55 TestBank TB

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Biology, 7e (Campbell)
Chapter 55: Conservation Biology and Restoration Ecology
Chapter Questions
1) What is the estimated number of extant species on Earth?
A) 1,000 to 50,000
B) 50,000 to 150,000
C) 500,000 to 1,000,000
D) 10,000,000 to 200,000,000
E) 5 billion-10 billion
Answer: D
Topic: Overview
Skill: Knowledge
2) Estimates of current rates of extinction
A) indicate that we have reached a state of unstable equilibrium in which speciation and extinction rates are
approximately equal.
B) suggest that one-half of all animal and plant species may be gone by the year 2100.
C) indicate that rates may be 1,000 times higher than at any other time in the last 100,000 years.
D) B and C only
E) A, B, and C
Answer: C
Topic: Overview
Skill: Knowledge
3) Extinction is a natural phenomenon. It is estimated that 99% of all species that ever lived are now extinct. Why then
do we say that we are now in a biodiversity crisis?
A) Humans are ethically responsible for protecting endangered species.
B) Scientists have finally identified most of the species on Earth and are thus able to quantify the number of species
becoming extinct.
C) The current rate of extinction is as much as 1,000 times higher than at any other time in the last 100,000 years.
D) Humans have greater medical needs than at any other time in history, and many potential medicinal compounds are
being lost as plant species become extinct.
E) Most biodiversity hot spots have been destroyed by recent ecological disasters.
Answer: C
Topic: Overview
Skill: Comprehension
4) Although extinction is a natural process, current extinctions are of concern to environmentalists because
A) more animals than ever before are going extinct.
B) most current extinctions are caused by introduced species.
C) the rate of extinction is unusually high.
D) current extinction is primarily affecting plant diversity.
E) none of the above
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 55.1
Skill: Knowledge
1
5) Which of the following terms includes all of the others?
A) species diversity
B) biodiversity
C) genetic diversity
D) ecosystem diversity
E) species richness
Answer: B
Topic: Concept 55.1
Skill: Knowledge
6) The Nile perch (Lates niloticus) is a good example of a(n)
A) introduced predator.
B) endangered endemic.
C) population sink.
D) threatened migratory species.
E) primary consumer.
Answer: A
Topic: Concept 55.1
Skill: Knowledge
7) According to the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), the difference between an endangered species and a
threatened one is that
A) an endangered species is closer to extinction.
B) a threatened species is closer to extinction.
C) threatened species are endangered species outside the U.S. borders.
D) endangered species are mainly tropical.
E) There is no real difference.
Answer: A
Topic: Concept 55.1
Skill: Knowledge
8) In order to better understand the extent of current extinctions, it will be necessary to
A) monitor atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.
B) differentiate between plant extinction and animal extinction.
C) focus on identifying more species of mammals and birds.
D) identify more of the yet unknown species of organisms on Earth.
E) use the average extinction rates of vertebrates as a baseline.
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 55.1
Skill: Comprehension
9) Carbon dioxide and other gases prevent some heat from escaping Earth's atmosphere. This is known as the ________
effect.
A) warming
B) summer
C) carbon
D) carbon dioxide
E) greenhouse
Answer: E
Topic: Concept 55.1
Skill: Knowledge
2
10) What is the term for a top predator that contributes to the maintenance of species diversity among its animal prey?
A) keystone species
B) keystone mutualist
C) landscape species
D) primary consumer
E) tertiary consumer
Answer: A
Topic: Concepts 55.1, 55.2
Skill: Comprehension
11) E.O. Wilson coined the term ________ for our innate appreciation of wild environments and living organisms.
A) bioremediation
B) bioethics
C) biophilia
D) biophobia
E) landscape ecology
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 55.1
Skill: Knowledge
12) In which ocean would you find the island of Madagascar?
A) North Atlantic
B) South Atlantic
C) Indian
D) North Pacific
E) South Pacific
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 55.1
Skill: Knowledge
13) Which of the following would not qualify as an ecosystem service?
