Chapter 18 Long-Term Financing Lecture Outline Long-Term Financing Decision Sources of Equity Sources of Debt Cost of Debt Financing Measuring the Cost of Financing Actual Effects of Exchange Rate Movements on Financing Costs Assessing the Exchange Rate Risk of Debt Financing Use of Exchange Rate Probabilities Use of Simulation Reducing Exchange Rate Risk Offsetting Cash Inflows Forward Contracts Currency Swaps Parallel Loans Diversifying Among Currencies Interest Rate Risk from Debt Financing The Debt Maturity Decision The Fixed Versus Floating-rate Decision Hedging With Interest Rate Swaps Plain Vanilla Swap 313 314 International Financial Management Chapter Theme This chapter introduces the long-term sources of funds available to MNCs. Should the MNC choose bonds as a medium to attract long-term funds, a currency for denomination must be chosen. This is a critical decision for the MNC. While there is no clear-cut solution, this chapter illustrates how such a problem can be analyzed. A suggested method of presenting this analysis is to run through an example under assumed exchange rates. Then stress that future exchange rates are not known with certainty. Therefore, the firm should consider the possible costs of financing under a variety of exchange rate scenarios. Topics to Stimulate Class Discussion 1. Why would U.S. firms consider issuing bonds denominated in a foreign currency? 2. What are the desirable characteristics related to a currency’s interest rate (high or low) and value (strong or weak) that would make the currency attractive from a borrower’s perspective? POINT/COUNTER-POINT: Will Currency Swaps Result in Low Financing Costs? POINT: Yes. Currency swaps have created greater participation by firms that need to exchange their currencies in the future. Thus, firms that finance in a low interest rate currency can more easily establish an agreement to obtain the currency that has the low interest rate. COUNTER-POINT: No. Currency swaps will establish an exchange rate that is based on market forces. If a forward rate exists for a future period, the swap rate should be somewhat similar to the forward rate. If it was not as attractive as the forward rate, the participants would use the forward market instead. If a forward market does not exist for the currency, the swap rate should still reflect market forces. The exchange rate at which a low-interest currency could be purchased will be higher than the prevailing spot rate, since otherwise MNCs would borrow the low-interest currency and simultaneously purchase the currency forward so that they could hedge their future interest payments. WHO IS CORRECT? Use the Internet to learn more about this issue. Which argument do you support? Offer your own opinion on this issue. ANSWER: The swap rates will be in line with forward rates, so that MNCs will not benefit from borrowing low interest rate currencies and simultaneously hedging. Answers to End of Chapter Questions 1. Floating-Rate Bonds. a. What factors should be considered by a U.S. firm that plans to issue a floating rate bond denominated in a foreign currency? Chapter 18: Long-Term Financing 315 ANSWER: A U.S. firm should consider the interest rate for each possible currency as well as forecasts of the exchange rate relative to the firm’s home currency. The firm should also determine whether it has future cash inflows in any foreign currencies that could denominate the bond. Finally, the firm should forecast the future path of the coupon rate. b. Is the risk of issuing a floating rate bond higher or lower than the risk of issuing a fixed rate Eurobond? Explain. ANSWER: The risk from issuing a floating rate bond is that the interest rate may rise over time. The risk from issuing a fixed rate bond is that the firm is obligated to pay that coupon rate even if interest rates decline. Some firms may feel that a fixed rate bond is less risky since at least they know with certainty the coupon rate they must pay in the future. This question is somewhat open-ended. c. How would an investing firm differ from a borrowing firm in the features (i.e., interest rate and currency’s future exchange rates) it would prefer a floating rate foreign currencydenominated bond to exhibit? ANSWER: An investing firm prefers a bond denominated in a currency that is expected to appreciate and with an interest rate that is high and expected to increase. A borrowing firm prefers a bond denominated in a currency that is expected to depreciate and with an interest rate that is low and expected to decrease. 