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Henretta - Chapter 20 - Politics & Progressives


Chapter 20

Politics, Populists & Progressives

Electoral Politics after


Waving the bloody shirt

Gilded Age

James Garfield (1880)

Assassinated by Charles Guiteau

Chester A. Arthur

Pendleton Act – Civil Service


Elections of 1884 & 1888

Grover Cleveland v. James G. Blaine

Scandals & Mudslinging

Blaine implicated in RR scandals

Cleveland – first Democrat since CW

Vetoed individual Civil War pensions

1888 – Benjamin Harrison – Young Tippecanoe

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

Lodge Act –protect black voters - failed

Election of 1892 & Populist Party

1892 – Cleveland v. Harrison

Cleveland again –nonconsecutive terms

Rise of the Populist Party – 1892

From Farmers’ Alliances

Omaha Platform – James B. Weaver

Gov. ownership of RR & Telegraph – income tax

Mary “Yellin” Lease

“Sockless” Jerry Simpson

Politics in the 1890s

1893 – Economic Depression

Homestead & Pullman Strikes

Jacob Coxey – unemployed march

Jailed for walking on the grass

Silver & gold debate

Bought gold from J.P. Morgan

Democrats & “Solid South”

Tom Watson – urged unity among farmers

Williams v, Mississippi – literacy tests & poll taxes upheld

Convict lease system - expanded

Lynching – Center, TX

Election of 1896

William Jennings Bryan – Populists & Democrats

“Cross of Gold” Speech – endorsed silver

William McKinley – Republican

“Front Porch” Campaign

17 th Amendment – Senators chosen by popular vote

Lochner v. New York – bakers hours

could not be limited

Reform Reshaped, 1901-1909

McKinley – 3.5 million to Bryan’s $300,000

Not a reformer – Gold Standard Act, 1900

Re-elected in 1900

Theodore Roosevelt – selected as VP

6 months after reelection – assassinated

Leon Czolgosz – anarchist

Raised immigration fears

Theodore Roosevelt

Born into wealth & privilege (1858-1919)

 sickly child - Asthma

Father told him he must build his own body

Attended Harvard – on wrestling team

Prolific writer

Went into politics – 1 st wife & mother died

Went west – Dakotas

Returned to politics – married Edith Carow

Theodore Roosevelt

Gained fame during Spanish American Warr

Resigned as Asst. Secretary of the Navy

Rough Riders

Ran for gov. of New York – didn’t follow orders – reform

Hoped to end his career – as VP

Coal Strike of 1902 – nationalize

Elkins Act – RR had to publish rates

Northern Securities Case – 1 st time a corporation declared “in restraint of trade” (Sherman Anti-trust Act)

Theodore Roosevelt

Election of 1902 – Square Deal

President “in my own right”

Stepped up attacks on trusts

Hepburn Act – ICC could set shipping rates

Legacy led to case again Standard Oil et.al.

Environmental conservationist

Created wildlife preserves – 3 national parks

Antiquities Act – set aside Grand Canyon

Newlands Reclamation Act

Theodore Roosevelt

Contradictions – invited Booker T. Washington

Brownsville Incident - discharged 167 African

American soldiers at Ft. Brown

1972 – Nixon – gave honorable discharges & survivor awarded

$25,000 – Dorsie Willis

1908 – Roosevelt retired – but chose his successor –Wm. Taft

William Howard Taft

1904 – Roosevelt announced he would not run in 1908 – regretted it

1908 – picked his successor Taft (1857-1930) – been in his cabinet

1908 – ran against William Bryan – Taft won

Broke more trusts than Roosevelt but allied himself more closely with business

Liberal arm of Republican party revolted

Insurgents v. Conservatives

Roosevelt began to distance himself (went on safari to Africa – then returned to U.S. – soon he was siding against Taft’s policies)

Insurgent Republicans

Robert La Follette – gov. of Wisconsin (1901-06)– “laboratory” – U.S Senator


Wisconsin Idea – referendum & recall

Robert Hunter -poverty in cities – unjust social conditions – charities – limited

National Child Labor Commission – 1907

Children’s Bureau in Dept. of Labor – 1912

Muller v. Oregon – 1908 – limited working hours of women overturned Lochner - didn’t protect men

Brandeis brief – paved the way for social science research & 1910-1917 industrial states enacted insurance for on the job injury

Birth of Modern Civil Rights

W.E.B. DuBois – born in Great Barrington, MA (1868-1963)

1 st

African American to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard

Taught at Atlanta U. – Prolific writer - 1 st sociological study of black Philadelphians, The Souls of Black Folk

Niagara Movement – DuBois & Wm. Trotter - 1905 – NAACP

Niagara Principles – full voting & civil rights

1908 – riot in Springfield, IL – led to est. of

NAACP - 1909– most of Niagara Movement joined DuBois edited The Crisis

Labor Issues

Western Federation of Miners – Big Bill Haywood

Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or “Wobblies”)

Ludlow Massacre

Bombing of the L.A. Times

Election of 1912

Theodore Roosevelt returned from Africa in 1910 – found party in disarray

Early in 1912 – declared himself a candidate for president

New Nationalism (anti-child labor, pro-woman suffrage & labor rights)

Went to the Republican National Convention – Taft emerged the candidate

Roosevelt - created a 3 rd party – the Progressive or

Bull Moose Party

Election of 1912 – 4 candidates

Eugene Victor Debs – led the Pullman Strike - head of ARU

 once it was broken he went to prison – when he emerged he founded the Socialist Party of American

Democrats – nominated Woodrow Wilson

Program was called the New Freedom

Wilson won with 42% of the vote

La Follette continued to lead the Progressives

Woodrow Wilson

Born in Staunton, VA in 1856-1924

Came from a long line of Presbyterian ministers – sympathy with Confederacy

Earned a Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins U. – one of the first

Wrote a “tome” on American Constitutional History

Professor – became President of Princeton University

Reform governor of New Jersey - 1910

Economic Reforms

16 th Amendment – paved the way for an Income tax – a tax of from 1-7% on incomes of the rich – over $7,000 per year

Enacted the Underwood Tariff – lowered tariffs substantially

Inheritance Tax – 1913 – estates over 5 million – taxed at 40%

Federal Reserve Act (1913) – first efficient banking system

Federal Reserve Banks & a Federal Reserve Bd.

Could set interest rates & issue currency to stabilize economy

Clayton Anti-trust Act – strengthened the Sherman Act

Federal Trade Commission – investigate companies – decide what was illegal

Adamson Act – 8 hr. day for RR workers

Wilson’s Domestic Legacies

Many African Americans in the North had supported Wilson

Froze William Monroe Trotter out of his office in November 1914

Allowed re-segregation of government civil servants (separate restrooms and cafeterias

Had the racist film, The Birth of a Nation, showed over and

over at the WH

Wilson & Woman Suffrage

Also refused to support woman suffrage

Allowed women to be put in prison & when they went

 on hunger strikes they were force fed

Only after WWI and the publication of their abuse did he finally urge Congress to amend the constitution in 1919

19 th

Amendment – passed in August, 920

Iron-Jawed Angels

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UGyB3tV9kU0

Alice Paul & National Woman’s Party