A) rain falling to the ground
B) blowfly larvae infesting a deer carcass
C) bees pollinating an apple tree
D) squirrels burying acorns
E) leaves falling on a forest floor
Answer: A
Topic: Concept 55.1
Skill: Comprehension
14) Suppose you attend a town meeting at which some experts tell the audience that they have performed a cost-benefit
analysis of a proposed transit system that would probably reduce overall air pollution and fossil fuel consumption. The
analysis, however, reveals that ticket prices will not cover the cost of operating the system when fuel, wages, and
equipment are taken into account. As a biologist, you know that if ecosystem services had been included in the analysis
the experts might have arrived at a different answer. Why are ecosystem services rarely included in economic analyses?
A) Their cost is difficult to quantify.
B) They are not worth much.
C) People take them for granted.
D) A and C only
E) A, B and C
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 55.1
Skill: Comprehension
15) One level of the biodiversity crisis is the potential loss of ecosystems. The most serious consequence of a likely
loss in ecosystem diversity would be the
A) increase in global warming and thinning of the ozone layer.
B) loss of ecosystem services on which people depend.
C) increase in the dominance of edge-adapted species.
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D) loss of source of genetic diversity to preserve endangered species.
E) loss of species for "bioprospecting."
Answer: B
Topic: Concept 55.1
Skill: Comprehension
16) Which of the following most directly relates to the current biodiversity crisis?
A) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide
B) ozone depletion
C) overexploitation of species
D) habitat destruction
E) zoned reserves
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 55.1
Skill: Knowledge
17) According to most conservation biologists, the single greatest threat to global biodiversity is
A) chemical pollution of water and air.
B) stratospheric ozone depletion.
C) insufficient recycling programs for nonrenewable resources.
D) alteration or destruction of the physical habitat.
E) global climate change resulting from a variety of human activities.
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 55.1
Skill: Knowledge
18) Which of the following statements is false?
A) Within the contiguous United States, more than 50% of wetlands have been drained since the arrival of the first
European settlers.
B) In Central America and Mexico, approximately 98% of tropical dry forests have been cleared.
C) Given current trends, we can expect at least 20% of the biosphere eventually to be protected in nature reserves.
D) Of the southern Wisconsin prairie that greeted early settlers, less than 0.1% remains.
E) The United States contains over 50,000 introduced species.
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 55.1
Skill: Knowledge
19) How is habitat fragmentation related to extinction?
A) Less carbon dioxide is absorbed by plants.
B) More soil is subject to erosion.
C) Populations of organisms in fragments are smaller and, thus, more susceptible to extinction.
D) Animals are forced out of habitat fragments.
E) Fragments generate silt that negatively affects drainages.
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 55.1
Skill: Comprehension
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20) Which of the following is not an example of an introduced species?
A) brown tree snakes in Guam
B) timber wolves in Minnesota
C) zebra mussels in the Great Lakes
D) kudzu plants in the southern United States
E) starlings in New York
Answer: B
Topic: Concept 55.1
Skill: Knowledge
21) Introduced species can have deleterious effects on biological communities by
A) preying on native species.
B) competing with native species for resources.
C) displacing native species.
D) A and B only
E) A, B, and C
Answer: E
Topic: Concept 55.1
Skill: Knowledge
22) Introduced species
A) are a problem because they can prey on or outcompete native species.
B) are sometimes present as a result of attempts at biological control.
C) are sometimes accidentally transported to new environments.
D) A and B only
E) A, B, and C
Answer: E
Topic: Concept 55.1
Skill: Comprehension
23) Overexploitation encourages extinction and is most likely to affect
A) animals with restricted habitats.
B) large animals with low intrinsic reproductive ratios.
C) most organisms that live in the oceans.
D) A and B only
E) A, B, and C
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 55.1
Skill: Comprehension
24) How might the extinction of some Pacific island bats called "flying foxes" threaten survival of over 75% of the tree
species in those islands?