2. Risk From Issuing Foreign Currency-Denominated Bonds. What is the advantage of using simulation to assess the bond financing position? ANSWER: Unlike point forecasts, simulation provides a distribution of possible outcomes. Thus, the firm can determine the probability that a particular foreign issued bond will be a less expensive source of funds than a locally issued bond. 3. Exchange Rate Effects. a. Explain the difference in the cost of financing with foreign currencies during a strong-dollar period, versus a weak-dollar period for a U.S. firm. ANSWER: The cost of financing with foreign currencies is low when the dollar strengthens, and high when the dollar weakens. b. Explain how a U.S.-based MNC issuing bonds denominated in euros may be able to offset a portion of its exchange rate risk. ANSWER: It may offset some exchange rate risk if it has cash inflows in euros. These euros could be used to make coupon payments. 4. Bond Offering Decision. Columbia Corp. is a U.S. company with no foreign currency cash flows. It plans to either issue a bond denominated in euros with a fixed interest rate, or a bond denominated in U.S. dollars with a floating interest rate. It estimates its periodic dollar cash flows for each bond. Which bond do you think would have greater uncertainty surrounding these future dollar cash flows? Explain. 316 International Financial Management ANSWER: Exchange rates are generally more volatile than interest rates over time. Therefore the dollar payments made on euro-denominated bonds would likely be more uncertain than the dollar payments made on floating-rate bonds denominated in dollars. Also, the principal payment is subject to exchange rate risk but not to interest rate risk. 5. Currency Diversification. Why would a U.S. firm consider issuing bonds denominated in multiple currencies? ANSWER: The firm may issue bonds in multiple currencies to reduce exchange rate risk. This is especially possible when the currencies used to denominate bonds are not highly correlated. 6. Financing That Reduces Exchange Rate Risk. Kerr, Inc., a major U.S. exporter of products to Japan, denominates its exports in dollars and has no other international business. It can borrow dollars at 9 percent to finance its operations or borrow yen at 3 percent. If it borrows yen, it will be exposed to exchange rate risk. How can Kerr borrow yen and possibly reduce its economic exposure to exchange rate risk? ANSWER: Kerr could invoice its exports in yen and use the proceeds to pay back loans. Its economic exposure would be reduced because Japanese consumers would not be subjected to exchange rate swings. 7. Exchange Rate Effects. Katina, Inc., is a U.S. firm that plans to finance with bonds denominated in euros to obtain a lower interest rate than is available on dollar-denominated bonds. What is the most critical point in time when the exchange rate will have the greatest impact? ANSWER: The most critical time is maturity, since the principal will be paid back at that time. 8. Financing Decision. Ivax Corp. (based in Miami) is a U.S. drug company that has attempted to capitalize on new opportunities to expand in Eastern Europe. The production costs in most Eastern European countries are very low, often less than one-fourth of the cost in Germany or Switzerland. Furthermore, there is a strong demand for drugs in Eastern Europe. Ivax penetrated Eastern Europe by purchasing a 60 percent stake in Galena AS, a Czech firm that produces drugs. a. Should Ivax finance its investment in the Czech firm by borrowing dollars from a U.S. bank that would then be converted into koruna (the Czech currency) or by borrowing koruna from a local Czech bank? What information do you need to know to answer this question? ANSWER: Ivax would need to consider the interest rate in the U.S. versus the interest rate when borrowing koruna (the Czech currency). It would also need to consider the potential change in the koruna currency against the dollar. If it finances the project in dollars, it is more exposed to exchange rate risk, because the funds would be remitted to the U.S. before paying the interest expenses on the loan. Conversely, if it finances the project in koruna, it could use some of its local funds to pay off its interest expenses before remitting any funds to the U.S. parent. Another reason for borrowing from a local Czech bank is that the bank may help Ivax avoid any excessive regulatory restrictions that could be imposed on foreign firms in the drug industry. These potential advantages of borrowing locally must be weighed against the potentially higher interest rate when borrowing locally. b. How can borrowing koruna locally from a Czech bank reduce the exposure of Ivax to exchange rate risk? Chapter 18: Long-Term Financing 317 ANSWER: By borrowing koruna, the Czech subsidiary