20
Politics, Populists & Progressives
Electoral Politics after
Reconstruction
 Waving
the bloody shirt
 Gilded
Age
 James
Garfield (1880)
 Assassinated
 Chester
by Charles Guiteau
A. Arthur
 Pendleton Act
 Mugwumps
– Civil Service
Elections of 1884 & 1888
 Grover
Cleveland v. James G. Blaine
 Scandals
 Blaine
& Mudslinging
implicated in RR scandals
 Cleveland
 Vetoed
 1888
– first Democrat since CW
individual Civil War pensions
– Benjamin Harrison – Young Tippecanoe
 Sherman
 Lodge
Anti-Trust Act
Act –protect black voters - failed
Election of 1892 & Populist Party
 1892
– Cleveland v. Harrison
 Cleveland
 Rise
again –nonconsecutive terms
of the Populist Party – 1892
 From
Farmers’ Alliances
 Omaha
Platform – James B. Weaver
 Gov.
ownership of RR & Telegraph – income tax
 Mary
“Yellin” Lease
 “Sockless”
Jerry Simpson
Politics in the 1890s
 1893
– Economic Depression
 Homestead & Pullman Strikes
 Jacob Coxey – unemployed march
 Jailed for walking on the grass
 Silver & gold debate
 Bought gold from J.P. Morgan
 Democrats & “Solid South”
 Tom Watson – urged unity among farmers
 Williams v, Mississippi – literacy tests & poll taxes upheld
 Convict lease system - expanded
Lynching – Center, TX
Election of 1896
 William
 “Cross
of Gold” Speech – endorsed silver
 William
 “Front
Jennings Bryan – Populists & Democrats
McKinley – Republican
Porch” Campaign
 17th Amendment
– Senators chosen
by popular vote
 Lochner
v. New York – bakers hours
could not be limited
Reform Reshaped, 1901-1909
 McKinley
 Not
– 3.5 million to Bryan’s $300,000
a reformer – Gold Standard Act, 1900
 Re-elected
 Theodore
6
in 1900
Roosevelt – selected as VP
months after reelection – assassinated
 Leon
Czolgosz – anarchist
 Raised
immigration fears
Theodore Roosevelt
 Born
into wealth & privilege (1858-1919)
 sickly
child - Asthma
 Father
told him he must build his own body
 Attended
 Prolific
Harvard – on wrestling team
writer
 Went
into politics – 1st wife & mother died
 Went
west – Dakotas
 Returned
to politics – married Edith Carow
Theodore Roosevelt
 Gained
fame during Spanish American Warr
 Resigned as Asst. Secretary of the Navy
 Rough Riders
 Ran for gov. of New York – didn’t follow orders – reform
 Hoped to end his career – as VP
 Coal Strike of 1902 – nationalize
 Elkins Act – RR had to publish rates
 Northern Securities Case – 1st time a
corporation declared “in restraint of
trade” (Sherman Anti-trust Act)
Theodore Roosevelt
Election of 1902 – Square Deal
 President “in my own right”
 Stepped up attacks on trusts
 Hepburn Act – ICC could set shipping
rates
 Legacy led to case again Standard Oil et.al.
 Environmental conservationist
 Created wildlife preserves – 3 national
parks
Antiquities Act – set aside Grand Canyon
 Newlands Reclamation Act

Theodore Roosevelt
 Contradictions
 Brownsville
– invited Booker T. Washington
Incident - discharged 167 African
American soldiers at Ft. Brown
 1972
– Nixon – gave honorable
discharges & survivor awarded
$25,000 – Dorsie Willis
 1908
– Roosevelt retired – but
chose his successor –Wm. Taft
William Howard Taft
1904 – Roosevelt announced he would not run in 1908 – regretted it
 1908 – picked his successor Taft (1857-1930) – been in his cabinet
 1908 – ran against William Bryan – Taft won
 Broke more trusts than Roosevelt but allied
himself more closely with business
 Liberal arm of Republican party revolted
 Insurgents v. Conservatives
 Roosevelt began to distance himself (went on
safari to Africa – then returned to U.S. – soon he
was siding against Taft’s policies)

Insurgent Republicans

Robert La Follette – gov. of Wisconsin (1901-06)– “laboratory” – U.S Senator
(1906-1925)

Wisconsin Idea – referendum & recall

Robert Hunter -poverty in cities – unjust social conditions – charities – limited

National Child Labor Commission – 1907

Children’s Bureau in Dept. of Labor – 1912

Muller v. Oregon – 1908 – limited working hours of women
overturned Lochner - didn’t protect men

Brandeis brief – paved the way for social
science research & 1910-1917 industrial states enacted
insurance for on the job injury
Birth of Modern Civil Rights

W.E.B. DuBois – born in Great Barrington, MA (1868-1963)
 1st
African American to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard

Taught at Atlanta U. – Prolific writer - 1st sociological study of
black Philadelphians, The Souls of Black Folk

Niagara Movement – DuBois & Wm. Trotter - 1905 – NAACP

Niagara Principles – full voting & civil rights

1908 – riot in Springfield, IL – led to est. of
NAACP - 1909– most of Niagara Movement
joined DuBois edited The Crisis
Labor Issues

Western Federation of Miners – Big Bill Haywood

Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or “Wobblies”)

Ludlow Massacre

Bombing of the L.A. Times
Election of 1912

Theodore Roosevelt returned from Africa in 1910 – found party in disarray

Early in 1912 – declared himself a candidate for president

New Nationalism (anti-child labor, pro-woman suffrage & labor rights)

Went to the Republican National Convention – Taft emerged the candidate

Roosevelt - created a 3rd party – the Progressive or
Bull Moose Party
Election of 1912 – 4 candidates

Eugene Victor Debs – led the Pullman Strike - head of ARU

once it was broken he went to prison – when he emerged he founded
the Socialist Party of American

Democrats – nominated Woodrow Wilson

Program was called the New Freedom

Wilson won with 42% of the vote

La Follette continued to lead the Progressives
Woodrow Wilson

Born in Staunton, VA in 1856-1924

Came from a long line of Presbyterian ministers – sympathy
with Confederacy

Earned a Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins U. – one of the first

Wrote a “tome” on American Constitutional History

Professor – became President of Princeton University

Reform governor of New Jersey - 1910
Economic Reforms




16th Amendment – paved the way for an Income tax – a tax of from 1-7%
on incomes of the rich – over $7,000 per year
Enacted the Underwood Tariff – lowered tariffs substantially
Inheritance Tax – 1913 – estates over 5 million – taxed at 40%
Federal Reserve Act (1913) – first efficient banking system
 Federal
Reserve Banks & a Federal Reserve Bd.
 Could set interest rates & issue currency to stabilize economy



Clayton Anti-trust Act – strengthened the Sherman Act
Federal Trade Commission – investigate companies – decide what was
illegal
Adamson Act – 8 hr. day for RR workers
Wilson’s Domestic Legacies

Many African Americans in the North had supported Wilson

Froze William Monroe Trotter out of his office in November 1914

Allowed re-segregation of government civil servants (separate
restrooms and cafeterias

Had the racist film, The Birth of a Nation, showed over and
over at the WH
Wilson & Woman Suffrage

Also refused to support woman suffrage

Allowed women to be put in prison & when they went

on hunger strikes they were force fed

Only after WWI and the publication of their abuse did he
finally urge Congress to amend the constitution
in 1919
19th Amendment – passed in August, 920
Iron-Jawed Angels

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UGyB3tV9kU0

Alice Paul & National Woman’s Party
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