WordPartList

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Human Anatomy & Physiology: Latin and Greek Word-Part List (prefixes, suffixes, roots)
Students of any biology course should learn to recognize the meaning of word parts as they often give clues to the meaning of a scientific term, function, or process.
Science terminology is predominately based in the Latin and Greek languages.
The following list of prefixes, suffixes, and roots will be used in this and most Biology (bio = life, logy = study of) courses.
To help with pronunciation, word parts need to be linked together. The linkage for many word parts is “o”. For example, linking the root “cardi” with the suffix “-pathy”
would make the word difficult to pronounce; therefore an “o” is used to link the root with the suffix. The completed word is written “cardiopathy” and pronounced kar-deop-ah-the (heart disease).
Accurate spelling of each work is also important. Changing one letter may change the word part and its meaning. Examples include: “ileum” is a part of the small
intestine & “ilium” is a bone in the hips, “ped” refers to the foot & “pedia” refers to children, “ab” means away & “ad” means toward. Finding a word in a dictionary,
glossary, or index requires a knowledge of spelling – at least the beginning of a word. For example, pneumonia and psychology have a silent “p”.
By the end of this course you should be able to: (1) Understand the importance of medical terminology and how it can be incorporated into the study of the human body,
(2) Differentiate between a prefix, suffix, word root, and a compound term, (3) Link word parts to form medical terms, (4) Differentiate between singular and plural endings
of medical terms, (5) Dissect (cut) compound medical terms into parts to analyze their meaning, and (6) Recognize and pronounce commonly used prefixes, suffixes,
and root words used in medical terminology. The last page of this “Word Part” packet has a list of singular and plurals word forms.
Word Part #1
Word Part
a-, an, non
ab-, efad-, afadi-, lip(o)-alg
anaang(i)ante-, pre-, proanti-, contraaqua(e)-, hydr
arthr(o), artic-ase
audiaut(o)bi-, di-, diplobrachy-, brev(i)bradybronch-
Meaning
Example(s)
Without, Not
Away
Toward
Fat
Pain
Up
Vessel
Before
Against, Resisting
Water
Joint
Enzyme
Hear
Self
Two
Short
Slow
Airway
Apnea, Anuria, Nonstriated
Abductor muscle, Efferent Neuron
Afferent neuron, Adductor muscle
Adipose, Liposuction
Neuralgia, Fibromyalgia
Anabolic reaction
Angiogenesis, Vasodialator
Prenatal, Antebrachial, Promonocyte
Antibody, Contraception
Aqueous, hydrocephalus
Arthritis, Articulation
Maltase, Lipase
Auditory nerve
Autoimmunity
Meaning of Example(s)
Not breathing, Without urine, Muscle not striated
Muscle pulling away from midline (deltoid), Carrying info away from brain
Carry info toward brain, Muscle pulling toward midline (groin)
Fat tissue, Removing (by suction) fat from the body
Nerve pain, Muscle pain
Building up molecules (bonding amino acids together to make proteins)
Making of a new blood vessel, Medicines that widen a vessel
Before birth, Before the upper arm, Before the monocyte is mature
Resisting a foreign body (pathogen), Against conception (egg + sperm)
Water solution, Water (cerebral spinal fluid – CSF) on the brain
Joint inflammation, Joint (where two bones meet)
Enzyme breaking down maltose, Enzyme breaking down lipids/fats
Nerve connecting the ear to the brain
Self-immunity (when a persons antibodies attack its own cells/tissues)
Bicuspid, Diencephalon, Diplococcus
2 pointed (tooth or heart valve), 2 parts within the brain, 2 round bacteria
Brachydactyly, Fibularis brevis
Bradycardia
Bronchitis
Short digits (toes or fingers), Short muscle in the lower leg
Slower than normal heart rate
Airway (bronchus – tube entering lungs) inflammation
cardcat-
Heart
Down
Word Part
Cardiology
Catabolic reaction
Study of the heart
Breaking down molecules (protein bonds being broken to form amino acids)
Word Quiz #2
Meaning
Example(s)
coel-, sinu-
100, 100th
Puncture
Head
Gallbladder
Cartilage
Kill
Around
Break, Destroy
Together, With
Cavity, Space
Century, Centigram
Amniocentesis
Hydrocephalus, Biceps femoris
Cholecystokinin, Cystic duct
Chrondrocyte
Spermacide
Circumcision, Periodontal
Osteoclast
Congenital, Synthesis, System
Coelom, Frontal sinus
Word Part
Meaning
Example(s)
Body
Secrete, Release
Skin
Blue
Cell
Finger or Toe
10, 1/10th
Tooth/Teeth
Corpus luteum, Somatic cell
Endocrine gland
Subcutaneous, Dermatitis
