Quick-Referencing-Guide-V.2019 1

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2019.1
APA 6th ed. Quick Referencing Guide
N.B. When quoting or paraphrasing from any material (e.g. book, website, journal etc.), the source can be cited as part of the sentence or at the end of the
sentence (refer to pages 17-18 of the full guide). Examples of both types of citations are given for books only. Also note that the rules for a single author or
multiple authors are used in a similar way for different types of resources.
Books & e-books
One work by a single
author
One work by two authors
In-text example
Reference list example
The purpose of an assignment is clear from the start (MorleyWorner, 2009, p. 11).
Morley-Worner, T. (2009). Academic writing is . . . A guide to writing in a
university context. Queensland, Australia: CREA.
or
Only capitalise the first word of the title and subtitle, if any, and proper
nouns.
Crosby, R., & Salazar, L. (2006). Research methods in health promotion.
San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Morley-Worner (2009, p. 11) believed. . .
Use an ampersand (&) within the parentheses or ‘and’ when
giving the authors’ names in the text.
Crosby and Salazar (2006, p. 40) suggested . . .
or
. . . (Crosby & Salazar, 2006, Chapter 3).
Note the comma used before ‘&’. Also, page is abbreviated but not
Chapter.
For books published outside the US, include city and country (e.g.
Melbourne, Australia).
First citation: use all authors’ names.
Reinders, Moore, and Lewis (2008, p. 175) stated . . .
Three to five authors
NB: a comma is used before the ‘and’ in lists of three or more
authors.
Second and subsequent citations: include only the name of the
first author, followed by ‘et al.’ (meaning ‘and others’).
Reinders, H., Moore, N., & Lewis, M. (2008). The international student
handbook. Hampshire, United Kingdom: Palgrave MacMillan.
All authors’ names are to be provided in the order in which they appear
in that particular publication. Do not rearrange them alphabetically.
A recent publication (Reinders et al., 2008, p. 175) claimed . . .
Six or seven authors
Cite only the surname of the first author and ‘et al.’ for all
citations.
Provide all names in the reference list.
Bexby et al. (2005, p. 100) identified . . .
or
Bexby, C., Nigel, E., Smith, K., Rodgers, G.A., Williams, H., & Robinson, J.
(2005). Referencing and plagiarism: A complete guide. London,
United Kingdom: Sage.
Referencing is . . . (Bexby et al., 2005, p. 100).
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Eight or more authors
Cite only the surname of the first author and ‘et al.’ for all
citations.
Include the first six authors’ names, followed by three dots, then the last
author’s name.
Leggat et al. (2009, p. 25) stated . . .
Leggat, I. K., Hutchings, D., Poliness, S., Nemeth, T., West, A., Ngo, A., . . .
Mascilongo, J. (2009). How to maximise the use of libraries in
educational institutions. St Albans, Australia: Victoria University
Press.
World Health Organization. (2005). Hospital care for children: Guidelines
for the management of common illnesses with limited resources.
Hong Kong, China: Author.
or
. . . for effective learning (Leggat et al., 2009, p. 25).
The names of groups are usually spelled out (not abbreviated)
each time they appear in a text citation. If the name is long and
an abbreviation is readily understandable, you may abbreviate
the second and subsequent citations.
Sponsoring organisation
as author (e.g.
corporations,
associations, government
agencies)
First citation:
Provide the full name of the organization in the reference list.
The World Health Organization (WHO, 2005) stated . . .
or
. . . in the world (World Health Organization [WHO], 2005).
If the author and publisher are the same, ‘Author’ can be used in place of
the publisher.
Subsequent citations:
According to the WHO (2005), . . .
or
. . . in Asia (WHO, 2005).
Similarly for the first citation:
. . . (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2004)
Use the first few words of the title (or the entire title if it is
short) in place of an author name. Do not use anonymous. NB:
the title is italicised in text.
No author (and no
sponsoring organisation)
‘Echinacea consists of the dried underground parts of . . .’
(British Herbal Pharmacopeia Part 1, 1976, p. 73).
or
In the British Herbal Pharmacopeia Part 1 (1976, p. 73) it was
claimed that . . .’ Capitalise the major words in titles of books
when used within the body of your essay.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2004). Australian Social Trends, cat. no.
4102.0. Retrieved from http://www.abs.gov.au/socialtrends
For general web pages no catalogue number is required, but for
particular publications it is, if available.
British herbal pharmacopeia Part 1. (1976). West York, United Kingdom:
British Herbal Medicine Association.
The title is moved to the author position (first element of the reference).
Only capitalise the first word of the title and subtitle, if any, and proper
nouns.
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Crosby, R., & Salazar, L. (2006). Research methods in health promotion.
San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Crosby and Salazar (2006, pp. 34-50) suggested. . .
Place of publication
or
. . . (Porter, 1986, p. 99).
No publisher
Editions (second and
subsequent)
*an edition number is not
necessary for first
editions
Celloids are in accordance with the principles of homoeopathy
(Jacka, 1998, p.3).
Studies in history . . . (Carr, 2008, p. 13).
!! For books published in the US, include the city and 2-letter state code
(e.g. San Francisco, CA). Refer to section 6.0 for a list of US state codes.
Porter, J. F. (Ed.). (1986). The control of human fertility (2nd ed.).
Melbourne, Australia: Blackwell Scientific.
!! For books published outside the US, include city and country (e.g.
Melbourne, Australia) – see page 23
Jacka, A. (1998). Alfred Jacka's prescribing strategies. Victoria, Australia.
Carr, E. H. (2008). What is History? (3rd ed.). Camberwell, Australia:
Penguin Group.
(ed.) is used to denote edition. Note that the edition number is not
italicised as it is not part of the title.
Italicise the title of the book (not the title of the chapter).
Chapter in an edited book
Include all authors in the order they appear in the chapter.
Anti-inflammatory plant constituents have shown . . . (Polya,
Polya, & Kweifio-Okai, 2002, pp. 1-5).
