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AP World History Unit 3 Review

Terms to Know:
Five Pillars of Islam:
○ Faith (shahadah): There is no god except Allah
○ Prayer (salat): Muslims must pray in the direction of Mecca 5 times a day. This can be
done in a mosque
○ Zakat: Muslims must give money to the poor
○ Fasting (sawm): During the month of Ramadan, Muslims may not eat or drink from
dawn until sunset
○ Hajj: Muslims must make a journey, called a pilgrimage or Hajj to Mecca at least once
in their life
Sunni v.s Shia Muslims:
○ Sunni believe that the caliphs, leaders of Islam, that were elected after Muhammad
were correct
○ Shia believe that the caliphs have to be related to Muhammad (blood relatives to
Muhammad are better than the caliphs)
○ Essentially Islamic rulers
Dhimmi v.s Mawali
○ Dhimmi
■ Non-Muslim under protection of Muslim law. A covenant of protection was
made with conquered “Peoples of the Book,” which included Jews, Christians,
Sabaeans, and sometimes Zoroastrians and Hindus. Adult male dhimmis were
required to pay a tax on their income and sometimes on their land.
Restrictions and regulations in dress, occupation, and residence were often
applied. In return, Islam offered dhimmis security of life and property,
defense against enemies, communal self-government, and freedom of
religious practice. In the modern period, dhimmi status has declined in
importance as a result of the formation of nation-states and Western or
quasi-Western legal codes
○ Mawali
■ Non-Arab Muslims. Initially referred to those captured during the expansion
of Islam throughout the Near East and parts of the Byzantine Empire who
ultimately converted to Islam. Also refers to clients of Arab tribes. Under the
Umayyad dynasty ( 661 – 750 ) mawali were not entitled to equal treatment
with Arab Muslims, particularly with respect to taxes. Preferential treatment
of Arab Muslims came to be a source of contention since it violated the
Quranic declaration of equality of all believers. Under the subsequent
Abbasid dynasty ( 750 – 1258 ), distinctions between Arab and non-Arab
Muslims were not stressed.
(Islamic mystics) were missionaries that stressed a personal relationship with Allah
vs. a particular form of ritual
○ Ship that sailed from Arab and India. Had a lateen sail. Smaller than junk ships
○ Lateen sail originally used in the Mediterranean and the Nile, and diffused to India
around the 8th century
Dar al-Islam
○ the citizenry abide by the ordinances, rules, edicts, and assembly of Islam.
Ibn Battuta
○ Later on around 1300 Ibn Battuta, a Moroccan explorer, will journey through most of
Asia, Africa, and parts of Europe
■ He traveled 73,000 miles - one of the world’s greatest travelers
■ Important in collecting history during this area (writes down oral history in
the Rohila as he travels). Published his exploits in “Journey”
Mansa Musa
○ Richest person OF ALL TIME. About 400 billion dollars in today’s money
○ Made a pilgrimage to Mecca and brought back many Muslim scholars
■ 12,000 personal servants, 500 servants carrying gold, 1,000 camels carrying
■ He gave away so much gold that he devalued gold in the region for the next
30 years
■ He killed Cairo’s economy by giving away so much gold (mega inflation).
However he came back, apologized, and fixed it. He built lots of infrastructure
along the way to Mecca. Pretty cool dude.
○ Mansa Musa’s capital at Timbuktu became a center for Muslim scholarship
○ Eventually, the Kingdom of Mali will collapse under the power of the Songhai's (in
○ A Bantu language that was spread because of the Bantu migration all throughout
Africa. A lingua franca in the region today.
○ Silk Road spread Black Death here first, then to the rest of Europe.
○ Byzantine Empire centered around
○ Church of Constantinople (Eastern Orthodoxy) influenced the East and Roman
Catholicism influenced the West
○ Muslims control Holy Lands and threaten Constantinople.