Cyanosis
Leukocyte
Syndactyly
Decade, Dekagram, Deciliter
Dentalgia, Orthodontist
Through, Separate, Across
Diarrhea, Permaeable, Transcutaneous
Dyspnea, Malnutrition, Malabsorption
cent-centesis
cephal-, -ceps
chol-, cystic
chondr-cide
circ-, peri-clast
co-, con-, sym-, syn-, sys-
Meaning of Example(s)
100 years, 1/100th of a gram
Puncture to aspirate (remove) amniotic fluid from amniotic sac
Water in brain (in the head), 2-headed (2 tendons) muscle by femur
Hormone causing gallbladder contraction, Tube (for bile) from gallbladder
Cartilage cell
Sperm killer
Cut around (ex. male foreskin), Around the teeth
Bone breaker (cells that destroy cells, thus shaping a bone)
Born with, Put together, Organs working together
Body cavity, Space in the frontal bone
Word Part #3
corp-, soma-crine
cut, derm
cyan-cyte
dactyl, digit
dec(k)
dent, dont
dia-, per-, trans-
dys-, mal-
Bad, Painful, Difficult
Meaning of Example(s)
Yellow body (former follicle in ovary),
Body cell (all non-sex cells)
Glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
Below the skin, Skin inflammation
Condition causing skin to turn blue (due to low oxygen levels)
White blood cell
Fingers or Toes that are together (webbed)
10 years, 10 grams, 1/10th of a liter
Tooth pain, Doctor that straightens teeth
Flow through (intestines), Across a membrane, Across skin
Difficult breathing, Bad nutrition/diet, Poor nutrient absorption
Word Part #4
Word Part
-ectomy, -tom, -sect
ectopedem-emesis
-emia
en, endo-, intraepi-
Meaning
Cut, Cut out
Displaced
Swelling
Vomiting
Blood condition
Inside, Within
Upon, Over, Above
Example(s)
Appendectomy, Lobotomy, Dissect
Ectopic pregnancy
Lymphedema
Hyperemesis
Hypoglycemia
Endosteum, Intraocular
Epidermis, Epididymis
Meaning of Example(s)
Cut out appendix, Cut out cerebral (brain) lobe, Cut in two
Displaced pregnancy (embryo implant outside uterus – usually oviduct)
Swelling of tissues due to the accumulation of lymph
Excessive vomiting
Low blood sugar
Cavity/space inside a bone, Inside the orbit or eye socket
Layer of skin over the dermis, Coiled tubes above the testes
equi-, homo-, isoerythr-esthe
Homeostasis, Isotonic
Erythrocyte
Anesthesia
Same, Equal, Balanced
Red
Sensation
Constant internal balance (of body functions), Equal solute (ICF & ECF)
Red blood cell
With sensation or feeling
Word Part #5
Word Part
ex-, ectofasciforamgastr-gen, poie-, blast
ger (o, i) glomgloss/tt, lingu
gluc-, gly, -ose
gyn
Meaning
Example(s)
Outside
Bundle
Opening
Stomach
Create, Form
Aging, Old
Ball
Tongue
Sugar
Woman
Extracelluar fluid
Muscle or nerve fascicle
Infraorbital foramen
Gastric bypass surgery
Meaning of Example(s)
Solute/fluid located outside of cells
A bundle or grouping of muscle or nerve cells
An opening in the bone below the eye for nerves & vessels to pass
Surgery for obese patients to dramatically reduce stomach size
Oogenesis, Hemopoiesis, Osteoblast Create an egg, Form new blood cells, Make new bone cells
Gerontology, Geriatrics
Study of aging, Branch of medicine dealing with older patients
Glomerulus
A ball of capillaries in the kidney where metabolic waste is filtered
Hypoglossal, Sublingual
Cranial nerve connected under the tongue, Salivary gland under tongue
Glucose, Glycogen
Monosaccharide of carbohydrates (sugars), Big molecule made of glucose
Gynecologist
Doctor specializing in the treatment of females & their repro system
Word Part #6
Word Part
Meaning
Example(s)
Something written
Writing apparatus
Print out of the electrical activity of the heart
Blood
Half
Liver
Six
Tissue
Over, Excessive
Electrocardiogram (ECG)
Electrocardiograph
Electrocardiography
Hemothorax
Cerebral hemisphere
Hepatitis
Hexose
Histology
Hypertonic, Hyperesthesia
hypo-, infra-, infer-,sub-
Under, Below, Less
Hypotonic, Infraorbital, Inferior, submandibular
Lesser solute concentration, below eye, under the jaw
Word Part
Meaning
Example(s)
Uterus
Condition of
Inflammation of
Between
1000, 1000th
To move, Divide
Milk
Hysterectomy, Endometrium
Cholelithiasis, Nephrosis
Appendicitis
Interstitial Fluid
Kilogram, Milligram
Kinesiology, Cytokinesis
Lactose
-gram
-graph
-graphy
hemhemi-, semihepathexhisthyper-
Use of writing apparatus
Meaning of Example(s)
Apparatus/machine used to make an electrocardiogram
The use of the electrocardiograph
Blood that has leaked into the chest cavity
One half of the brain (left or right cerebral hemisphere)
Inflammation of the liver (usually caused by viral infection)
A sugar containing 6 carbons (glucose = C6H12O6)