Polya, G. M., Polya, Z., & Kweifio-Okai, G. (2002). Biochemical
pharmacology of anti-inflammatory plant secondary metabolites.
In D. K. Majumdar, J. N. Govil, & V. K. Singh, (Eds.), Series recent
progressing medicinal plants, Vol 8 – Phytochemistry &
pharmacology II (pp. 1-22). USA: Stadium.
NB: the authors of the chapter are written as ‘Author, A. A’. The editors
are written ‘A. A. Author’.
If the book is not the first edition, mention the edition number as
follows:
Palmer, F. (2007). Treaty principles and Maori sport: Contemporary
issues. In C. Collins & S. Jackson (Eds.), Sport in Aotearoa/New
Zealand society (2nd ed., pp. 307-334). South Melbourne,
Australia: Thomson.
Editor single
. . . (Porter, 1986, p. 99).
Porter, J. F. (Ed.). (1986). The control of human fertility (2nd ed.).
Melbourne, Australia: Blackwell Scientific.
Ed. is used to denote editor, ed. is used for edition.
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Editors two or three
. . . (Cauchi, Gilbert, & Brown, 1984, p. 44).
Cauchi, M. N., Gilbert, G. L., & Brown, J. B. (Eds.). (1984). The clinical
pathology of pregnancy and the newborn infant. London, United
Kingdom: Edward Arnold.
Eds. is used to denote editors, and here the reference is to the whole
book, not a particular chapter.
Editors four or more
If there are more than three editors you only need to put the
first editor’s name followed by et al. which means and others.
Skeletal muscle is defined as . . . (Sambrook et al., 2001, p. 19).
Sambrook, P., Schrieber, L., Taylor, T., & Ellis, A. (Eds.). (2001). The
musculoskeletal system. Edinburgh, United Kingdom: Churchill
Livingstone.
Eds. is used to denote editors. The above refers to the whole book.
All editors’ names are to be provided in the citation in the order they
appear in the publication.
e-book (without DOI)
. . . (Rich, 2011, p. 85).
Rich, J. R. (2011). Your iPad 2 at work [e-book]. Retrieved from
http://safaribooksonline.com
e-book (with DOI)
. . . (Hill, 2011, p. 26).
Hill, C. E. (Ed.). (2001). The helping skills: The empirical foundation.
Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
https://doi.org/ 10.1037/10412-000
e-book (no page numbers)
For short documents, count the paragraph number from the
start of the document
. . . (Smith, 2014, para. 3).
For longer documents, use the heading plus a paragraph
number within that section
. . . (Jones, 2015, Discussion section, para. 3).
For long headings, use a short title enclosed in quotation marks
. . . (Wentworth, 1999, “Mandatory police checks”, para. 3).
See above examples.
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Dictionaries (print &
In-text example
online)
Dictionary (print - no author)
As quoted “. . . ” (Concise English-Chinese Chinese-English
dictionary, 1999, p. 78) . . .
Italicise the title of the dictionary.
Reference list example
Concise English-Chinese Chinese-English Dictionary. (1999). New York, NY:
Oxford University Press.
Dictionary (print - with
author/editor)
Blood pressure is defined as “. . .” (Weller, 2009, p. 85).
Weller, B. F. (Ed.). (2009). Balliere’s nurses dictionary: For nurses and health
care workers (25th ed.). Edinburgh, Scotland: Elsevier.
Dictionary (online)
. . . (Cambridge dictionaries online, 2011).
Cambridge dictionaries online. (2011). Retrieved from
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/
Specific entry in an online
dictionary, no author or
editor
Heuristic is defined as “. . . .” (Heuristic, n.d.).
Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed.).
Retrieved from http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/heuristic
Magazines (print &
In-text example
online)
Magazine article - print
. . . (Chamberlin, 2008, p. 26).
Reference list example
Chamberlin, J. (2008, May). Enhancing worker well-being: Occupational
health psychologists convene to share their research on work, stress,
and health. Monitor on Psychology, 39(5), 26-29.
Include year, month (and day if applicable)
Magazine article - online
. . . (Hurley, 2013).
Hurley, B. (2013, November). Crowdsourced design growing full steam as
DesignCrowd clocks $10m in projects. Business Review Weekly.
Retrieved from
http://www.brw.com.au/p/entrepreneurs/crowdsourced_design_
growing_full_O0EIAAcOfReIg57LSnaARN
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Pamphlet/brochure
In-text example
(print & online)
Reference list example
Pamphlet/brochure – print
Case studies have shown . . . (BioResearch, 2007, p. 9).
BioResearch. (2007). Getting started with bioresearch homoeopathic
complexes [Pamphlet]. Queensland, Australia: BioResearch.
Pamphlet/brochure – online
Asthma prevention is . . . (Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, 2006, para. 3).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2006). You can control your
asthma [Pamphlet]. Retrieved from
http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/pdfs/asthma_brochure.pdf
Newspapers (print
& online)
In-text example
Reference list example
. . . (Burstin, 2005, p. 38).
Burstin, F. (2005, April 29). Seasons’ disorders. Herald Sun, p. 38.
Remember to include the year, month day.
Italicise the name of the newspaper, not the article title.
Shorten the title and enclose in quotation marks
. . . (“Dexus to net”, 2016, p. 35).
Dexus to net $664.5m for two properties. (2016, August 8). The Age, p. 35.
Newspaper article
(with author)
Newspaper article (no
author)
Davies, P. (1996, June 18). Key mistake stopped MFP. The Australian. Retrieved
from http://www.theaustralian.com.au/
Online Newspaper article
. . . (Davies, 1996).
Theses (print &
online)
In-text example
Reference list example
Thesis - print
Conclusions drawn about critical thinking . . . (Christianson,
2007, p. 59).
Christianson, R. (2007). A study of the academic skills profession in Sloten.
(Master’s Thesis). The University of Weesp, Brussels, Belgium.
Thesis - online
Mann (2010, p. 3) identified . . .