○ Famous for funding the city Constantinople (City of Constantine). It was the new
capital of the empire, and it centered power in the eastern part of the empire
■ An attempt to slow Rome’s fall
○ 3 Things to remember about Justinian:
■ The Justinianic Code, which kept ancient Roman legal principles alive
■ Flourishing of arts and sciences (Hagia Sophia)
Ambitious plan to reconquer the lost provinces of the western half of the
Roman Empire
● It kind of worked, but he destroyed Roman infrastructure in Italy,
bankrupted his coffers, and exhausted military resources
○ Greatest Byzantine Emperor (527 CE)
■ Recaptured old Roman Empire territory (map)
■ Expand trade
■ Promote Christianity
■ Updated architecture, improved education, created new laws and built
■ Build public works and buildings (Hagia Sophia)
○ Justinian Code: an organized collection of laws. Justinian took all the laws of the
Roman Empire and made them better by making the more equal and put them all
together in one place. Preserved Rome’s great legal contribution.
■ Served as the basis for the laws in many countries throughout history
■ Many laws today are related to the Justinian code
■ One of the 1st to specifically advocate against domestic abuse
○ Rejection of the use of icons. Destruction of religious images, monuments, sculptures,
in order to create a new
○ The "First Iconoclasm", as it is sometimes called, lasted between about 726 and 787.
○ The "Second Iconoclasm" was between 814 and 842. According to the traditional view,
○ Byzantine Iconoclasm was started by a ban on religious images by Emperor Leo III
and continued under his successors.
■ Ex. Muhammad destroyed pagan shrines
○ Why Rome split into Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox
■ Cause of Schism
Vladimir I
○ Similar to Justinian from the Byzantine Empire
○ This was Russia’s “Vladimir I”
○ Kievan Rus
○ Aristocracy class of Russia
○ The people of W. Europe needed feudalism to protect them from the vikings]
○ The Vikings would travel from their home in Scandinavia to attack villages
○ They would use their warships to bring huge armies of men to the European
■ The Vikings were strong because their warships were good in the nordic
waters- lined with black tar so they didn’t flood or sink
○ They would take anything valuable and leave before local authorities came
○ Some served as protectors for European kings
○ Fought England, explorers, traded, merchants
■ Find the Americas
○ Converted to Christianity
■ This pattern continues: invading tribes assimilate to common civilization in
W. Europe because of Catholicism, not political power
■ By the middle of the Middle ages, the Catholic Church is VERY powerful
○ Buddhist
○ Christian
○ A piece of land
○ Essentially lower lords in the European feudal system
○ Higher lords gave land to them in exchange for services, but they were pretty much in
the same social class
○ The economic system of feudalism
○ Peasants worked the land on behalf of the lord, the lord gave peasants protections
and a home
○ The Manor (the lord’s house and the surrounding area)
■ The lord provided housing, farmland, and protection
■ The peasants and serfs farmed the lord’s land, cared for his animals,
performed other tasks for the manor
● Peasants are free to leave, though often lack the means to do so
● The serfs are bound to the land they were born
● Around 30-50 serfs serving a single lord
○ There’s too much to put here lol
○ Popes are the head of the Roman Catholic Church
○ Center of the government
Magna Carta
○ After the death of King Richard, John I became king
■ He sucked
■ The nobles made him give up power
○ The Magna Carta was signed in 1215
■ Limited the power of the king
● The king’s power is not arbitrary or absolute
■ Gave rights to the people
● Jury trial, protection of the law
■ This was the first example of a limited government
○ Organizations of artisans allowed to operate in a land by a landholder
■ Usually operated under a single or related trade
Allowed for the sharing of trade skills and the refining of their craft
■ Almost like universities for craft skills
○ Required apprentices to travel to other regions to gain skills from other artisans
■ Journeymen
○ Philosophical systems and speculative tendencies of various medieval Christian
thinkers, who, working against a background of fixed religious dogma, sought to solve
anew general philosophical problems (as of faith and reason, will and intellect,
realism and nominalism, and the probability of the existence of God), initially under
the influence of the mystical and intuitional tradition of patristic philosophy, and
especially Augustinianism, and later under that of Aristotle.