of Ivax should make its interest payments before remitting any funds to the parent. Therefore, there are less funds that have to be remitted (less exposure) than if the funds are remitted to the U.S. before interest payments are paid to a U.S. bank. c. How can borrowing koruna locally from a Czech bank reduce the exposure of Ivax to political risk caused by government regulations? ANSWER: By borrowing from a local Czech bank, Ivax may be able to avoid excessive regulations that could be imposed on foreign firms by the local government. Also, there is less chance of any extreme action to be taken on a foreign firm when that firm’s failure would cause defaults on loans provided by local lenders. Advanced Questions 9. Bond Financing Analysis. Sambuka, Inc. can issue bonds in either U.S. dollars or in Swiss francs. Dollar-denominated bonds would have a coupon rate of 15 percent; Swiss francdenominated bonds would have a coupon rate of 12 percent. Assuming that Sambuka can issue bonds worth $10,000,000 in either currency, that the current exchange rate of the Swiss franc is $.70, and that the forecasted exchange rate of the franc in each of the next three years is $.75, what is the annual cost of financing for the franc-denominated bonds? Which type of bond should Sambuka issue? ANSWER: If Sambuka issues Swiss franc-denominated bonds, the bonds would have a face value of $10,000,000/$.70 = SF14,285,714. Year 1 SF Payment SF1,714,286 Exchange rate $.75 Payments in $ $1,285,715 Year 2 SF1,714,286 $.75 $1,285,715 Year 3 SF16,000,000 $.75 $12,000,000 The annual cost of financing is 14.92% for the franc-denominated bonds. Since the annual cost of financing of the dollar-denominated bonds is 15%, Sambuka should issue the franc-denominated bonds. 10. Bond Financing Analysis. Hawaii Co. just agreed to a long-term deal in which it will export products to Japan. It needs funds to finance the production of the products that it will export. The products will be denominated in dollars. The prevailing U.S. long-term interest rate is 9 percent versus 3 percent in Japan. Assume that interest rate parity exists, and that Hawaii Co. believes that the international Fisher effect holds. a. Should Hawaii Co. finance its production with yen and leave itself open to the exchange rate risk? Explain. ANSWER: No. The exchange rate of the yen is expected to rise according to the IFE, which would offset the interest rate differential. 318 International Financial Management b. Should Hawaii Co. finance its production with yen and simultaneously engage in forward contracts to hedge its exposure to exchange rate risk? ANSWER: No. The forward rate premium should reflect the interest rate differential, so the financing rate would be 9% if Hawaii used this strategy. c. How could Hawaii Co. achieve low-cost financing while eliminating its exposure to exchange rate risk? ANSWER: Hawaii could request that the Japanese importers pay for their imports in yen. It could finance in yen at 3% and use a portion of the proceeds from its export revenue to cover its finance payments. 11. Cost of Financing. Assume that Seminole, Inc., considers issuing a Singapore dollar-denominated bond at its present coupon rate of 7 percent, even though it has no incoming cash flows to cover the bond payments. It is attracted to the low financing rate, since U. S. dollar-denominated bonds issued in the United States would have a coupon rate of 12 percent. Assume that either type of bond would have a four-year maturity and could be issued at par value. Seminole needs to borrow $10 million. Therefore, it will either issue U. S. dollar denominated bonds with a par value of $10 million or bonds denominated in Singapore dollars with a par value of S$20 million. The spot rate of the Singapore dollar is $.50. Seminole has forecasted the Singapore dollar’s value at the end of each of the next four years, when coupon payments are to be paid: End of Year 1 2 3 4 Exchange Rate of Singapore Dollar $.52 .56 .58 .53 Determine the expected annual cost of financing with Singapore dollars. Should Seminole, Inc., issue bonds denominated in U.S. dollars or Singapore dollars? Explain. ANSWER: End of Year: S$ payment Exchange rate $ payment 1 S$1,400,000 $.52 $728,000 2 S$1,400,000 $.56 $784,000 3 S$1,400,000 $.58 $812,000 4 S$21,400,000 $.53 $11,342,000 The annual cost of financing with S$ is determined as the discount rate that equates the U.S. dollar payments resulting from payments on the Singapore dollar-denominated bond to the amount of U.S. dollars borrowed. Using a calculator, this discount rate is 8.97%. Thus, the expected annual cost of financing with a Singapore dollar-denominated bond is 