Mann, D. L. (2010). Vision and expertise for interceptive actions in sport
(Doctoral dissertation, The University of New South Wales, Sydney,
Australia). Retrieved from http://handle.unsw.edu.au/1959.4/44704
For an online article, give the URL for the home page only (because more
specific web addresses may change or become inactive).
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Conference
proceedings
In-text example
Conference paper - print
. . . (Prayag & Ramjee, 2009).
Conference paper –
retrieved online
. . . (Willis, 1996).
Journals (print &
online)
In-text example
Reference list example
Prayag, I. L., & Ramjee, R. (2009). The impact of Newcastle disease control on smallholder poultry
production in Mauritius. In R. G. Alsers, P. B. Spadbrow, & M. P. Young (Eds.), Village chickens, poverty
alleviation and the sustainable control of Newcastle disease: Proceedings of an international
conference held in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 5-7 October 2005 (pp. 132-134). Canberra, Australia:
Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.
Willis, S. (1996). Interface to interact: Technologies and techniques. Paper presented at the Australian
Computers in Education Conference, Canberra, Australia. Retrieved from
http://www.spirit.com.au/ACE96/papers/canberra.htm
Reference list example
Wilkinson, J. (1996). The internet as a research and information tool for herbal
medicine. British Journal of Phytotherapy, 6(2), 34-45.
Volume
(italics)
Journal article – print (=
hard-copy)
(with author)
There are a number of websites available for
herbalists . . . (Wilkinson, 1996, p. 36).
Issue (NOT
italics)
You only give a volume number and issue number if there is one (some journals will
only have a volume number, some may have an issue number only and some may
have the season recorded, or they may be in combination).
All volume and or issue details are to be provided in the reference list as they appear
in the publication. Journal article titles are in sentence case.
The journal name is capitalised and italicised.
Journal article - print
(no author)
Online journal - Full text
with a Digital Object
Identifier (DOI)
The growth of genetics in the future . . .
(“Transplantation into the next century”, 1999, p.
1004).
Shorten the title and enclose in quotation marks.
. . . (Herbst-Damm & Kulik, 2005, p. 226).
Transplantation into the next century: Genetic engineering and xenotransplantation.
(1999). Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 26(12), 1004.
Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the
survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24(2), 225-229.
https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225
Note DOI is written in lower case.
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Online journal - Full text
without a DOI (when DOI is
not available)
This responsibility is heightened when . . . (Marsh
& Campion, 2018, p. 215).
Marsh, J. D. & Campion, J. (2018). Academic integrity and referencing: Whose
responsibility is it? Journal of Academic Language and Learning, 12(1). Retrieved
from http://journal.aall.org.au/index.php/jall/article/view/546/299
Add the ‘Retrieved from’ plus URL when the DOI is not available.
Online journal - Abstract
only with a DOI
Note: Abstracts only are
generally not accepted.
Online journal - Abstract
only without a DOI
Note: Abstracts only are
generally not accepted.
Journal article that appears
online before print
publication
. . . (Brockerhoff et al., 2008, Abstract).
This reference is for an original abstract.
Scutellaria lateriflora reduced sleep latency in
health individuals . . . (Wolfsen & Hoffman, 2003,
Abstract).
This reference is for a secondary abstract.
Adult marine lungs have shown airway remodelling
due to IL-1 (beta) (Lappalainen et al., 2005, p. 132).
Note: all 4 authors’ surnames need to be
mentioned when citing first time. See ‘Three or
more authors’ for more information.
If the article referred to is only cited as an abstract this must be stated:
Brockerhoff, E. G., Jactel, H., Parrotta, J. A., Quine, C. P., & Sayer, J. (2008). Plantation
forests and biodiversity: Oxymoron or opportunity? [Abstract]. Biodiversity and
Conservation, 17, 925-951. https:// doi.org/ 10.1007/s10531-008-9380-x
If the article referred to is only cited as an abstract this must be stated:
Wolfsen, P., & Hoffman, D. (2003). An investigation into the efficacy of Scutellaria
lateriflora in healthy volunteers. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine,
9(2). Abstract retrieved from http://www.alternativetherapies.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/archives.main
Lappalainen, U., Whitsett, J., Tichelaar, J., & Bry, K. (2005). IL-1 (beta) causes pulmonary
inflammation, emphysema and airway remodelling in the adult marine lung.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. Advance online
publication. Retrieved from www.ncbi.nlmnih.gov/pubmed/15668323
If available, use DOI number instead of URL.
Web pages
In-text Example
Reference list example
Web page -with author
Note: example is a pdf
As Fitch (2005) claimed . . .
Fitch, P. (2005). Recovering body and soul from post-traumatic stress disorder. Retrieved from
https://pamelafitch-rmt.com/docs/soul.pdf
Web page
(corporate/government
author or sponsoring
body)
. . . (Australian Bureau
of Statistics, 2018).
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2018). Overseas Arrivals and Departures, Australia (cat. No. 3401.0).
Retrieved from
http://www.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/[email protected]/0/C5717BACF2EA231ACA25751A0019DBB7?OpenDocument
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Web page
(no author or sponsoring
body)
Web page (no date)
Web page in general
(not used as evidence for
an argument)
Blog Post
Blog comment
Huge numbers of women
around the world now use
thermography
(“Complementary and
Ecological Medicine [CEM]”,
2007).
Use quotation marks for the
title (for long titles, include
the first few words only).
According to the Australian
Institute of Sport (n.d.). . .
Youtube (www.youtube.com)
is one of the most popular
websites in the world.
Paraphrase: The issue of
sustainability in architecture . .
. (katzsj, 2009).
Use the screen name for the
author of a post if the author
has adopted one. Direct quote
in text e.g.:
“The vast majority of us have
perfectly robust immune
systems, and the notion that
having a busy, modern lifestyle
can compromise the immune
system is greatly overblown”
(Newsome, 2011).
. . . (glamazon, 2015).