Bubonic Plague
○ Affected large populations between 1330s and 1350s.
○ Scientists today believe that the plague happened because of a bacteria called Yersinia
pestis (common in fleas and carried by rodents).
○ People died within days. 75-200 million people dead across three continents. Killed
off ⅓ of pop in middle east and almost ½ of europe.
○ People in the 14th century did not understand how it worked.
○ Religious acts were done to try and rid oneself of it
■ Flagellation
■ Religious practice of whipping oneself for penance.
○ Called… Great Pestilence/Plague/Mortality → Black death.
○ Likely originated in China in 1330s
■ Traveled west along trade routes (land & sea 1340s)
○ Symptoms:
■ Fever
■ Gangrene
■ Chills
■ Cramps
■ Seizures
■ Swelling of the lymph glands (buboes)
Hundred Years War
○ Joan of Arc (French) receives message from three saints
○ King Charles VI signs treaty to end Hundred Years War
■ But disinherits his son, King of Valois from the throne
○ Saints tell her she needs to lead France to victory, and get King of Valois crowned
○ She runs away from home to Lord Baudricourt and tells him her situation. He thinks
she is insane, but then she gets a following and the Lord is like okay cool. She dresses
as a boy so she doesn’t get raped.
○ King of Valois gives her an army, they just attack the English because yolo
○ She gets hit by an arrow in the shoulder, but then the English surrender anyways.
○ Charles is crowned, tells her to capture Paris.
She goes and gets captured, gets burned at the stake because she’s wearing men’s
○ Social structure of the Aztecs.
○ Society divided people into 7 clans.
■ Redistributed land, organized labor langs, and military units, maintained.
○ Man made floating lakes created by the Aztecs
Cannibal kingdom
○ People eat people. Aztecs did this.
○ Probably for sacrifice or whatever
Waru waru
○ Process of water being absorbed into soiling.
○ Aztec irrigation system
○ Emperor of the Incas
○ People believed that he created Machu Picchu
○ United and expanded Incas
split inheritance
○ Children get inheritance divided
○ Families are going to want to move out in order to get more land for their children to
terrace farming
○ Farming uphill using a series of steps.
A part of the culture of the Incas
People (men) required to give years of service to the empire
Labor system for Incas
A part of the culture of the Incas
a group of families that worked a portion of land together.
Everyone belonged to an ayllu
Empress Wu
○ Wu Zhao was the first Empress of China
■ Ruthless towards enemies, compassionate towards peasants
○ Reigned during the Tang Dynasty.
○ Expanded economy, created secret police/guard, and lowered taxes on peasants.
tribute system
○ Center of T’ang tribute system
■ Independent countries including Vietnam, Korea, Tibet, and various central
Asian tribes acknowledged the supremacy of the Chinese emperor and sent
ambassadors to the city with gifts… indirect rule of these countries spread
Chinese influence and brought religion into china
○ Byzantine Empire
■ Use systems of tribute to keep foreign countries @ bay
● Much like the Han Chinese and the Xiongnu
● Aztecs in Mesoamerica
■ “I’m gonna beat you up unless you give me x”
■ Used this system to hold back forces along it’s borders
○ High degree that one can achieve in the civil service examination.
○ Top 1 - 2 percent of all test takers
Foot Binding
○ A woman’s feet would be bound shortly after birth in an effort to keep them small,
because large feet were considered masculine and ugly
○ Painful, deforming, sometimes crippling
Grand Canal
○ Sui Dynasty completed the construction of the Grand Canal, which connected the
Yellow and Yangtze Rivers.