A) The bats eat the insects that harm competitor plants.
B) The bats eat fruit that is part of the trees' reproductive cycles.
C) The bats roost in the trees and fertilize soil around the trees.
D) The bats pollinate the trees and disperse seeds.
E) The bats pierce the fruit, which allows the seeds to germinate.
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 55.1
Skill: Knowledge
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25) Which of the following does not represent a potential threat to biodiversity?
A) importing a European insect into the United States to control an undesirable weed
B) building a new mall on a previously unoccupied piece of midwestern prairie
C) letting previously used farmland go fallow and begin to fill with weeds and shrubs
D) harvesting all of the oysters from an oyster bed off the Atlantic coast
E) shooting wolves because they pose a threat to ranch cattle
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 55.1
Skill: Comprehension
26) Which of the following does not apply to the concept of the extinction vortex?
A) Populations of the species entering it are small.
B) The key factor driving the extinction vortex is intraspecific competition.
C) The genetic variation of the species' population decreases.
D) It is a concept developed by conservation biologists who adopt the "small population approach."
E) Interbreeding leads to smaller populations, which leads to more interbreeding, and so on.
Answer: B
Topic: Concept 55.2
Skill: Comprehension
27) Which of the following conditions is the most likely indicator of a population in an extinction vortex?
A) The population is divided into smaller populations.
B) The species is rare.
C) The effective population size of the species falls below 500.
D) Genetic measurements indicate a continuing loss of genetic variation.
E) The population is no longer connected by corridors.
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 55.2
Skill: Comprehension
28) According to the small-population approach, what would be the best strategy for saving a population that is in an
extinction vortex?
A) determining the minimum viable population size by taking into account the effective population size
B) establishing a nature reserve to protect its habitat
C) introducing individuals from other populations to increase genetic variation
D) determining and remedying the cause of its decline
E) reducing the population size of its predators and competitors
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 55.2
Skill: Comprehension
29) One chief area of concern among biologists who use the small-population approach is
A) intraspecific competition.
B) sexual selection.
C) genetic diversity.
D) runaway selection.
E) both A and D
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 55.2
Skill: Comprehension
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30) Which of the following is a method of predicting the likelihood that a species will persist in a particular
environment?
A) source-sink analysis
B) population viability analysis
C) minimum viable population size
D) A and C only
E) A, B, and C
Answer: B
Topic: Concept 55.2
Skill: Knowledge
31) Review the formula for effective population size. Imagine a population of 1,000 small rodents. Of these, 300 are
breeding females, 300 are breeding males, and 400 are nonbreeding juveniles. What is the effective population size?
A) 1,000
B) 1,200
C) 600
D) 400
E) 300
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 55.2
Skill: Application
32) If the sex ratio in a population is significantly different from 50:50, then which of the following will always be true?
A) The population will enter the extinction vortex.
B) The genetic variation in the population will increase over time.
C) The genetic variation in the population will decrease over time.
D) The effective population size is greater than the actual population size.
E) The effective population size is less than the actual population size.
Answer: E
Topic: Concept 55.2
Skill: Comprehension
33) Which of the following statements related to genetic variation is true?
A) Genetic variation does not contribute to biodiversity.
B) Population size is always positively correlated with genetic variation.
C) Populations with low Ne are relatively susceptible to effects of bottlenecking and genetic drift.
D) Recent increases in population size of the northern sea elephant are probably related to high levels of genetic
variation.
E) Cord grass populations that live in salt marshes require great genetic variation to thrive.
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 55.2
Skill: Comprehension
34) Which of the following life history traits can potentially influence effective population size (Ne)?
A) maturation age
B) genetic relatedness among individuals in a population
C) family size
D) A and B only
E) A, B, and C
Answer: E
Topic: Concept 55.2
Skill: Knowledge
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35) A population of strictly monogamous swans consists of 40 males and 10 females. What is the effective population
size (Ne) for this population?
