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Introduction to management

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Definitions
Management is the process undertaken by one
or more individuals to coordinate the activities of
others to achieve results not achievable by one
individual acting alone.
.
• The process of planning, organizing, leading
and controlling the work of organization
members and of using all available
organizational resources to reach stated
organizational goals.
• Management is the practice of consciously
and continually shaping organization.
• Work of management is making people
productive.
• Management is a problem solving process of
effectively achieving organizational objectives
through the efficient and effective use of
scares resources in a changing environment.
• Management is the process of planning,
organizing, leading and controlling an
organization’s human, financial, physical, and
information
resources
to
achieve
organizational goals in an effective and
efficient manner.
Some of the integral elements of the
above definitions
– Management is a process – A series of activities.
– Management is coordinating activities of others.
– Achieve results – To attain goals
– Management process includes planning,
organizing, leading and controlling
Resources
Money
Minutes
Information
Machines
Men
Material
Methods
ORGANIZATION
Definitions
Stephen P. Robbins
• Organization is a consciously coordinated
social entity, with a relatively identifiable
boundary, that functions on a relatively
continuous basis to achieve a common goal or
set of goals.
• Two or more people who work together in a
structured way to achieve a specific goals or a
set of goals.
BASIC ELEMENTS OF AN ORGANIZATION.
•
•
•
•
•
•
A common goal or a purpose
Make up of people
Have some programs of methods
Must acquire or allocate the resources
Depend on other organizations
Must have leaders or managers
Why we need organizations?
•
•
•
•
Some goals can’t be achieved individually.
To provide careers.
To serve the society
Have many culturally accepted values and
needs.
Rationale for Effectiveness and
Efficiency
Efficiency - The ability to do things right
(Resources)
• Efficiency is largely related to how well
resources are allocated to the task
Effectiveness - Do the right things. (Goals)
• Effectiveness is largely related to the
suitability of the output.
Managers
– Someone who works with and through other people
by coordinating their work activities in order to
accomplish organizational goals
Managers
Job Titles.
• …………………….
• ……………………
• ……………………
• ……………………
• ……………………
Types of Managers
• First-line Managers
– Are at the lowest level of management and manage the work
of nonmanagerial employees
• Middle Managers
– Manage the work of first-line managers
• Top Managers
– Are responsible for making organization-wide decisions and
establishing plans and goals that affect the entire
organization
Managerial Levels
Top
Managers
Middle Managers
First-Line Managers
Nonm anagerial Em ployees
What Do Managers Do?
– Planning
• Defining goals, establishing strategies to achieve goals,
developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities
– Organizing
• Arranging work to accomplish organizational goals
– Leading
• Working with and through people to accomplish goals
– Controlling
• Monitoring, comparing, and correcting the work
Skills of a Manager
– Technical skills
• Knowledge and proficiency in a specific field
– Human skills
• The ability to work well with other people
– Conceptual skills
• The ability to think and conceptualize about abstract and
complex situations concerning the organization
Managerial Roles
• FIGUREHEAD: the manager performs ceremonial
and symbolic duties as head of the organisation;
• LEADER: fosters a proper work atmosphere and
motivates and develops subordinates;
• LIASION: develops and maintains a network of
external contacts to gather information;
• MONITOR: gathers internal and external
information relevant to the organisation;
• DISSEMINATOR: transmits factual and value
based information to subordinates;
Managerial Roles…………..
• SPOKESPERSON: communicates to the outside
world on performance and policies.
• ENTREPRENEUR: designs and initiates change in
the organisation;
• DISTURBANCE HANDLER: deals with unexpected
events and operational breakdowns;
• RESOURCE ALLOCATOR: controls and authorises
the use of organisational resources;
• NEGOTIATOR: participates in negotiation
activities with other organisations and individuals
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