Biology Subject Area Test Review

advertisement
S.A.T.P. Practice
REVIEW
Chemical Basis of Life…
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Basic unit of matter….atom
Negatively charged part of atom…electron
Positively charged part of atom…proton.
Neutral part of atom…neutron
Protons and neutrons are in …nucleus.
Equal numbers of P and E make atoms
…neutral.
Chemical Basis of Life…
7.
8.
9.
Atoms of same element with different #;s
of neutrons are…isotopes.
Substance formed by chemical
combinaytion of 2 or maore elements in
definite proportions is a …compound.
A bond formed when electrons are
shared…covalent…Ex: H2O and C6H12O6
Chemical Basis of Life…
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Bond formed when electrons are
transferred…ionic…Ex.: NaCl
Molecule that has an uneven distribution of
charges…polar molecule…Ex: H2O
What kind of bond holds water
together?…hydrogen bond
Attraction of molecules of same
substance…cohesion.
Attraction of molecules of different
substance…adhesion.
Chemical Basis of Life…
15.
16.
17.
18.
Material composed of two or more
elements physically mixed not chemically
mixed…mixture.
Mixture in which all the components are
evenly distributed…solution.
Substance in which solute is
dissolved…solvent usually…???
Substance dissolved…solute.
Chemical Basis of Life…
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
Universal solvent….water
Mixture of water and nondissolved
substances…suspension.
Forms H+ ions in solution…acid (below 7)
Forms OH- in solution…base (above 7)
7 is …neutral.
Another name for base…alkaline.
Strong acid or base that prevents sharp
changes…buffer.
Chemical Basis of Life…
26.
27.
28.
29.
Molecules that contain carbon…organic
molecules
Type of bond that forms b/w carbon
compounds…covalent
Individual units… monomers…larger
units…polymers.
Living things use…carbs… as main energy
source. Plants use …carbs for structural
purposes.
Chemical Basis of Life…
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
All sugars and starches are …. Carbs.
Saccharide…sugar…so..all saccharides
are …carbohydrates!!!
Cellulose is a …carb
Three elements in carbs…C…H…O
Stored energy…lipids..cell membranes
have…phospholipids.
Chemical Basis of Life…
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
Fats, oils, waxes and triglycerrides are
….lipids.
Lipids are made of 3…fatty acids and 1
…glycerol molecule.
Monomer of lipid…fatty acid.
Elements in lipids…C…H…O
Water soluble??? NO…(dissolves in
water)
Chemical Basis of Life…
40.
41.
42.
43.
Store and transmit hereditary
info…nucleic acid.
Monomer of N.A…. Nucleotide…which
consists of a 5C sugar, phosphate group
and a nitrogenous base.
N.A. contain…C..H..O..N..P
Two N.A….DNA & RNA
Chemical Basis of Life…
44.
45.
46.
47.
Control the rate of chemical
reactions…proteins (enzymes)…transport
substances in and out of cell…protein
channels.
Monomer of protein…AMINO ACID!!
Sequence of ??? determines
protein…amino acids!!!
Proteins are made in ….ribosomes!!!
Chemical Basis of Life…
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
What distinguishes one Amino Acid from
another???…”R group”
Elements in a Protein…C…H…O…N
Process that changes one set of chemicals
into another…chemical reaction
Elements entering into a chemical
reaction…reactant.
Elements produced…products.
Chemical Basis of Life…
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
Chemical reactions always involve the breaking
of ….bonds…in reactants and the formation of
new …bonds… in products.
Substance that speeds up a chemical
reactions…enzyme… act as catalyst …not
affected by reaction…
Works by lowing activation energy…enzyme
Molecule enzyme bonds with…substrate.
Enzyme & substrate bind at…active site.
Chemical Basis of Life…
58.
59.
60.
The substrate is broken into …products.
When the enzyme and substrate are bound
together….enzyme-substrate complex.
Enzymes work best at certain…pH values.
Many are affected by …temperature…
The Cell…
1.
The cell theory states:
•
•
•
The cell is the basic unit of structure & function
in living things.
All living things are made of cells.
Cells come from cells.
The Cell…
2.
3.
4.
A thin, flexible barrier around the cell that
regulates what enters and exits the cell is the
….cell membrane.
A strong, layer around the cell membrane made
of cellulose and found in PLANTS is the …cell
wall.
A large structure that contains the cell’s genetic
material and controls the cell’s activities is the
…nucleus.
The Cell…
5.
6.
7.
8.
The small dark body in the nucleus where
ribosomes are made is the …nucleolus.
A jelly-like or colloidal material in the cell that
holds the organelles is the …cytoplasm.
Cells that do NOT contain nuclei or organelles
are …prokaryotes.
Cells that DO have a nucleus and organelles
are…eukaryotes.
The Cell…
9.
10.
11.
A specialized structure that performs
important functions is an …organelle or
little organ.
The main function of this is to provide
support and protection for the cell…cell
wall.
A tough carb found in the cell wall of
plants is …cellulose
The Cell…
12.
13.
14.
The granular material within the nucleus is
…chromatin… During mitosis it
becomes…chromosomes…which are distinct
thread-like structures that contain genetic info
passed from generation to generation.
A network of protein filaments that helps