A) 50
B) 40
C) 32
D) 20
E) 10
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 55.2
Skill: Application
36) The declining-population approach to conservation strategies
A) emphasizes the development of theories to understand the extinction process.
B) emphasizes smallness of a population as the ultimate cause of extinction.
C) emphasizes the environmental factors that cause a population decline.
D) is proactive.
E) both C and D
Answer: E
Topic: Concept 55.2
Skill: Comprehension
37) Which of the following statements about the declining-population approach to conservation is not correct?
A) We need information on whether the population in question is in decline or not.
B) We need to do something quickly, even if we have no information, because conservation biology is a crisisintervention discipline.
C) Several hypotheses about why the population is declining should be evaluated.
D) A proposed reason for the decline should be tested experimentally.
E) Humans may not be the cause of every population decline.
Answer: B
Topic: Concept 55.2
Skill: Comprehension
38) If we say a species is endemic to a certain area, we mean that
A) it is found only in one particular area of the world
B) it has been introduced to that area.
C) it is endangered in that area.
D) A and C only
E) A, B, and C
Answer: A
Topic: Concept 55.2
Skill: Knowledge
39) Conservation biology often highlights the relationships concerning which of the following?
A) science
B) technology
C) society
D) A and C only
E) A, B, and C
Answer: E
Topic: Concept 55.2
Skill: Knowledge
8
40) Modern conservation science increasingly aims at
A) protecting federally listed endangered species.
B) lobbying for strict enforcement of the U.S. Endangered Species Act.
C) sustaining biodiversity of entire ecosystems and communities.
D) maintaining all genetic diversity within all species.
E) both A and B
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 55.2
Skill: Knowledge
41) Which of the following would a landscape ecologist consider in designing a nature reserve?
A) patterns of landscape use by humans
B) human economic concerns
C) possible edge effects related to human activities
D) A and B only
E) A , B, and C
Answer: E
Topic: Concept 55.3
Skill: Comprehension
42) Which of the following statements is correct about landscape ecology?
A) It is the application of ecological principles to the design and construction of sustainable lawns and gardens.
B) It is the application of ecological principles to land-use planning.
C) It focuses primarily on human-altered ecological systems.
D) It deals primarily with ecosystems in urban settings.
E) It deals with the study of the home ranges of various animals.
Answer: B
Topic: Concept 55.3
Skill: Knowledge
43) Which of the following statements is false?
A) Edges become more extensive with increased forest fragmentation.
B) Edges are features of human-altered habitats only.
C) Edges frequently have their own biological communities.
D) The proliferation of edge species can have a positive or negative effect on biodiversity.
E) The interface between a forest and an adjoining field would be considered an edge.
Answer: B
Topic: Concept 55.3
Skill: Comprehension
44) A movement corridor
A) is a path used by migratory animals when they move to their wintering locales.
B) is the path most commonly used by an animal within its home range.
C) unites otherwise isolated patches of quality habitat.
D) is always beneficial to a species.
E) is always some natural component of the environment.
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 55.3
Skill: Comprehension
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45) Which of the following statements about movement corridors is true?
A) Corridors can be either strips or a series of clumps of quality habitat.
B) Corridors can be natural or constructed by humans.
C) Riparian habitats frequently serve as effective corridors.
D) A and C only
E) A, B, and C
Answer: E
Topic: Concept 55.3
Skill: Knowledge
46) Forest fragmentation is likely to result in
A) a loss of species that live in open habitat.
B) an increase in species that live in open habitat.
C) a loss of species that live in the interior of forests.
D) B and C only
E) A, B, and C
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 55.3
Skill: Knowledge
47) Wildlife movement corridors can
A) promote gene flow.
B) promote disease transmission.
C) assist migratory species.
D) A and C only
E) A, B, and C
Answer: E
Topic: Concept 55.3
Skill: Comprehension
48) Relatively small geographic areas with high concentrations of endemic species are known as
A) endemic sinks.