Complementary and Ecological Medicine. (2007). Retrieved from www.healthyconcept.com
Start the reference with the title of the webpage, in italics.
Australian Institute of Sport. (n.d.). Australian Sports Commission. Retrieved from www.ausport.gov.au/ais/
If no date is available, write n.d. in the parentheses.
If referring to a website in general (rather than specific information), give only the URL in the text the first
time you mention it. You do not need to include an entry in the reference list.
katzsj (2009, February 11). Water bottles as a design tool [Blog post]. Retrieved
from http://katzsj.wordpress.com/2009/02/11/waterbottles-as-a-design-tool/
Newsome, B. (2011, March 10). Immune to science [Blog post]. Retrieved from
http://www.theage.com.au/opinion/blogs/scepticscience/immune-to-science-20110309-1bn9m.html
The name of the blog itself is not part of the reference, although you can often see it in the URL. The title is
not italicised.
For a response to a post, use “Re:” followed by the title of the blog post. Also use the label [Blog comment].
glamazon. (2015, October 23). Re: Cambodia – The tourist [Web log comment]. Retrieved from
http://www.bigwordsblog.com/cambodia-the-tourist/#li-comment-52388
Use the URL of the comment itself. To find this, click on the date stamp.
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. . . (“Physiology”, 2016).
Wikis
(including Wikipedia)
Social media
Facebook status –
individual author
Facebook status – group
author
Instagram
Twitter – individual author
NB. Academic writing should
reference peer-reviewed or
scholarly work. Wikipedia is
generally not considered
suitable for academic writing.
Physiology. (2016, August 12). In Wikipedia. Retrieved August 16, 2016, from
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physiology
Include retrieval date as the content can change over time.
Wikipedia is italicised because it is the name of the reference work.
In-text example
Obama has confirmed that addressing climate
change is a priority . . . (2016).
Polio has recently resurfaced in Nigeria (World
Health Organization, 2016). . .
. . . (APA Style, 2018)
President Obama announced the launch of the
American Graduation Initiative (Obama, 2008).
Reference list example
Obama, B. [Barack]. (2016, August 13). The Clean Power Plan is a significant step in
combating climate change – and we need to keep moving forward [Facebook
status update]. Retrieved from
https://www.facebook.com/barackobama/photos
/a.53081056748.66806.6815841748/10154073260291749/?type=3&theater
Provide the author’s name and initials in inverted format (Author, A. A.). Then write
the given name in square brackets.
The title is the content of the post (up to the first 40 words). This is not italicised.
Provide a precise URL – click on the post’s date stamp to access the URL.
World Health Organization. (2016, August 12). We are deeply saddened by the news
that 2 Nigerian children have been paralysed by polio. The Government of
Nigeria has made significant strides to stop this paralysing disease in recent
years. The overriding priority now is to rapidly immunize [Facebook post].
Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/WHO/posts/1193450940700287
APA Style [@officialapastyle]. (2018, December 5). Welcome to the official Instagram
for #APAStyle! We’re here to help you with your APA Style questions [Instagram
photograph]. Retrieved from https://www.instagram.com/p/Bq-A-dvBLiH/
Obama, B. [BarackObama]. (2008, July 15). Launched American Graduation Initiative
to help additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020:
http://bit.ly/gcTX7 [Tweet]. Retrieved from
http://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/2651151366
Include Author, A.A. and then the screen name in square brackets.
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Twitter – group author
Linked in
Social media video
. . . (Melbourne University, 2016).
. . . (Schiller Palmisano, 2012).
. . . (World Health Organization, 2016).
Melbourne University [unimelb]. (2016, August 15). Liver cancer rates have tripled.
Hepatitis C researchers urge: Get tested, get treated
http://newsroom.melbourne.edu/news/get-tested-get-treated-hep-cresearchers-urge … [Tweet]. Retrieved from
https://twitter.com/unimelb/status/765017668122386432
Schiller Palmisano, N. (n.d.). In LinkedIn [Profile page]. Retrieved July 12, 2012,
from http://www.linkedin.com/profile/edit?trk=hb_tab_pro_top
It is not possible to tell what date a LinkedIn profile was published, so only the
retrieval date is included.
World Health Organization. (2016, August 13). Question and answer on polio [Video
file]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/WHO/?fref=nf
Italicise the title of the video.
. . . (National Geographic Magazine, 2016).
Social media image or
graphic – with caption
The photographer can be acknowledged in the
text e.g.
Michael Nichols photographed the sunrise . . .
(National Geographic Magazine, 2016).
Social media image or
graphic – without caption
. . . (National Geographic Magazine, 2016).
The photographer can be acknowledged in the
text e.g.
Charlie Hamilton James photographed . . .
(National Geographic Magazine, 2016).
Social media – photo
album
. . . (Time, 2014).
National Geographic Magazine. (2016, August 3). Today’s top shot: The sun rises over
the Merced River, which famously courses through Yosemite National Park and the
Yosemite Valley. http://on.natgeo.com/2b05fuS [Photograph]. Retrieved from
https://www.facebook.com/NGM/photos/a.406883368335.198383.72996268335/
10154432737933336/?type=3&theater
Use up to the first 40 words of the caption as the title. Do not italicise the title.
National Geographic Magazine. (2016, May 18). [Young ocelot looks startled]
[Photograph]. Retrieved from
https://www.facebook.com/NGM/photos/a.10150779166933336.469045.
72996268335/10154237159743336/?type=3&theater
If the image contains no caption, provide a description of the item in square brackets.
Time. (2014, May 1). Time 100 Gala 2014 [Photo album]. Retrieved from
https://www.facebook.com/time/photos/?tab=album&album_id=
10152029513376491
Italicise the title of the album.
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Reports &
standards
In-text example
Reference list example
World Vision Australia. (2015). Annual report 2015. Burwood East, Australia: Author.
Annual report - print
Annual report - online
Government report print
Government report online
Standard - print
. . . (World Vision Australia, 2015).