8.97%, which is less than the 12% cost of financing with U.S. dollars. However, there is some uncertainty associated with Singapore dollar financing. Seminole Inc. must weigh the expected savings from financing in Singapore dollars with the uncertainty associated with such financing. Chapter 18: Long-Term Financing 319 12. Interaction Between Financing and Invoicing Policies. Assume that Hurricane, Inc., is a U.S. company that exports products to the U.K., invoiced in dollars. It also exports products to Denmark, invoiced in dollars. It currently has no cash outflows in foreign currencies, and it plans to issue bonds in the near future. Hurricane could likely issue bonds at par value in (1) dollars with a coupon rate of 12 percent, (2) Danish kroner with a coupon rate of 9 percent, or (3) pounds with a coupon rate of 15 percent. It expects the kroner and pound to strengthen over time. How could Hurricane revise its invoicing policy and make its bond denomination decision to achieve low financing costs without excessive exposure to exchange rate fluctuations? ANSWER: Hurricane could invoice goods exported to Denmark in kroner instead of dollars. Thus, it would now have inflows in kroner that could be used to make coupon payments on bonds denominated in kroner that it could issue. This strategy achieves a cost of financing of 9 percent, which is lower than the cost of other financing alternatives. To the extent that the inflows in kroner can cover bond payments, this strategy is not exposed to exchange rate risk. 13. Swap Agreement. Grant, Inc., is a well-known U.S. firm that needs to borrow 10 million British pounds to support a new business in the United Kingdom. However, it cannot obtain financing from British banks because it is not yet established within the United Kingdom. It decides to issue dollar-denominated debt (at par value) in the U.S., for which it will pay an annual coupon rate of 10%. It then will convert the dollar proceeds from the debt issue into British pounds at the prevailing spot rate (the prevailing spot rate is one pound = $1.70). Over each of the next three years, it plans to use the revenue in pounds from the new business in the United Kingdom to make its annual debt payment. Grant, Inc., engages in a currency swap in which it will convert pounds to dollars at an exchange rate of $1.70 per pound at the end of each of the next three years. How many dollars must be borrowed initially to support the new business in the United Kingdom? How many pounds should Grant, Inc., specify in the swap agreement that it will swap over each of the next three years in exchange for dollars so that it can make its annual coupon payments to the U.S. creditors? ANSWER: Since Grant Inc. needs 10 million pounds, Grant will need to issue debt amounting to $17 million (computed as 10 million pounds × $1.70 per pound). Grant Inc. will pay 10% on the principal amount of $17 million annually as a coupon rate, which is equal to $1.7 million. It should specify that 1 million pounds are to be swapped for dollars in each of the next three years (computed as $1.7 million dollars divided by $1.70 per pound = 1 million pounds). 14. Interest Rate Swap. Janutis Co. has just issued fixed rate debt at 10 percent. Yet, it prefers to convert its financing to incur a floating rate on its debt. It engages in an interest rate swap in which it swaps variable rate payments of LIBOR plus 1% in exchange for payments of 10%. The interest rates are applied to an amount that represents the principal from its recent debt issue in order to determine the interest payments due at the end of each year for the next three years. Janutis Co. expects that the LIBOR will be 9% at the end of the first year, 8.5% at the end of the second year, and 7% at the end of the third year. Determine the financing rate that Janutis Co. expects to pay on its debt after considering the effect of the interest rate swap. ANSWER: The fixed rate of 10% to be received from the interest rate swap offsets the 10% payments made on the debt. Therefore, the annual cost of financing on the debt over the next three years is simply the variable rate that is paid out on the interest rate swap. This rate is derived below: 320 International Financial Management End of Year 1 2 3 LIBOR 9.0% 8.5% 7.0% Variable Rate Paid Due to Swap 9.0% + 1.0% = 10.0% 8.5% + 1.0% = 9.5% 7.0% + 1.0% = 8.0% 15. Financing and the Currency Swap Decision. Bradenton Co. is considering a project in which it will export special contact lenses to Mexico. It expects that it will receive 1 million pesos after taxes at the end of each year for the next 4 years, and after that time its business in Mexico will end as its