○ Allowed for a great increase in the amt. of internal trade
○ Completed 605 CE, 1104 Miles
○ Goal was to link the rice-rich south with population in the north
■ South recieved Champa Rice from Southeast Asia
○ Increased communication, eased troop movement, imperial highway for emperor to
patrol his empire
■ Sui Yangdi traveled to villages on the canal, taking tributes and punishing
those who did not give him enough. Shows increased control given to the
emperor from the canal.
flying money
○ Paper money, because they could use it anywhere.
○ The Song Dynasty made junk ships
○ Junk Ships
■ Chinese
■ Song Dynasty = use for trade
■ Yuan dynasty = use for trade and war
■ Ming Dynasty - use with Zheng He the explorer
Champa rice
○ Introduced by Vietnam
Neo Confucianism
○ Confucianism had lost a hold since the Han Dynasty, but a new string of
Confucianism called Neo Confucianism brought back many Confucian teachings
during the Song Dynasty
■ Education was emphasized, women seen as subservient
■ Buddhism, for their more equal gender roles, is attacked
○ Neo Confucianism spread in East China
■ Appeal of Buddhism forced Confucians to rethink their philosophy, creating
Neo Confucianism
■ Combines through with the metaphysics of Taoism and Buddhism
■ Became popular in Japan, Korea, Vietnam
○ Expansion and growth of Chinese culture
Code of Bushido
○ “Code of honor” that Japanese samurai followed.
○ Similar to the Code of Chivalry that European knights followed
○ Required a samurai to sacrifice their entire life to their master, including their family.
○ Sometimes included upholding the familial relationships
○ Shogun’s soldiers
○ Samurai were skilled warriors who stayed a strict code of rules called Bushido
○ Third tier of Japanese feudalism pyramid
shogun (shogunate)
○ Starting around 1200 CE, emperors were replaced by powerful warlords called
■ The Emperor still exists, but he is a puppet to the shoguns- not actual power
○ Shoguns ruled through the feudal structure similar to Europe
○ Although the Emperors were technically on the top of the social hierarchy, the
shogun were the most important.
○ Japanese lord, similar to lords in Europe
Trung Sisters
○ The Trưng sisters were Vietnamese military leaders who ruled for three years after
rebelling in AD 40 against the first Chinese domination of Vietnam. They are
regarded as national heroines of Vietnam.
○ Vietnamese resentment towards Chinese, even to today.
○ China always trying to expand influence south and to conquer and control.
○ Important rivers for trade, Khmer Rouge has control over it, and there’s a lot of
Genghis Khan
○ Unified Mongol tribes in 1206
○ Mongol Policies:
■ Borrowed written script from the Turks
■ Created uniform legal code
■ Reorganized the military
■ Broke up tribal affiliations
■ Officials chosen based on talent
Kublai Khan
○ The grandson of Genghis Khan
○ Completely conquered China in 1279 CE
○ He started the Yuan dynasty in China
○ Unlike previous Mongol leaders, he liked Chinese civilization and trade
○ European trader, Marco Polo, visited the court of Kublai Khan and brought Asian
culture back to Europe
○ By the end of the Yuan Dynasty, almost all of the Mongolian Empire had fallen apart
Marco Polo
○ Born in 1254, Venice Italy
○ Traveled from Europe to Asia with his family from 1271 to 1295
○ Left China around 1292 to act as a consort for a Mongol princess being sent to Persia
○ Wrote Il Milione, which describes his experiences and influenced later adventurers
and merchants
Pax Mongolica
○ Mongolian Peace. Describes the eased communication and commerce the unified
Mongols helped create
○ A time of relative peace after the Mongol conquests
○ Guarded and protected the Silk Road routes, which helped Marco Polo (1200’s) and
Ibn Battuta (1200s) to travel
○ Started/Ended 1227-1367
Social Structure:
○ How did the position of women in Islamic society change from Muhammad to the
Abbasid Empire?
○ What was the role of women during the Middle Ages?
○ How were merchants viewed differently across civilization?