Study of tissues
Greater solute concentration, Excessive/over sensitivity
Word Part #7
hyster-, metr-iasis, -osis
-itis
interkilo-, millikinlact-
Meaning of Example(s)
Cutting out of uterus, Inner lining of uterus (lost each month in females)
Having gallstones, Kidney disorder
Inflammation (swelling, redness, warmth, & pain) of the appendix
An extracellular fluid found between cells
1000 grams, 1000th of a gram
Study of body movement (mechanics of muscles), Cell Division
Milk sugar
laparleuk(c)lig-
Abdomen
White
Connect, Bind
Laparscopy
Leucopoeisis
Ligaments, Ligase
Abdomen viewed (small holes in abdomen replace large surgical incisions)
The making of white blood cells (wbc’s)
Connective tissue joining bone to bone, Enzyme that forms bonds
Word Part #8
Word Part
-logy, -ist, -ician
lys, lyze
macr-, mega, magnmamm-, mass-, pect-
-mania
med-, meso-, meta-
-megaly
melanomens-metric, -meter
Meaning
Example(s)
Study of, Specialist
Break apart, Dissolve
Cardiology, Pharmacist, Dietician
Study of heart, Drug/medicinal specialist, Nutrition specialist
Hydrolysis, Lysosome
Large
Breast, Chest
Macrophage, Magnum foramen
Breaking down macromolecules, Organelle that digests/dissolves
Big WBC that eats/digests, Large opening in skull for spinal cord
Mammary, Massectomy, Pectoralis
Obsession, Compulsion
Kleptomania
Middle
Enlargement
Black
Month
Mediastinum, Mesoderm, Metaphase
Measurement, Length
Splenomegaly
Melanocyte
Menstrual cycle
Isometric, Spirometer
Meaning of Example(s)
Breast tissue, Breast removal, Chest muscle
Compulsion to steal
Middle space of chest cavity, Middle germ layer, Chromosomes in middle
Enlargement of the spleen (usually due to infection)
Black pigmented cells of the skin
The ≈28 day cycle involving the endometrium of the uterus
Using skeletal muscle w/o movement, Breathing/air measurement
Word Part #9
Word Part
Meaning
Example(s)
micro-, -ole, -ule
mnemmono-, unimorph, -plasty
mort, necrmulti-, polymutmyonas-, rhin
nat-
Small
Memory
One
Shape
Death
Many
Change
Muscle
Nose
Birth
Microscope, Arteriole, Venule
Amnesia
Monozygotic, Unicellular
Morphology, Rhinoplasty
Post mortem, Necrotic tissue
Multinucleate, Polysaccharide
Mutation
Myopathy, Myofibril
Nasal septum, Rhinovirus
Prenatal
Meaning of Example(s)
Apparatus used to view small objects, Small artery, Small vein
Loss of memory
Twins coming from the same zygote (identical), 1-celled organism
Differentiating/distinguishing by shape, Nose shaping (surgical repair)
After death, dead tissue
Many nuclei (ex. Skeletal muscle), Many monosaccharides
Any change in the sequence of DNA
Muscle disease, Skeletal muscle cell
Division/wall in the nasal cavity, Virus frequently infecting the nose
Before birth
Word Part #10
Word Part
Meaning
Example(s)
neonephr-, ren
o(o), ovi
oct
New
Kidney
Egg
Eight
Eye
Neonatal
Nephrosclerosis, Renal vein
Oophorectomy, Oviduct
Octet rule
Orbicularis occuli, Ophthalmologist
Resembling, Shape of
Sigmoid colon
ocu, ophth, opt, orbit
-oid
Meaning of Example(s)
Newborn
Hardening of the kidney, Vessel carrying blood away from kidney
Removal of ovary (egg maker), Tube transporting egg to uterus
Atoms’ desire to fill its outer shell with 8 electrons (allows bonding)
Muscle around eye (allows winking), Eye doctor
S-shaped (end of colon, connects to rectum)
olig-oma, onco
-opia
or(a)
Little, Few
Tumor
Vision
Mouth
Oliguria
Melanoma, Oncologist
Hyperopia
Orbicularis oris
Word Part
Meaning
Example(s)
-scopy
ost-ostomy
ot
palp, tact
para
path
ped, pod
pent
phago
To view, See
Bone
Make an opening
Ear
Touch, Feel
Beside
Disease
Foot, Feet
Five
Eat, Feed
Arthroscopic surgery
Osteoblast, Osteomyelitis
Tracheostomy
Otoscope
Palpate, Tactile
Parathyroid glands
Pathogenic bacteria
Pedal, Podiatrist
Pentose
Phagocyte
Word Part
Meaning
Example(s)
Drug
Speech
Vein
Light
Fear
Function
Growth, Formation
Paralysis
Breathing
Lungs, Air
Psychopharmic
Dysphagia
Phlebotomist
Photoreceptor, Gastric lumen
Hydrophobia
Physiology
Hyperplasia
Quadriplegia
Apnea ,Inspire
Very little urine produced
Tumor in the melanocytes of the skin, Tumor specialist
Farsightedness (can see distance well, vision is blurry up close)
Muscle around the mouth (allows puckering)
Word Part #11
Meaning of Example(s)
Inserting a camera into a joint to aid in surgery
Maker of new bone cells, Bone infection
Make an opening in the trachea/windpipe – due to blocked pharynx/throat)
Instrument used to view the ear
Feeling for physical abnormalities (bumps, hardness, swelling, etc.)