special patent will be terminated. The peso’s spot rate is presently $.20. The U.S. annual risk-free interest rate is 6% while Mexico’s annual risk-free interest rate is 11%. Interest rate parity exists. Bradenton Co. uses the one-year forward rate as a predictor of the exchange rate in one year. Bradenton Co. also presumes that the exchange rates in each of the years 2 through 4 will also change by the same percentage as it predicts for year 1. Bradenton searches for a firm with which it can swap pesos for dollars over each of the next 4 years. Briggs Co. is an importer of Mexican products. It is willing to take the 1 million pesos per year from Bradenton Co. and will provide Bradenton Co. with dollars at an exchange rate of $.17 per peso. Ignore tax effects. Bradenton Co. has a capital structure of 60% debt and 40% equity. Its corporate tax rate is 30%. It borrows funds from a bank and pays 10% interest on its debt. It expects that the U.S. annual stock market return will be 18% per year. Its beta is .9. Bradenton would use its cost of capital as the required return for this project. a. Determine the NPV of this project if Bradenton engages in the currency swap. b. Determine the NPV of this project if Bradenton does not hedge the future cash flows. ANSWER: a. First, determine exchange rates to convert MXP into U.S. dollars. P = (1 + ih)/(1 + if) – 1 = –0.045 or 4.5% discount. The Mexican Peso is expected to depreciate 4.5% in each of the next four years. End of Year 1 = 0.20 × 0.955 = 0.191 End of Year 2 = 0.191 × 0.955 = 0.1824 End of Year 3 = 0.1824 × 0.955 = 0.1742 End of Year 4 = 0.1742 × 0.955 = 0.1664 Bradenton Co.’s cost of debt is 10%. Bradenton’s cost of equity is: Ke = Rf + B(Rm – Rf) = 0.06 + 0.9 (0.18 – 0.06) = 0.168 or 16.8% Given the tax rate of 30% and the 60%/40% debt to equity ratio, the cost of capital is: Kc = [D/(D + E) × Kd × (1 – t)] + [E/(D + E) × Ke] = [0.6 × 0.1 × 0.7] + [0.4 × 0.168] = 0.1092 or 10.92% Chapter 18: Long-Term Financing Year 1 After-tax profit in MXP Exchange rate Cash flow to parent PV (discount rate of 10.92%) NPV 321 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 MXP1,000,000 0.1700 $170,000 MXP1,000,000 0.1700 $170,000 MXP1,000,000 0.1700 $170,000 MXP1,000,000 0.1700 $170,000 $153,263 $138,177 $124,569 $112,307 $528,318 b. Year 1 After-tax profit in MXP Exchange rate Cash flow to parent PV (discount rate of 10.92%) NPV Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 MXP1,000,000 0.1910 $191,000 MXP1,000,000 0.1824 $182,405 MXP1,000,000 0.1742 $174,196 MXP1,000,000 0.1664 $166,357 $172,196 $148,260 $127,644 $109,901 $558,003 Solution to Continuing Case Problem: Blades, Inc. 1. Given that Blades expects to use the cash flows generated by the Thai subsidiary to pay the interest and principal of the notes, would the effective financing cost of the baht-denominated notes be affected by exchange rate movements? Would the effective financing cost of the yendenominated notes be affected by exchange rate movements? How? ANSWER: No, the effective financing cost of the baht-denominated notes would not be affected by exchange rate movements. Blades will use the cash flows generated by the Thai subsidiary in order to pay the interest and principal of these notes. Consequently, Blades’ financing cost of the baht-denominated notes will be the coupon rate of these notes (15 percent). The effective financing cost of the yen-denominated notes will be affected by exchange rate movements, since Blades would convert baht into yen in order to pay the interest and principal on these notes. For example, if the yen appreciates versus the baht, Blades needs more baht in order to pay the interest and principal on the yen-denominated notes. Thus, Blades’ effective financing rate for the yen-denominated notes would increase and may be higher than the 10 percent coupon rate on these notes. 2. Construct a spreadsheet to determine the annual effective financing percentage cost of the yendenominated notes issued in each of the three scenarios for the future value of the yen. What is the probability that the financing cost of issuing yen-denominated notes is lower than the cost of issuing baht-denominated notes? 