■ China center of trade
● But merchants not viewed that highly, because they do not contribute
to society like peasants
■ Lower class in japan
○ Discuss the status of women during the Tang-Song Era
■ Neo-confucianism sustains patriarchy within Tang-Song dynasty
■ Justinian law code
○ How did legal system in this time sustain or challenge class, gender, and racial
■ Emperor Justinian’s wife
● Legal protections
● Property rights
■ Mongols
● Challenge class
● But thought they were superior over CHinese
■ Peasant revolts
● Reinforce
○ What motivations led Islam to transform from a nomadic to global civilization?
■ Economic motivation.
○ What were the causes for the Crusades? What was the impact of the Crusades on
○ Compare and contrast Japanese feudalism with European feudalism
○ What was the impact of Mongol conquest on Russia? Islamic heartland? China?
■ Russia
● Isolated from rest of europe
● They have to give tribute to mongols
■ Islam
● Their city of Baghdad during the Abbasid Dynasty was destroyed,
marking the end of the Abbasid Dynasty
● Thrive as merchants, spread stuff to mongols
■ China
● Do not like chinese
● Social structure of yuan
○ Divided by race
○ Mongols
○ Foreigners
○ Chinese
○ Poor Chinese
○ What were the positive impact of Mongol conquests? Negative impacts?
■ Unified the people
■ Leads to the pax mongolica
■ Continuation of trade, cultural diffusion
Human Environment Interactions:
○ What caused the spread of epidemic disease during this time? What impact did its
spread have?
○ How did civilizations alter their environment for agricultural purposes in this time
■ Irrigation systems and stuff
■ Infographics (Freemanpedia)
How did human migration during this time period affect the environment?
■ Deforestation
What were the causes and effects of the spread of new foods and agricultural
■ Increase of population
■ Cause - trading and silk road
■ Rice
● All three types
○ How did Muhammad and Islam address the fundamental problems in Bedouin
■ Bedouin
● Nomadic tribes in Arabia peninsula
○ Independent groups
● Muhammed starts to preach islam and stuff then unifies all of the
tribes to create.
■ Fundamental problems are bedouin
● They are disunified
○ What are the basic beliefs of Islam
○ How did Islam spread to india, southeast asia, and sub saharan africa and how
successful was it in converting people in these areas?
○ What events led to the creation of the Orthodox church in 1054?
■ Iconoclasm
■ Schism
■ Diocletian
○ What was the role of the catholic church during the middle ages
■ Everything social, culture, economy, political
■ Very little central authority before pope
■ They are the only organization that is prepared to fill the void when
leadership crashes
○ What was neo-confucianism? How did it change the political and social nature of
○ Describe the culture of Heian Japan
■ Crash course of Heian Japan
■ Renaissance but for Japan
■ Samurai then rise up because of something
○ List the active trade routes in this time period and explain what goods, religions, and
disease spread along each of these routes in this time period.
○ Explain how manorialism supports feudalism
■ Depend on one another to exist
■ Feudalism social
■ Manorialism economic
How does trade impact the growth of cities? What cities rose in this time period
thanks to trade?
What economic innovations were made during the tang-song era?
Compare the economic activities of the Sudanic states (Ghana, Mali, and Songhai),
Great Zimbabwe, and the Swahili City-States.
■ Trans-saharan/gold-salt
● Ghana
● Mali
● Songhai
■ Great Zimbabwe
● Swahili city states trade through indian ocean with islamic
○ Combine bantu and islam language = swahili
● Central africa goods → indian ocean trade route
● Walls
○ Where aristocracy and nobility lived
Islam caliphates
Imperial china
Tang and Song
Understand bantu and migration
Live under sahara desert → desertification → yeet go south
Spread language (swahili)
Polynesian migrations
They explored islands of pacific ocean → spread language
Originate in polynesia
Women with no talent are the ones with great merit → no one will try to do anything
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