. . . (World Vision Australia, 2015).
. . . (Australian Government Department of Education
and Training, 2014).
. . . (Australian Government Department of Education
and Training, 2014).
. . . (Standards Australia, 1994).
If the author and publisher are the same, ‘Author’ can be used in place of the
publisher.
World Vision Australia. (2015). Annual report 2015. Retrieved from
https://www.worldvision.com.au/docs/default-source/annual-reports/wvannual-reports/annual-report-2015-v2.pdf?sfvrsn=2
Australian Government Department of Education and Training. (2014). Higher education
report 2011-2013. Canberra, Australia: Author.
If the author and publisher are the same, ‘Author’ can be used in place of the
publisher.
Australian Government Department of Education and Training. (2014). Higher education
report 2011-2013. Retrieved from
https://docs.education.gov.au/system/files/doc/other/higher_
education_report_2011-2013_final_web.pdf
Standards Australia. (1994). Information processing systems – Telecommunications and
information exchange between systems – End system to intermediate system
routing exchange protocol for use in conjunction with the protocol for providing
the connectionless-mode network service (AS/NZS 3651:1994). Homebush,
Australia: Author.
If the author and publisher are the same, ‘Author’ can be used in place of the
publisher.
If a number is assigned to the publication, write that number in parentheses
immediately after the title.
Standard - online
. . . (Standards Australia, 1994).
Standards Australia. (1994). Information processing systems – Telecommunications and
information exchange between systems – End system to intermediate system
routing exchange protocol for use in conjunction with the protocol for providing
the connectionless-mode network service (AS/NZS 3651:1994). Retrieved from
https://www.saiglobal.com/PDFTemp/Previews/OSH/As
/as3000/3600/3651.PDF
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Personal
communications
Email
Interview
Letter
Telephone call
In-text example
Reference list example
An email (S. Johnson, personal communication, August 12, 2016) confirmed . .
.
The company’s CEO confirmed during an interview that . . . (C. Castillo,
personal communication, May 11, 2015).
OR
During an interview, CEO Christian Castillo stated that “profits have . . .”
(personal communication, May 11, 2015).
His gratitude was evident in a letter (B. Thompson, personal communication,
January 1, 2016)
The President’s statement was confirmed during a phone interview (K. Nott,
personal communication, May 31, 2016)
OR
During a phone interview conducted on May 31, 2016, President Kathryn Nott
stated that . . .
You do not need to include an entry in the reference list.
You do not need to include an entry in the reference list.
You do not need to include an entry in the reference list.
You do not need to include an entry in the reference list.
Lecture notes &
class handouts
In-text example
Class handouts
. . . (Reed, 2012, p. 14).
Reed, M. (2012, February 20). Human development [Lecture notes]. Copy in possession
of JNI, Sydney, Australia.
. . . (Jones, 2016).
Jones, L. (2016). CAM102A: Calendula [Class handout]. Southern School of Natural
Therapies, Fitzroy, Australia.
Lecture notes – online
. . . (Jacobs, 2015).
Jacobs, P. (2015). CAM102A: Botany, week 2 notes [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from
https://laureate-au.blackboard.com/
Notes taken during class
Notes taken in class should be considered ‘personal
communication’.
It is reported that . . . (A. Harman, personal communication,
July 13, 2016).
You do not need to include an entry in the reference list.
Lecture notes – print
! NB. Check with your lecturer before referencing lecture
notes. You may need to refer to primary sources.
Reference list example
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Variations
In-text example
Author : single name
Sushil (2018, p. 188) confirmed that . . .
Publication date
unavailable
Van Doorn (n.d., p. 200) described Weesp as a city . . .
Secondary reference (A
work cited in another
source)
Therapeutic massage is . . . (Anderson & Ramsdale, 2004, as
cited in Buller, 2006, p. 77).
Reference list example
Sushil. (2018). Managing lifetime wastivity. Global Journal of Flexible
Systems Management, 19(3), 187-189. https: doi.org/10.1007/s40171-0180194-8
If no date is available, write n.d. in the parentheses.
Van Doorn, H. H. (n.d.). Over the Vecht. Schiedam, The Netherlands:
Scriptum Publishers.
Buller, M. (2006). Massage techniques. Victoria, Australia: Penguin Books.
Provide the details of the reference from where you sourced the
information (place not available).
Order the citations alphabetically by the first author’s
surname. Separate the citations with semi-colons.
Multiple works (different
authors) in the same
citation
Multiple works by the
same author and date
Research shows that by evaluating data and then improving
some aspect of knowledge or practice . . . (Merriam-Webster,
2014; Zickmund, 2000)
All authors’ name and full reference details would be provided
individually in alphabetical order in the reference list.
Note that page numbers are not required, as no (in-) direct
quotation is being made - reference is to the overall idea.
To distinguish between the different works add a lower case
letter to the year beginning with a then b then c and so on. NB.
The suffixes are assigned in the reference list.
In his first study Hoffman, (1998a, p. 74) found this to be true.
However, further studies (Hoffman, 1998b, p. 23) . . .
Hoffman, K. (1998a). Research in health science. St Louis, MO: Mosby
Elsevier.
Hoffman, K. (1998b). Health science. New York, NY: Elsevier.
Order alphabetically by title, and then assign suffixes a, b, c etc.
Deadman, P. (1998). A manual of acupuncture. Hove, Great Britain: Journal
of Chinese Medicine Publications.
Multiple works by the
same author with
different years
Give the name of the author(s) followed by the years of their
studies in chronological order, separated by commas.
Studies on acupuncture (Deadman, 1998, p. 78, 2007, p. 90)
have shown . . .
Deadman, P. (2007). A manual of acupuncture. Hove, Great Britain: Journal
of Chinese Medicine Publications.
Order chronologically in the reference list. Note that the Journal is the
publisher in the above examples.