322 International Financial Management ANSWER: (See spreadsheet below.) The annual effective financing percentage costs for the three scenarios of no change in the value of the yen, an appreciation of 2 percent, and an appreciation of 3 percent are, respectively, 10 percent, 12.20 percent, and 13.30 percent. Thus, the probability that the effective financing cost associated with issuing yen-denominated notes is higher than the financing cost of baht-denominated notes (15 percent) is 0. Calculation of Interest Expense: Annual Interest Expense of Yen-Denominated Notes (1,250,000,000 × 10%) 125,000,000 (1) Yen Value Changes by 0 Percent Annually Relative to the Baht End of Year: Payments in Japanese Yen Forecasted Exchange Rate of Japanese Yen in Baht Payments in Baht Annual Cost 1 2 3 4 5 of Financing 125,000,000 125,000,000 125,000,000 125,000,000 1,375,000,000 — 0.347826 0.347826 0.347826 43,478,250 43,478,250 43,478,250 0.347826 43,478,250 0.347826 478,260,750 — 10.00% (2) Yen Value Changes by 2 Percent Annually Relative to the Baht End of Year: Payments in Japanese Yen Forecasted Exchange Rate of Japanese Yen in Baht Payments in Baht Annual Cost 1 2 3 4 5 of Financing 125,000,000 125,000,000 125,000,000 125,000,000 1,375,000,000 — 0.3547825 0.361878 0.369116 44,347,815 45,234,771 46,139,467 0.376498 47,062,256 0.384028 528,038,513 — 12.20% (3) Yen Value Changes by 3 Percent Annually Relative to the Baht End of Year: Payments in Japanese Yen Forecasted Exchange Rate of Japanese Yen in Baht Payments in Baht Annual Cost 1 2 3 4 5 of Financing 125,000,000 125,000,000 125,000,000 125,000,000 1,375,000,000 — 0.358261 0.369009 0.380079 44,782,598 46,126,075 47,509,858 0.391481 48,935,153 0.403226 554,435,288 — 13.30% Chapter 18: Long-Term Financing 323 3. Using a spreadsheet, determine the expected annual effective financing percentage cost of issuing yen-denominated notes. How does this expected financing cost compare with the expected financing cost of the baht-denominated notes? ANSWER: (See spreadsheet below.) The expected annual effective financing cost of issuing yendenominated notes is 12.09 percent, which is lower than the cost associated with issuing bahtdenominated notes. Exchange Rate Scenario Scenario 1: No Change in Yen Value Scenario 2: Annual Appreciation of Yen by 2 Percent Scenario 3: Annual Appreciation of Yen by 3 Percent (1) Effective Financing Percentage Cost 10.00% (2) (3) = (1) × (2) Probability 20% Product 2.00% 12.20% 50% 6.10% 13.30% 30% 3.99% 12.09% 4. Based on your answers to the previous questions, do you think Blades should issue yen- or bahtdenominated notes? ANSWER: Based on the answers to the previous questions, it appears that Blades should issue yen-denominated notes in order to partially finance the cost of establishing a subsidiary in Thailand. 5. What is the tradeoff involved? ANSWER: The cost of financing in baht is known with certainty, because Blades could use bahtdenominated revenue to cover the financing costs. The cost of financing with yen is uncertain because Blades will have to obtain yen to cover the interest or principal payments of the yen loan. Solution to Supplemental Case: Devil VCR Corporation a. It can reduce its exposure to exchange rate risk, because it could convert the proceeds of the bond into pounds to cover future production expenses and could use a portion of the revenue in Singapore dollars each year to pay its coupon payments to bondholders. b. This approach would increase Devil VCR’s exchange rate risk, because it already has expenses in pounds and no revenue in pounds. c. This approach would not reduce the exchange rate risk resulting from the exporting program, because it is not offsetting the revenue received in Singapore dollars. 324 International Financial Management Small Business Dilemma Long-Term Financing Decision by the Sports Exports Company The Sports Exports Company continues to focus on producing footballs in the U.S. and exporting them to the United Kingdom. The exports are denominated in pounds, which has continually exposed the firm to exchange rate risk. It is now considering a new form of expansion where it would sell specialty sporting goods in the U.S. If it pursues this U.S. project, it would need to borrow long-term funds. The dollar-denominated debt has an interest rate that is slightly lower than the pounddenominated debt. 1. Jim Logan, owner of the Sports Exports Company, needs to determine whether dollardenominated debt or pound-denominated debt would be most appropriate for financing this expansion, if he does expand. He is leaning toward financing the U.S. project with dollardenominated debt, since his goal is to avoid exchange rate risk. Is there any reason why he should consider using pound-denominated debt to reduce exchange rate risk? ANSWER: Yes. Jim’s existing export business results in pound receivables. He could use some of those receivables to make interest payments on pound-denominated debt that was used to support his U.S. business. The U.S. business will generate dollar revenue. Thus, the firm’s exposure to exchange rate risk could be reduced when considering all parts of his business. 