maintain the shape of the cell is the
…cytoskeleton.
Hollow tubes that are part of cytoskeleton
…microtubules
The Cell…
15.
16.
17.
The organelle whose job is to assemble
amino acids using peptide bonds is the …
ribosomes.
The transport system is the … E.R. or
endoplasmic reticulum.
Organelle that processes, packages and
secretes large molecules is the … Golgi
complex, bodies, vesicles, apparatus!
The Cell…
18.
19.
20.
21.
Small organelles filled with digestive enzymes
that breaks down lipids, carbs, and proteins from
food particles is the …lysosomes.
The organelle that stores materials like water is
the … vacuole.
An organelle found in plants not animals that
uses sunlight to make food is the … chloroplast.
The organelle that uses food to produce energy
(ATP) is the …. Mitochondria.
The Cell…
22.
23.
24.
25.
The organelle found only in animal cells used
for cell division is the … centriole.
The core of nearly all cell membranes is a
double- layered sheet called … lipid bilayer.
The cell membrane has channels embedded
throughout called … protein channels.
The movement of a substance from high to low
concentration is … diffusion.
The Cell…
26.
27.
28.
The movement of WATER through a
selectively permeable membrane is …
osmosis.
Do either of these use energy? NO
In order for diffusion to happen there must
be a DIFFERENCE in concentration
called a …. Concentration gradient.
The Cell…
29.
30.
31.
Three types of solutions: equal strength…
isotonic… above strength…hypertonic…
below strength…hypotonic.
Organelle that controls osmotic pressure…
contractile vacuole.
Process in which protein channels help or
facilitate diffusion is … facilitated
diffusion… Does this require energy? NO
The Cell…
32.
33.
The type of movement in which a material
moves from LOW to HIGH concentration is …
active transport. Does this require energy?
YES
Three types of active transport… when a cell
takes in large particles… endocytosis … when
large molecules are taken in by WBC’s…
phagocytosis… when large molecules exit the
cell… exocytosis
The Cell…
34.
35.
36.
A separate role for each cell is … cell
specialization.
Levels of organization: cells – tissues –
organs – organ systems – organism
Photosynthesis equation:
6CO2 + 6H2O + light = C6H12O6 + 6O2
The Cell…
37.
38.
39.
40.
What are the products of photosynthesis?
Sugars and oxygen
What are the reactants of photosynthesis? Water
and carbon dioxide
Autotrophs or producers make their own food
through the process of photosynthesis.
A heterotroph or consumer can not make their
own food.
The Cell…
41.
42.
43.
44.
The energy molecule is ATP or adenosine
triphosphate.
The main pigment in plants is chlorophyll.
Photosynthesis takes place in the
chloroplast.
The opposite of photosynthesis is cellular
respiration also called aerobic respiration.
The Cell…
45.
46.
47.
48.
Cellular respiration equation:
6O2 + C6H12O6 = 6H2O + 6CO2 + energy
The reactants of cellular respiration are
oxygen and glucose
The products of cellular respiration are
water and carbon dioxide.
What energy molecule is produced by
cellular respiration….. ATP
The Cell…
49.
50.
51.
52.
Cellular respiration takes place in the …
mitochondria.
The process by which glucose is broken
down into 2 pyruvic (pyruvate) molecules
is … glycolysis.
Cellular respiration produces 36 ATP’s.
Cellular respiration takes place only in the
presence of … oxygen.
The Cell…
53.
54.
55.
If there is NO oxygen, … fermentation… takes
place… 2 kinds… alcoholic occurs in whiskey
and beer…. Lactic acid occurs in the large
muscles of the body.
Pyruvic acid is broken down into CO2 in a series
of energy extracting reactions in the Krebs cycle.
The only way to generate a continuing supply of
ATP is … cellular respiration.
The Cell…
56.
57.
58.
A popular Korean side dish made by allowing
Chinese cabbage to ferment is … Kim Chi.
The bigger a cell becomes, the more demands
the cell places on its .. DNA… and the more
trouble the cell has moving enough nutrients and
wastes across the cell membrane…. This is
called… DNA overload.
The process by which a cell divides into 2
daughter cells is … cell division.
The Cell…
59.
60.
61.
62.
The … cell cycle… is the series of events the
cell goes through as it grows and divides.
The cell cycle consists of … G1, S, G2, and the
M phase.
The longest phase of the cell cycle is …
interphase.
The centromere is located near the middle of the
chromatids.
The Cell…
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
The “M” phase stands for … mitosis.
Four phases of mitosis: PMAT …prophase…
metaphase… anaphase… and telophase…
Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
during … metaphase…
Chromosomes become visible during …
prophase and metaphase…
Chromosomes move Apart during …
anaphase…
The Cell…
68.
69.
70.
Two new nuclear membranes form during
… telophase..
Division of cytoplasm is called …
cytokinesis…
Cyclins… regulate the timing of the cell
cycle in … eukaryotic cells.
The Cell…
71.
72.
73.
A disorder in which the body’s own cells
lose the ability to control growth is …
cancer…
These cells continue to grow and form
masses called … tumors…
Two types of tumors: benign noncancerous… malignant – cancerous…
Download
Random flashcards

Arab people

– Cards

Pastoralists

– Cards

Nomads

– Cards

Ethnology

– Cards

Create flashcards