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First in-text citation:
(Marewski, Gaissmaier, & Gigerenzer, 2010)
(Marewski, Gaissmaier, Schooler, Goldstein, & Gigerenzer, 2010)
Subsequent citations:
Multiple works with same
first author but different
second or third authors
Normally we would then abbreviate these two studies to the
first name and ‘et al.’. However, this would result in two
identical citations – (Marewski, 2010), so
write out as many names as necessary to distinguish between
the two, e.g.
(Marewski, Gaissmaier, & Gigerenzer, 2010)
(Marewski, Gaissmaier, Schooler, et al., 2010)
Multiple works with
different authors but the
same surname
Include the first initial in all in-text citations (even if the year of
publication is different) to avoid confusion.
. . . (I. Light, 2006).
OR
A study by I. Light (2006), . . .
Arranged alphabetically by the surname of the second author or, if the
second author is the same, the surname of the third author, and so on:
Marewski, J. M., Gaissmaier, W., & Gigerenzer, G. (2010). Good
judgements do not require complex cognition. Cognitive Processing,
11, 103-121. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10339-009-0337-0
Marewski, J. M., Gaissmaier, W., Schooler, L. J., Goldstein, D. G., &
Gigerenzer, G. (2010). From recognition to decisions: Extending and
testing recognition-based models for multi-alternative inference.
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17, 287-309.
https://doi.org/10.3758/PBR.17.3.287
Arrange works alphabetically by first initial.
Light, I. (2006). Deflecting immigration: Networks, markets, and regulation
in Los Angeles. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
Light, M. A., & Light, I. (2008). The geographic expansion of Mexican
immigration in the United States and its implication for local law
enforcement. Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal, 8, 73-82.
If the authors share the same surname and initial, provide the
given name e.g.
. . . (Paul Smith, 2015; Peter Smith, 2013).
If the authors share the same surname and initial, provide the given
name in square brackets e.g.
Smith, P. [Paul]. (2015). Melbourne dines. Ascot Vale, Australia: Dunlop
Printing House.
Direct quotations (or
paraphrases) with no
page number
See ‘e-book (no page numbers)’ example.
See relevant entry for book, report etc.
Translated works
Tzu (2003, p. 61) claimed that . . .
Foreign works in Latin
scripts
Check with your lecturer if you can use foreign works first.
. . . (Janzen & Hawlik, 2005).
Tzu, L. (2003). Tao The Ching (J. Wu, Trans.). Boston, MA: Shambhala.
Mention the translator after the title, along with the abbreviation ‘Trans.’
Follow the basic APA rules for a book, journal etc. Include an English
translation of the title only in square brackets.
Janzen, G., & Hawlik, M. (2005). Orientierung im Raum: Befunde zu
Entscheidungspunkten [Orientation in space: Findings about
decision points]. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 213(4), 179–186.
https://doi.org/10.1026/0044-3409.213.4.179
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Foreign works in a nonLatin script (e.g. Chinese,
Japanese, Russian, etc.)
Reprinted book
Multi-media
Youtube (or other
streaming video)
Check with your lecturer if you can use foreign works first.
Names should be transliterated (converted) to a Latin script. Titles should
be transliterated and translated to English.
. . . (Motoki & Kurosawa, 1954).
Motoki, S. (Producer), & Kurosawa, A. (Director). (1954). Shichinin no
samurai [Seven samurai; motion picture]. Japan: Toho.
. . . (Najm, 1966).
Najm, Y. (1966). Al-qissah fi al-adab Al-Arabi al-hadith [The novel in
modern Arabic literature]. Beirut, Lebanon: Dar Al-Thaqafah.
Cite both the original publication year and recent publication
year.
. . . (Smith, 1793/1976).
Smith, A. (1976). An inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of
nations. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press. (Original work published
1793)
In-text example
(Khan Academy, 2016)
See ‘Direct quotations from audio-visual material –
timestamp’ for quotes/paraphrased material
Reference list example
Khan Academy (2016, July 14). Brexit and European Union primer [Video file].
Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gbIgkcIfg0E
Motion picture
. . . (Spurlock, 2004).
Spurlock, M. (Producer & Director). (2004). Super size me [Motion picture]. New
York, NY: Fortissimo Films.
DVD
. . . (Clarke, 2003).
Clarke, P. (Executive Producer), & Appel, G. (DVD Producer). (2003). Love is in the
air [DVD]. Sydney, Australia: ABC.
Television series
. . . (Kring, 2008).
Kring, T. (Producer). (2008). Heroes [Television series]. Melbourne, Australia: Seven
Corporation.
Television series episode
. . . (Davies & Walsh, 2011).
Davies, A. (Screenwriter), & Walsh, D. (Director). (2011, June 23). Episode 1
[Television series episode]. In G. Riley & J. Turner (Producers). Little Dorrit.
England: BBC.
Radio program
. . . (Williams & Vaux, 2009).
Radio program
transcript
. . . (Smith, 1996).
Williams, R. (Presenter) & Vaux, D. (Guest). (2009, December 20). A short history of
cell deaths. [Radio broadcast]. In B. Seega (Producer), Ockham's razor.
Sydney, Australia: ABC Radio National.
Smith, H. (1996). Medicine in Chaucer’s time. Ockham’s Razer, ABC Radio National
transcripts. Retrieved from
http://www.abc.net.au/rn/science/ockham/or110896.htm
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Direct quotations from
audio-visual material –
timestamp
For a quote, include a timestamp (in lieu of page numbers)
to direct the reader to a specific point in the audio/video.
Use the format HH:MM:SS. In the example below, the
time refers to 17 seconds.
Acceleration is the “change in velocity over time” (Khan
Academy, 2011, 0:17).
You can also include a timestamp for paraphrased
material.
. . . (Van Nuys, 2007).
Podcasts (audio or
video)
. . . (Chesney, 2007).
Khan Academy. (2011, June 13). Acceleration: One-dimensional motion [Video file].
Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FOkQszg1-j8
Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast].
Retrieved from http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/
Write [Video podcast] for video files.