B) critical communities.
C) biodiversity hot spots.
D) endemic metapopulations.
E) bottlenecks.
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 55.3
Skill: Knowledge
49) Which of the following is (are) true? Biodiversity hot spots for plants
A) have high concentrations of endemic species.
B) have large numbers of endangered and threatened species.
C) can be underwater.
D) make up a total of only 1.5% of the global land surface.
E) All of the above are true.
Answer: E
Topic: Concept 55.3
Skill: Knowledge
10
50) Biodiversity hot spots are recognized on the basis of
A) their proximity to national parks and reserves.
B) the number of endemic species they contain
C) the degree to which the included species are threatened with extinction.
D) B and C only
E) A, B, and C
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 55.3
Skill: Knowledge
51) Problem(s) with biodiversity hot spot designation include
A) a bias toward vertebrates and plants.
B) the fact that not all species of interest occupy the same hot spots.
C) the fact that such designations only apply to terrestrial systems.
D) A and B only
E) A, B, and C
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 55.3
Skill: Comprehension
52) The term "biotic boundary" refers to the
A) area that an animal defends as its territory.
B) area needed to sustain a population.
C) home range of an animal.
D) distribution of an organism.
E) area where a species evolved.
Answer: B
Topic: Concept 55.3
Skill: Knowledge
53) Which of the following statements about protected areas is not correct?
A) Despite repeated efforts, zoned reserves are usually a failure.
B) National parks are only one type of protected area.
C) Most protected areas are small in size.
D) Protected area management must be coordinated with management of lands outside the protected zone.
E) Biodiversity hot spots are important areas to protect.
Answer: A
Topic: Concept 55.3
Skill: Comprehension
54) Which of the following nations has become a world leader in the establishment of zoned reserves?
A) Costa Rica
B) Canada
C) China
D) United States
E) Mexico
Answer: A
Topic: Concept 55.3
Skill: Knowledge
11
55) After a disturbance, natural recovery of a biological community is most strongly influenced by
A) whether the disturbance has been caused by humans or a natural agent.
B) the spatial scale of the disturbance.
C) whether the site is in temperate or tropical areas.
D) the availability of water nearby.
E) the season in which the disturbance occurred.
Answer: B
Topic: Concept 55.4
Skill: Knowledge
56) Human use of prokaryotic organisms to help detoxify a polluted wetland would be an example of
A) ecosystem augmentation.
B) keystone species introduction.
C) biological control.
D) bioremediation.
E) population viability analysis.
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 55.4
Skill: Knowledge
57) Which of the following is (are) related to the agenda of the Sustainable Biosphere Initiative?
A) defining what ecological studies are needed for conserving Earth's resources
B) maintaining productivity of human-made as well as natural ecosystems
C) understanding interactions between climate and ecological dynamics
D) resource management and development
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Topic: Concept 55.5
Skill: Comprehension
Media Activity Questions
58) The human population of Madagascar doubles every ________ years.
A) 10
B) 25
C) 40
D) 60
E) 80
Answer: B
Topic: Web/CD Activity: Madagascar and the Biodiversity Crisis
59) What is the cause of the red color of the waters about Madagascar?
A) dinoflagellates
B) a persistent red tide
C) the high concentration of iron found in these waters
D) soil that has washed into the ocean
E) red algae
Answer: D
Topic: Web/CD Activity: Madagascar and the Biodiversity Crisis
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60) In 1958 federal law restricted the movement of soil and plants from areas where fire ants were established. Why
was this law unsuccessful in stopping the spread of fire ant colonies?
A) People were unaware of the federal law, and when they moved, transported plants bearing fire ant colonies.
B) A single mated queen can be transported without being noticed.
C) Many states originally thought to be free of fire ant colonies already had them.
D) A and B only
E) A, B, and C
Answer: E
Topic: Web/CD Activity: Introduced Species: Fire Ants
61) A sink habitat is where a subpopulation's death rate is
A) equal to its reproductive rate.
