Vocabulary Biology chapter 5 lesson 1,2,3

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Biology Vocabulary
Cell cycle
The regular pattern of growth, DNA duplication, and cell division that occurs in
eukaryotic cells
Mitosis
The division of the cell nucleus and its contents
Cytokinesis
The process that divides the cell cytoplasm
Chromosome
One long continuous thread of DNA that consist of numerous genes along with
regulatory information
Histones
Group of proteins, that organizes chromosomes and around which DNA wraps
Chromatin
The loose combination of DNA and proteins
Chromatid
One half of duplicated chromosomes
Centromere
A region of the condensed chromosomes that holds sister chromosomes together (looks
pinched)
Telomeres
Repeating nucleotides at the ends of DNA molecules that do not form genes. They help
prevent the loss of genes
Prophase
First phase of mitosis when chromatin condenses, nuclear envelope breaks down, the
nucleus disappears, and the centrosomes and centrioles migrate to opposite sides of the
cell
Biology Vocabulary
Metaphase
Second stage in mitosis, the spindle fibers attached to a protein structure on the
centromere of each chromosome and aligns the chromosomes along the cell equator
Anaphase
Third stage in mitosis, sister chromatids separate from each other, the spindle fibers
begin to shorten and pull the sister chromatids away from each other
Telophase
The fourth stage of mitosis, a complete set of identical chromosomes is positioned at
each pole of the self, the nuclear membrane start to form, the chromosomes begin to
uncoil, and the spindle fibers fall apart
Growth factor
A broad group of proteins that stimulate cell division
Apoptosis
Programmed cell death
Cancer
The common name for a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division
Benign
Having no dangerous effect on health. It can be removed.
Malignant
Cancerous tumor in which cells break away and spread to other parts of the body,
causing harm to the organisms health
Metastasize
When cancer cells break away
Carcinogens
Substances known to produce or promote the development of cancer
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