For a podcast with a writer/presenter and a podcast number:
Chesney, M. (2007, September 13). Gender differences in the use of complementary
and alternative medicine (No. 12827) [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from
University of California Television website: http://www.uctv.tv/ondemand
Use the homepage URL rather than the full URL.
Apps
Music recording – song
from CD
. . . (Thierault, 2016).
The heartfelt song “Born to try” debuted at number three
(Goodrem, 2003, track 1).
. . . (Lavin, 2003).
Rightsholder, A. A. (year). Title of Software or Program (Version number) [Mobile
application software]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx
Thierault, A. (2016). Brain focus productivity timer (Version 2.7) [Mobile application
software]. Retrieved from
https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.AT.PomodoroTimer&hl=
en
If the composer and recording artist are the same:
Goodrem, D. (2003). Born to try. On Innocent Eyes [CD]. New York, NY: Epic
Records.
If the composer and recording artist are different:
Lavin, C. (2003). A Christmas/Kwanzaa/Solstice/Chanukah/ Ramadan/Boxing Day
song [Recorded by C. Lavin & the Mistletones]. On The runaway Christmas
tree [CD]. West Chester, PA: Appleseed Recordings.
Note the album title is italicised (not the song title).
17
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Music recording – whole
album (CD)
. . . (Goodrem, 2003).
Music recording – song
retrieved online
. . . (Timberlake, 2016).
CD-ROM
. . . (Maciocia, 2005).
Legislation &
cases
Goodrem, D. (2003). Born to try [CD]. New York, NY: Epic Records.
Timberlake, J., Martin, M., & Shellback. (2016). Can’t stop the feeling [Recorded by J.
Timberlake]. On Trolls: Original motion picture soundtrack [MP3]. Retrieved
from https://itunes.apple.com
Note: Shellback is a single name.
Maciocia, G. (2005). The foundations of Chinese medicine [CD-ROM]. Beijing, China:
Elsevier.
In-text example
Reference list example
According to s. 15 of the Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Qld). . .
General form for Acts:
Short Title of the Act in italics Year in italics (Jurisdiction abbreviation)
subdivision if relevant (Country abbreviation).
The Copyright Act 1968 prohibits . . .
Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Qld) s. 15 (AU.).
Acts and Bills
Copyright Act 1968 (Cth) (AU.).
Acts and Bills - Online
According to s. 15 of the Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Qld). . .
In the land rights case Mabo v. Queensland (1998). . .
Cases
OR
. . . in a famous land rights case (Mabo v. Queensland, 1998).
Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Qld) s. 15 (AU.). Retrieved from
https://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/legisltn/current/a/antidiscrima91.pdf
General form for cases:
Name v. name in italics Year Volume number Reporter abbreviation First page
number (Country abbreviation).
Mabo v. Queensland 1988 166 CLR 186 (AU).
The above examples are for Australian jurisdictions only. For more information, refer to:

The APA Publication Manual (6th ed.) Appendix 7.1: References to Legal Materials (pp. 216 - 224) and/or

The blue book: A uniform system of citation (20th ed.). (2015). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Law Review Association.
18
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Figures (incl.
images)
In-text example
Reference list example
NOTE: A figure may be a chart, graph, photograph, drawing, or other illustration.
Wyeth, A. (1948). Christina’s world [Painting]. New York, NY: Museum of Modern Art.
Artwork viewed in
person
Include a description of the work of art (e.g. sculpture, painting) in square brackets.
Figure 1. Christina’s world, tempera on
panel (Wyeth, 1948)
Artwork viewed
online
Figure 1. Christina’s world, tempera on
panel (Wyeth, 1948)
In the caption include details you consider
relevant e.g. title and medium
Wyeth, A. (1948). Christina’s world [Image of painting]. Retrieved from
http://www.moma.org/explore/collection/index
Include the page number
Artwork viewed in
a book
The reference entry is that of the book
Figure 2. Manet, River at Argenteuil, 1874
(Pool, 1973, p. 134)
In the caption include details you consider
relevant e.g. title, artist, medium
Pool, P. (1973). Impressionism. London, England: Thames & Hudson.
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The Daily Bandha. (2010). Piriformis stretching in supta padangusthasana [Image]. Retrieved from
http://www.dailybandha.com/2013/12/healing-with-yoga-piriformis-syndrome.html
Image from a
website
Figure 3. Piriformis stretch (The Daily
Bandha, 2010)
Radiating ripples [Image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.bergoiata.org/fe/divers28/10.htm
Image from a
website – no
author and no date
Image from Google
images
Image from Google
Maps
Move the image title to the start of the reference. n.d. = no date.
If there is no title, write a brief description of the image.
Figure 4. Visualisation during pelvic floor
exercises (“Radiating ripples”, n.d.)
Go to the original source by selecting the
image and then clicking ‘Visit page’.
Then follow the format above for images
from a website.
. . . (Google, 2015).
Follow the format above for images from a website.
Google. (2015). Tin Can Bay QLD 4580 [Map]. Retrieved from
http://maps.google.com.au/maps?q=tin+can+bay&hl=en&sll=37.817178,144.96124&sspn=0.076889,0.110378&hnear=Tin+Can+Bay+Queensland&t=m&z=11
Include the page number in the in-text
citation
Insel, P., Turner, R. E., & Ross, D. (2007). Nutrition (3rd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett
Publishers.
Image from a book
(or journal article)
Figure 5. Important childhood
micronutrients (Insel, Turner, & Ross, 2007,
p.689)
20
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Unpublished – in a
personal collection
i.e. you created the
figure and it is not
published
You do not need to include an entry in the reference list as the work has not been published.
Figure 6. Hot pot, Chiang Rai, 2015
(Personal collection)
Da Vinci, L. [ca. 1503]. Mona Lisa [Image of painting]. Retrieved
from http://www.louvre.fr/en/mediaimages/portrait-de-lisa-gherardini-epouse-de-francescodel-giocondo-dite-monna-lisa-la-gioconda
Image with
approximate date
ca. (meaning circa) written before the year, and square brackets used instead of round brackets.