Small glands imbedded into the sides of the thyroid gland (in neck)
Disease causing bacteria (tetanus, E. coli, streptococcus, etc.)
Involving the foot, Foot specialist
5 carbon sugar (deoxyribose, ribose)
Eating cell (ex. – WBC’s engulfing bacteria & dead cells)
Word Part #12
pharm
-phasia
phleb
photo, lumen
phobia, phobe
phys
-plasia
plegia
pnea, spir
pneum, pulmon
Meaning of Example(s)
Drugs that affect the mind
Difficulty speaking
One who specializes in drawing blood
Light sensitive cells of the eye, Space where digested food travels
Fear of water
(HAPoexaminophobe – One who fears HAP tests)
Study of how something functions
Excessive growth (tumor)
Paralysis of all four limbs
Moments of breathing cessation (usually during sleep), Breathing in
Pneumothorax, Pulmonary embolus Air seeping into chest cavity, A blood clot stuck in the lungs
Word Part #13
Word Part
post
prim
proct
pseudo
psych, phren, -noia
Meaning
Example(s)
After
First
Rectum, Anus
False
Mind
Post natal
Primary bronchus
Proctoscope, Proctologist
Pseudounipolar neuron
Psychosis, Scizzophrenia
Meaning of Example(s)
After birth
First branching of the airway beyond the trachea
Apparatus used to view the rectum, Colon-Rectum-Anus specialist
Neuron common in the eye
General term for conditions affecting the brain, Split mind
quad, tetra
re-, retro
-rrhea
schlero
sept, tox
Four
Back, Again, Past
Flow, Discharge
Hard (ening)
Poison, Contaminate
Quadriceps, Tetralogy of Fallot
Reinfect, Retrograde amnesia
Diarrhea, Otorrhea
Arteriosclerosis, Scleroderma
Antiseptic, Cytotoxin
Meaning
Example(s)
Narrowing
Layer
Above, Over
Fast
Pressure
Heat
Clot
Strength
Three, Third
Union
Pyloric stenosis
Stratified squamous epithelia
The 4 large muscles (of the ventral thigh), 4 conditions of “blue babies”
To become infected again, Inability to remember events of the recent past
Flow through (feces through intestines), Ear discharge
Hardening of the arteries, Hardening of the skin (and other tissues)
Against poison (germ killer – lysol), Cell poison
Word Part #14
Word Part
sten
strat
super, supra
tachy
-tension
therm
thromb
-tonic
tri-, tertzyg
Superier vena cava, Supraorbital
Tachycardia
Hypertension
Thermoreceptor
Thrombocyte
Isotonic
Triglyceride, Tertiary bronchus
Zygote
Meaning of Example(s)
Narrowing of the distal stomach where it feeds into the small intestinge
Many layers of flat cells (the skin is an example)
Veins bringing blood from above the heart, Over the eye
Faster than normal heart rate
High blood pressure (pressure exerted on artery walls)
Nerve receptors that detect changes in temperature
Clotting cell (also called a platelet)
Equal concentration of solute between ICF and ECF
Lipid containing a glycerol & 3 fatty acids, 3rd division off trachea (airway)
Union of egg and sperm
☺ The following information will be helpful to you but will not be on any of the weekly word part quizzes.
Singular
Plural
-us (thrombus, nucleus)
-a (ampulla)
-ix, -ex (appendix, cortex)
-ax (thorax)
-ur (femur)
-on (mitochondrion), -um (flagellum)
-en (lumen, foramen)
-is (neurosis)
-i (thrombi, nuclei)
-ae (ampullae)
-ices (appendices, cortices)
-aces (thoraces)
-ora (femora)
-a (mitochondria, flagella)
-ena or –ina (lumena, foramina)
-es (neuroses)
Credit: http://cms.fhsdschools.org/
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