2. Assume that Jim decides to finance his proposed U.S. business with dollar-denominated debt if he does implement the U.S. business idea. How could he use a currency swap along with the debt to reduce the firm’s exposure to exchange rate risk? ANSWER: The Sports Exports Company could borrow long-term funds denominated in dollars to support its U.S. expansion. It could engage in a currency swap arrangement, in which pounds are exchanged for dollars. As its existing export business generates pounds (as receivables), those pounds could be exchanged for dollars, which are then used to pay interest on the U.S. debt. Part 4 — Integrative Problem Long-Term Asset and Liability Management Gandor Company is a U.S. firm that is considering a joint venture with a Chinese firm to produce and sell videocassettes. Gandor will invest $12 million in this project, which will help to finance the Chinese firm’s production. For each of the first three years, 50 percent of the total profits will be distributed to the Chinese firm, while the remaining 50 percent will be converted to dollars to be sent to the U.S. The Chinese government intends to impose a 20 percent income tax on the profits distributed to Gandor. The Chinese government has guaranteed that the after-tax profits (denominated in yuan, the Chinese currency) can be converted to U.S. dollars at an exchange rate of CHY1 = $.20 per unit and sent to Gandor Company each year. At the present time, no withholding tax is imposed on profits sent to the U.S. as a result of joint ventures in China. Assume that even after considering the taxes paid in China, an additional 10 percent tax imposed by the U.S. government on profits received by Gandor Company. After the first three years, all profits earned are allocated to the Chinese firm. The expected total profits resulting from the joint venture per year are as follows: Chapter 18: Long-Term Financing 325 Total Profits from Joint Venture (in yuan, CHY) CHY60 million CHY80 million CHY100 million Year 1 2 3 Gandor’s average cost of debt is 13.8 percent before taxes. Its average cost of equity is 18 percent. Assume that the corporate income tax rate imposed on Gandor is normally 30 percent. Gandor uses a capital structure composed of 60 percent debt and 40 percent equity. Gandor automatically adds 4 percentage points to its cost of capital when deriving its required rate of return on international joint ventures. Though this project has particular forms of country risk that are unique, Gandor plans to account for these forms of risk within its estimation of cash flows. Gandor is concerned about two forms of country risk. First, there is the risk that the Chinese government will increase the corporate income tax rate from 20 percent to 40 percent (20 percent probability). If this occurs, additional tax credits will be allowed, resulting in no U.S. taxes on the profits from this joint venture. Second, there is the risk that the Chinese government will impose a withholding tax of 10 percent on the profits that are sent to the U.S. (20 percent probability). In this case, additional tax credits will not be allowed, and Gandor will still be subject to a 10 percent U.S. tax on profits received from China. Assume that the two types of country risk are mutually exclusive. This is, the Chinese government will adjust only one of its taxes (the income tax or the withholding tax), if any. 1. Determine Gandor’s cost of capital. Also, determine Gandor’s required rate of return for the joint venture in China. ANSWER: Gandor’s weighted average cost of capital is: ⎛ D ⎞ ⎛ E ⎞ ⎟k ( 1 − t ) + ⎜ ⎟k k =⎜ c ⎝D+ E⎠ d ⎝D+ E⎠ e = ( 60% )( 138% . )( 70% ) + ( 40% )( 18% ) = 58% . + 7.2% = 13% Since Gandor applied a premium of 4 percentage points to its cost of capital for joint ventures in foreign countries, its required rate of return on this joint venture is 17 percent. Gandor also attempts to explicitly capture some types of country risk in the estimated cash flows, as explained shortly. 326 International Financial Management 2. Determine the probability distribution of Gandor’s net present values for the joint venture. Capital budgeting analyses should be conducted for these scenarios: • • • Scenario 1 Based on original assumptions. Scenario 2 Based on an increase in the corporate income tax by the Chinese government. Scenario 3 Based on the imposition of a withholding tax by the Chinese government. SCENARIO 1: BASED ON ORIGINAL ASSUMPTIONS (Probability = 60%) Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total profits (in CHY) CHY60,000,000 CHY80,000,000 CHY100,000,000 Profits allocated to Gandor Co. (50% of total) CHY30,000,000 CHY40,000,000 CHY150,000,000 CHY6,000,000 CHY8,000,000 