B) greater than its reproductive rate
C) less than its reproductive rate
D) at its lowest
E) either equal to its reproductive rate or less than its reproductive rate
Answer: B
Topic: Web/CD Activity: Conservation Biology Review
62) Most biodiversity hot spots are in the
A) arctic.
B) coniferous forests.
C) deserts.
D) grasslands.
E) tropics.
Answer: E
Topic: Web/CD Activity: Conservation Biology Review
Self-Quiz Questions
63) Ecologists conclude that there is a biodiversity crisis because
A) biophilia causes humans to feel ethically responsible for protecting other species.
B) scientists have at last discovered and counted most of Earth's species and can now accurately calculate the current
extinction rate.
C) the current extinction rate is far higher than the rate at any time in the past 100,000 years.
D) many potential life-saving medicines are being lost as species become extinct.
E) there are too few biodiversity hot spots.
Answer: C
64) Which of the following directly addresses the growing concern over the loss of ecosystem diversity?
A) the small-population approach
B) restoration ecology
C) the declining-population approach
D) increasing effective population sizes of endangered species
E) managing populations to increase genetic diversity
Answer: B
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65) What is the effective population size (Ne) of a population of 50 strictly monogamous swans that includes 40 males
and 10 females?
A) 50
B) 40
C) 30
D) 20
E) 10
Answer: D
66) One characteristic that distinguishes a population in an extinction vortex from most other populations is that
A) its habitat is fragmented.
B) it is a rare, top-level predator.
C) its effective population size is much lower than its total population size.
D) its genetic diversity is very low.
E) it is not well adapted to edge conditions.
Answer: D
67) The discipline that applies ecological principles to return degraded ecosystems to their natural states is known as
A) population viability analysis.
B) landscape ecology.
C) conservation ecology.
D) restoration ecology.
E) resource conservation.
Answer: D
68) What is the greatest threat to biodiversity?
A) overexploitation of commercially important species
B) introduced species that compete with or prey on native species
C) pollution of Earth's air, water, and soil
D) disruption of trophic relationships as more and more prey species become extinct
E) habitat alteration, fragmentation, and destruction
Answer: E
69) Which of the following is not a step in the declining-population approach to conservation biology?
A) Gather data to determine whether a population is in decline.
B) Implement a conservation plan at the outset of a study, as it is too risky to wait until data are gathered and analyzed.
C) Develop multiple alternative hypotheses for the cause of population decline.
D) Include both human activities and natural events in the list of possible causes of a population decline.
E) Test the hypotheses for the cause of the decline, beginning with the hypotheses most likely to be correct.
Answer: B
70) Which of the following strategies would most rapidly increase the genetic diversity of a population in an extinction
vortex?
A) Capture all remaining individuals in the population for captive breeding followed by reintroduction to the wild.
B) Establish a reserve that protects the population's remaining habitat.
C) Introduce new individuals transported from other populations of the same species.
D) Sterilize the least fit individuals in the population.
E) Control and reduce populations of the endangered population's predators and competitors.
Answer: C
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71) Of the following statements about the protected areas that have been established to preserve biodiversity, which one
is not correct?
A) About 25% of Earth's land area is now protected.
B) National parks are one of many types of protected areas.
C) Most protected areas are too small to protect species.
D) Management of a protected area should be coordinated with management of the land surrounding the area.
E) It is especially important to protect biodiversity hot spots.
Answer: A
72) What is the Sustainable Biosphere Initiative?
A) a plan to convert all natural ecosystems in the biosphere to carefully engineered ones
B) a research agenda to study biodiversity and support sustainable development
C) a conservation practice that sets up zoned reserves surrounded by buffer zones
D) the declining-population approach to conservation that seeks to identify and remedy causes of species' declines
E) a program that uses adaptive management to experiment and learn while working with disturbed ecosystems
Answer: B
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