Figure 7. Mona Lisa (Da Vinci, [ca. 1503]).
Figure 8. Functions of Japanese
Figure (graph) –
reprinted from a
journal
Leeming, P. (2011). Japanese high school students’ use of L1 during pair-work. International Journal of
Applied Linguistics, 21(3), 360-382.
Note. Reprinted from “Japanese high
school students’ use of L1 during pairwork”, by P. Leeming, 2011, International
Journal of Applied Linguistics, 21(3), p. 368.
Copyright 2011 by the International Journal
of Applied Linguistics.
The reference entry is that of a journal – hard copy.
Note: If the figure requires further explanation, put the figure number at the top and include the ‘Note’; this functions as a legend,
immediately beneath the figure.
21
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Tables
In-text example
Reference list example
Note: Any illustration other than a table should be indicated as a figure.
Table/graph – book
(reprinted)
Table/graph – book
(adapted)
Table – website
(reprinted)
Table 1. Daily dosage of chromium
DAILY DOSAGE
RDA
Adults 0-00 μg/day
Infants 10-40
μg/day
SR
100-300 μg/day
Deficiency
<30 μg
limits
Note. Reprinted from The Nutrient Bible (8th ed., p. 135), by H. Osiecki,
2010, Eagle Farm, Australia: Bio Concepts Publishing. Copyright 2010
by Bio Concepts Publishing.
Table 1. Daily adult dosage of chromium
DAILY DOSAGE
RDA
Adults 50-200
μg/day
SR
100-300 μg/day
Deficiency
<30 μg
limits
Note. Adapted from The Nutrient Bible (8th ed., p. 135), by H. Osiecki,
2010, Eagle Farm, Australia: Bio Concepts Publishing. Copyright 2010
by Bio Concepts Publishing.
Table 2. Oldest populations in Australia 2015
Note. Reprinted from “Australia growing greyer”, by Australian Bureau
of Statistics, 2016, (http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs%40.nsf/
mediareleasesbyCatalogue/72D4A8F0C7957E85CA25
7A6A0012F5A0?OpenDocument). In the public domain.
Osiecki, H. (2010). The Nutrient Bible (8th ed.). Eagle Farm, Australia: Bio
Concepts Publishing.
The reference entry is that of the book.
Osiecki, H. (2010). The Nutrient Bible (8th ed.). Eagle Farm, Australia: Bio
Concepts Publishing.
The reference entry is that of the book.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2016). Australia going greyer. Retrieved
from http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs%40.nsf/
mediareleasesbyCatalogue/72D4A8F0C7957E85CA25
7A6A0012F5A0?OpenDocument
The reference entry is that of the website.
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References
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC.: American Psychological Association
American Psychological Association. (2013). What is a digital object identifier, or DOI? Retrieved from
http://apastyle.org/learn/faqs/what-is-doi.aspx
Ballard, B. & Clancy, J. (1992). Teaching students from overseas. Melbourne, Australia: Longman
Cheshire
Board of Studies Teaching and Education Standards NSW. (n.d.). A glossary of key words. Retrieved
from http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/syllabus_hsc/glossary_keywords.html
Cottrell, S. (2008). The study skills handbook. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan
Jordan, R.R. (1992). Academic writing course. London, United Kingdom: Nelson ELT
Laureate Universities Australia. (n.d.). Text types and their uses. Retrieved from https://laureateau.blackboard.com/webapps/blackboard/
The blue book: A uniform system of citation (20th ed.). (2015). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Law Review
Association.
World Health Organization. (2016). Hepatitis C. Retrieved from
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs164/en/
Please note that in APA 6th edition referencing, the word ‘References’ is the header for the
reference list and is placed centre page; refer to page 23 for more information about the
reference list.
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Appendix 1. Two letter USA state codes
State or Territory
State or Territory
Alabama
Alaska
AL
AK
Nevada
New Hampshire
NV
NH
Arizona
Arkansas
AZ
AR
New Jersey
New Mexico
NJ
NM
California
Colorado
CA
CO
New York
North Carolina
NY
NC
Connecticut
Delaware
CT
DE
North Dakota
Ohio
ND
OH
District of Colombia
Florida
DC
FL
Oklahoma
Oregon
OK
OR
Georgia
GA
Pennsylvania
PA
Hawaii
Idaho
HI
ID
Rhode Island
South Carolina
RI
SC
Illinois
Indiana
IL
IN
South Dakota
Tennessee
SD
TN
Iowa
Kansas
IA
KS
Texas
Utah
TX
UT
Kentucky
Louisiana
KY
LA
Vermont
Virginia
VT
VA
Maine
Maryland
ME
MD
Washington
West Virginia
WA
WV
Massachusetts
Michigan
MA
MI
Wisconsin
Wyoming
WI
WY
Minnesota
Mississippi
MN
MS
American Samoa
Guam
AS
GU
Missouri
Montana
MO
MT
Northern Mariana Islands
Puerto Rico
MP
PR
Nebraska
NE
Virgin Islands
VI
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Appendix 2. Referencing Tools
Some tools and resources which may help you with referencing are listed below.
Please make sure to always check your work against this Academic Writing Guide before
submitting as some tools are more accurate than others.
APA style formatting examples on the internet:
www.apastyle.org
http://blog.apastyle.org
APA 6th edition is a well-recognised style, and is included in most referencing tracking software
applications.
Examples:
www.stylewizard.com/apa6index.html
www.zotero.org
www.mendeley.com
www.citeulike.com
There are also online tools such as reference generators which can simplify the creation of your
reference list (once again, check your course’s guidelines before submitting your work):
www.bibme.org
https://reffor.us/
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Inbuilt citation makers
Many programs now have inbuilt citation makers to simplify referencing, but note to always double
check against this Academic Writing Guide, as many contain mistakes.
Major library catalogues – search for the book in the catalogue, then search for a ‘citation’ function
option:
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27
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