CHY10,000,000 CHY24,000,000 CHY32,000,000 CHY40,000,000 $4,800,000 $6,400,000 $8,000,000 U.S. taxes paid (10%) $480,000 $640,000 $8,000,000 Cash flows from joint venture $4,320,000 $5,760,000 $7,200,000 PV of cash flows (using a 17% discount rate) $3,692,308 $4,207,758 $4,495,468 –$8,307,692 –$4,099,934 $395,534 Corporate income taxes imposed by Chinese government (20%) Profits to Gandor after paying corporate income taxes in China Gandor’s dollar profits received from China (based on exchange rate of CHY1 = $.20) Initial investment Cumulative NPV of cash flows $12,000,000 Chapter 18: Long-Term Financing 327 SCENARIO 2: BASED ON INCREASE IN CORPORATE INCOME TAX BY CHINESE GOVERNMENT (Probability = 20%) Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total profits (in CHY) CHY60,000,000 CHY80,000,000 CHY100,000,000 Profits allocated to Gandor Co. (50% of total) CHY30,000,000 CHY40,000,000 CHY50,000,000 Corporate income taxes imposed by Chinese government (40%) CHY12,000,000 CHY16,000,000 CHY20,000,000 Profits to Gandor after paying corporate income taxes in China CHY18,000,000 CHY24,000,000 CHY30,000,000 $3,600,000 $4,800,000 $6,000,000 U.S. taxes paid (0%) — — — Cash flows from joint venture $3,600,000 $4,800,000 $6,000,000 PV of cash flows (using a 17% discount rate) $3,076,923 $3,506,465 $3,746,223 –$8,923,077 –$5,416,612 –$1,670,389 Gandor’s dollar profits received from China (based on exchange rate of CHY1 = $.20) Initial investment Cumulative NPV of cash flows $12,000,000 328 International Financial Management SCENARIO 3: IMPOSITION OF A WITHHOLDING TAX BY CHINESE GOVERNMENT (Probability = 20%) Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total profits (in CHY) CHY60,000,000 CHY80,000,000 CHY100,000,000 Profits allocated to Gandor Co. (50% of total) CHY30,000,000 CHY40,000,000 CHY50,000,000 CHY6,000,000 CHY8,000,000 CHY10,000,000 CHY24,000,000 CHY32,000,000 CHY40,000,000 Withholding tax (10%) CHY2,400,000 CHY3,200,000 CHY4,000,000 Profits to be sent to the U.S. CHY21,600,000 CHY28,800,000 CHY36,000,000 Gandor’s dollar profits received from China (based on exchange rate of CHY1 = $.20) $4,320,000 $5,760,000 $7,200,000 U.S. taxes paid (10%) $432,000 $576,000 $7,200,000 Cash flows from joint venture $3,888,000 $5,184,000 $6,480,000 PV of cash flows (using a 17% discount rate) $3,323,077 $3,786,982 $4,045,921 –$8,676,923 –$4,889,941 –$844,020 Corporate income taxes imposed by Chinese government (20%) Profits to Gandor after paying corporate income taxes in China Initial investment Cumulative NPV of cash flows $12,000,000 Chapter 18: Long-Term Financing 329 SUMMARY OF SCENARIOS Scenario Original scenario Increase in corporate income tax by Chinese government Imposition of withholding tax by Chinese government Expected value of NPV NPV for This Scenario $395,534 Probability that This Scenario Will Occur 60% –$1,670,389 20% –$844,020 20% = (60% × $395,534) + (20% × –$1,670,389) + (20% × –$844,020) = $237,320 + (–$334,078) + (–$168,804) = –$265,562 3. Would you recommend that Gandor participate in the joint venture? Explain. ANSWER: The expected value of the NPV is negative. In addition, there is a 40 percent chance that the joint venture will have a negative NPV for Gandor. Thus, the project does not appear to be feasible for Gandor. 4. What do you think would be the key underlying factor that would have the most influence on the profits earned in China as a result of the joint venture? ANSWER: The key influential factor in this joint venture is probably the future economic conditions in China, which affects the demand for video cassettes and therefore affects profits to be received. Since economic conditions in most countries (especially those that are not fully developed) are uncertain, there is much uncertainty about the profit estimates used in this example. 5. Is there any reason for Gandor to revise the composition of its capital (debt and equity) obtained from the U.S. when financing joint ventures like this? ANSWER: Gandor may consider using more equity if it believes that the cash flows from joint ventures like this are very uncertain, in order to ensure that it maintains sufficient cash flows to cover its debt. 6. When Gandor was assessing this proposed joint venture, some of its managers of recommended that Gandor borrow the Chinese currency rather than dollars to obtain some of the necessary capital for its initial investment. They suggested that such a strategy could reduce Gandor’s exchange rate risk. Do you agree? Explain. ANSWER: In this case, the exchange rate is guaranteed by the government, so the concept of borrowing in the foreign currency to reduce exchange rate risk does not apply here.