Exam 1 Review - Spring 2019 (Updated March 1) Sheet1

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CHAPTER 2 - THE BIOLOGY OF BEHAVIOR
1. NEURAL COMMUNICATION
Key Terms
Know the parts of a neuron and their
neuron
axon
dendrite
role in neural communication
myelin sheath
synapse
terminal branches
Understand how neural impulses
action potential
all-or-none response
are generated
threshold
refractory period
Identify the major neurotransmitters and Acetylcholine
Serotonin
Endorphins
their functions/malfunctions
Dopamine
Norephinephrine
Understand how neurons communicate
neurotransmitters reuptake
with other nerve cells
synapse
Understand how neurotransmitters
influence behavior
2. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Key Terms
Understand the differences between the
central nervous system (CNS) vs. peripheral nervous system (PNS)
nervous system’s main divisions
somatic nervous system vs. autonomic nervous system
sympathetic nervous system vs. parasympathetic nervous system
reflexes
spinal cord
nerves
Know the three main types of
interneurons
sensory neurons
neurons and what they do
motor neurons
3. THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
Key Terms
Understand how the endocrine system
endocrine system adrenal glands
transmits information and how it
hormones
pituitary gland
interacts with the nervous system
4. THE BRAIN
Key Terms
Identify the components of the brainstem brainstem
thalamus reticular formation
and their function
medulla
cerebellum pons
Identify the components and function
limbic system
amygdala
of the limbic system
hippocampus
hypothalamus
Know the functions of the various
cerebral cortex
parietal lobe sensory cortex
regions of the cerebral cortex
temporal lobe
occipital lobe
association areas
frontal lobe
motor cortex
CHAPTER 3 - CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE TWO-TRACK MIND
1. THE BRAIN AND CONSCIOUSNESS
Key Terms
Understand what is meant by “dual
consciousness
processing”
dual processing
Understand the limits of how much
selective attention selective inattention
information we can consciously pay
blindsight
change blindness
attention to at once
inattentional blindness
cocktail party effect
2. SLEEP AND DREAMING
Key Terms
Know how our biological rhythms influence circadian rhythm sleep cycles
our daily functioning
sleep stages
Know what occurs mentally and physically REM Sleep
NREM 2
sleep spindles
in different sleeping and dreaming stages NREM 1
NREM 3
sleep paralysis
paradoxical sleep dreams
alpha waves delta waves
Know the major functions of sleep
Protection
memory
Restore & Repair creative problem-solving
growth
Know the effects of sleep loss, and know the insomnia
sleep apnea sleepwalking
difference between the major sleep disorders narcolepsy
night terrors sleep hygiene
3. DRUGS AND CONSCIOUSNESS
Key Terms
Understand the nature of drug tolerance, tolerance
physical dependence
signs of dependence
dependence, and addiction
withdrawal
psychological dependence
addiction
psychoactive drugs
Know which drugs are depressants, and
depressants
opiates
their effects on consciousness and the body barbiturates
alcohol
Know which drugs are stimulants, and
stimulants
methamphetamine
cocaine
their effects on consciousness and the body caffeine
nicotine
ecstasy
Know which drugs are hallucinogens, and Marijuana (THC)
hallucinogens
their effects on consciousness and the body LSD
CHAPTER 4 - DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFESPAN
1. INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD
Key Terms
Know abilities and instincts of newborns
rooting reflex
voice preferences
preference for social
sucking reflex
habituation
objects
crying when hungry infancy
childhood
Know the developmental changes in brain maturation
infantile amnesia
sequence
and motor abilities during infancy and
timing
childhood
Know the stages of cognitive development, cognition
object permanence
sensorimotor stage
as well as the developmental milestones
egocentrism
preoperational stage
at the various stages
theory of mind
concrete operations stage
formal operations stage
conservation
schemas
Know how parent-child attachments form attachment
during infancy
Understand the differencesbetween in
secure attachment
insecure attachment (anxious)
different attachment styles
insecure attachment (avoidant) temperament
strange situation
Understand how childhood neglect or
abuse affects children’s attachments
Know the three parenting styles, and
authoritative
authoritarian
explain how children’s traits relate to them permissive
2. ADOLESCENCE
Key Terms
Understand how physical changes affect
adolescence
primary sex characteristics
developing teens
puberty
secondary sex characteristics
Understand adolescent cognitive and moral preconventional stage
formal operations
development, according to Piaget, Kohlberg conventional stage
moral reasoning
postconventional stage
moral intuition
Know the characteristics of emerging
emerging adulthood
adulthood
CHAPTER 5 - GENDER AND SEXUALITY
1.GENDER DEVELOPMENT
Key Terms
Know gender similarities and differences in gender
sex
aggression, social power, and social
social power
connectedness.
social connectedness
social communication
Know how biological sex is determined,
x chromosome female
intersex
and how sex hormones influence prenatal y chromosome testosterone primary sex characteristics
and adolescent development
male
estrogen
secondary sex characteristics
Know how gender roles and gender typing gender identity social learning theory
gender typed
influence gender development
gender role
transgender
gender schema
gender reassignment
gender expression
2. HUMAN SEXUALITY
Key Terms
Understand how hormones influence
estrogen
human sexual motivation
testosterone
Know how external and imagined
external stimuli
stimuli contribute to sexual arousal
imagined stimuli
Understand the psychological, social, and premature ejaculation
lack of orgasm response
biological causes of sexual response
erectile dysfunction
disorders
low sexual desire
3. SEXUAL ORIENTATION
Key Terms
Know the definition of sexual orientation, heterosexual
bisexual
sexual orientation
and the various known orientations
homosexual
asexual
attraction
Know the biological, genetic, and behavioral
differences between heterosexual men
and women, and gay men and lesbians
Knowthe various causes of sexual
Brain differences
orientation, and whether it is fixed at birth Prenatal hormones
or is influenced by the environment
Genes
Exam 1 Review Guide
Introduction to Psychology
Chapters 2-5
Exam 1 will be 50 multiple-choice questions, approximately 12-13 questions per chapter. You will have
exactly 1 hour 15 min to complete the exam
* Questions will range from definitions and identification of terms to conceptual questions (see
practice questions in text book at the end of each chapter)
* Be sure to study all terms, as well as the concepts covered in the chapters
*
It is highly recommended that you do the end of chapter exercises in the text as practice to
prepare for the exam
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