Studies of Religion Study Note Aboriginal spirituality Students Learn about: Australian Aboriginal Beliefs and Spiritualities- The Dreaming Students Learn to: ● Outline the nature of the dreaming in relation to: -The origins of the Universe ● The nature of Dreaming -Explanations of creation are through the ancestral spirit beings. -A central meaning of The Dreaming is that it was a sacred, heroic time long ago when man and nature came to be. -All that is natural is connected through the dreaming and their creation. -Beings come, live, create, return, punish and grant. -Ancestral being are not worshiped but respected. -Sacred Sites -A Sacred site is a place or landscape that is particularly significant to an Aboriginal tribe. -They are a connection to the Dreaming or elders in burial sites. -The Dreaming is an inextricable connection to the land. (inseparable, strongly connected). -Also used for rituals: eg. initiation. Some sites are male and female -Specific and have unique stories for different groups. -Responsibility to pass on stories and protect the sites. Example: - Uluru Anangu people were created at the beginning of time by 10 ancestors outcroppings on the site represent ancestral spirits and by touching the rocks they can communicate with dreamtime and receive blessings from their ancestors. -Some rock paintings are forbidden for certain groups to see and therefore no photos can be taken of them. -Stories of the Dreaming Some stories explain creation and other beliefs - To teach proper behaviour - To teach roles of men and women - To teach knowledge about animals, places, survival skills, locations, food - To give a warning about dangers in the land or foolish behaviour - Family history/ origins of the tribe/ pass on information Example - Eaglehawk and Crow - Eaglehawk went hunting and asked crow to look after child - Crow said no, the child is too noisy - Crow killed the baby - too noisy - Eaglehawk returned and Crow gave the baby back saying he was “asleep” - Crow ran away - Found Crow, burnt him alive and his spirit turned to a black bird - This is why, today, Crows and Eagles fight as birds -Symbolism and Art - Aboriginal Art is abstract and communicates with the purpose to pass on and teach the Dreaming stories and their tribes beliefs. - Expressions of spirituality, they provide a direct spiritual connection with the dreaming. - The dreaming can be revealed through song, dance, art, rituals and stories. - They teach about right and wrong. And some art is Esoteric. - Esoteric = Intended for a specific people. Example - Eora Nation Boys - Eora nation boys front tooth was knocked out as a coming of age initiation ritual. ● Discuss the diversity of the Dreaming for Aboriginal People’s -There are hundreds of Aboriginal nations. Each one has a slightly different understanding of the Dreaming - Each has a slightly different language, beliefs, stories, rituals and totems that are unique to the particular Aboriginal nation (esoteric) - Despite diversity, there are common beliefs between different aboriginal tribes such as: - Each Aboriginal nation has its own Dreaming stories set and applicable within its land. There are common beliefs such as: - Respect for the land (custodians of the land, caretakers of the land, stewards) -Respect for ancestral spirits (DO NOT WORSHIP, respecting, acknowledging ancestors, bringing them from past to present) - Origin stories, knowledge and skill stories (how to survive, where they came from - Rituals for coming of age, death, roles of men and women - Art, dance music, laws ● Recognise the importance of dreaming for the life of the aboriginal people’s - The dreaming is everything an Aboriginal believes. It is their history, identity, spirituality and culture - The Dreaming is their creation and determines the roles, responsibilities and moral values of Aboriginal people (kinship). It also provided guidance on how to live their lives e.g. totem (spirit guide) (ancestor spirit for individual and tribe) - The Dreaming is the source of knowledge about their ancestral spirits. Without the Dreaming or the land, it is difficult to remember and honour the ancestral spirits. - The dreaming informs them of the sacred sites and their responsibilities to the sites and their ancestral spirits ● The inextricable connection of the dreaming, the land and identity. ● Investigate the inextricable connection of the dreaming, the land and identity. - Without access to the land, it is very difficult for an Aboriginal person to learn, pass on or experience the Dreaming - Thus, the identity of an Aboriginal person is inextricably linked with the land - Without access to their land, it is difficult to fully access their history, stories, rituals and ancestors - The Dreaming includes intricate knowledge of the land (e.g. routes, water, food, etc.). Without access to the land, it is difficult to know, retain or pass on this information - Sacred sites are linked to the land. Aboriginals cannot perform rituals responsibilities without access to the land Example - Stolen Generation - This is why the stolen generation so heavily affected aboriginals identities as they were taken away from their connection to the land. Christianity Students Learn about: Students Learn to: Origins ● ● The historical and cultural context in which Christianity began Jesus Christ ● Outline the historical and cultural context in which Christianity began -Has its roots in hellenistic Judaism and Jewish messianism -It began with Jewish messianic expectations -Developed into a worship of Jesus after his ministry on earth, his crucifixion, resurrection and missionary journeys by his apostles ● ● The development of early Christian communities Christianity: -Anglicanism -Catholicism -Orthodoxy -Pentecostalism -Protestantism -Early on, divergent Christian communities developed during the 1st and 2nd century CE -They gradually departed from the Pharisees and other jewish sects and evolved into ‘Orthodox’ Christianity -Christianity arose in hellenistic world of the first centurydominated by Roman law and Greek culture ● Examine the principal events of Jesus’ life -His birth- beginning of the earthly life of JesusChristmas- born to set us free of sin- humble beginnings in a stable ( Matthew 1-2, Luke 2) -His baptism by John the Baptist at the Jordan river- first act of his public ministry- symbolised him identifying with humanity as sinners even though he didn't need a baptism ( Matthew 3:13-17, Marj 1:9-11, Luke 3:21-23) -His first miracle- turns water into wine- shows his divine power over the elements of the earth- helped strengthen disciple faith ( John 2:1-11) -Sermon on the mount- Sermon preached by Jesus to his disciples in his public ministry- “Blessed are the meek for they shall inherit the earth”, “an eye for an eye”, “ ask and you will receive”, “wolves in sheeps clothing”- dealt blow to Pharisees- rallying believers ( Matthew 5: 1-7: 29) -Feeding of the 5000- from five small loaves and two fish he created enough food to feed 5000- picture of God’s power over earthly elements (Matthew 14:15-21, Mark 6:34-44, Luke 9:12-17, John 6: 5-13) -Raising of Lazarus- raised the brother of Mary and Martha of Bethany, shows power of God over life and death “I am the resurrection and the life” (John 11:1-44) Last Supper- last meeting with disciples- he washed their feet when they were arguing- showed that they should serve each other- gave command for those to love one another in the name of the holy spirit ( Matthew 26:1-30; Mark 14:12-26; Luke 22:7-38; John 13:1-38) -Crucifixion and Burial- Death on cross was the culmination of his ministry on earth- showed that he would die for the sins of the earth- reason as to why he was human -body laid in tomb under Sabbath- (Matthew 27:27-66; Mark 15:16-47; Luke 23:26-56; John 19:17-42) -Resurrection- empty tomb and news that Jesus had arisen- appearing to many- Jesus appeared to the disciples- (Matthew 28:1-10; Mark 16:1-11; Luke 24:1-12; John 20:1-10) -Ascension- Final act on earth was his acension to heaven- disciples were present- two angels came and told them he would return- he had defeated death and offered salvation ● Explain why Jesus is the model for Christian life -Without Jesus there is no Christianity -jesus being God’s son is God in human form -He was sinless- making him a model -The bible encourages to replicate his thoughts words and deeds -He died for our sins- without his death and resurrectionChristianity is meaningless -He allowed Christians to live a life in God’s kingdom and set the moral boundaries for all adherents ● Describe early development of Christian communities after the death of Jesus -After Jesus’ death- his disciples embarked on many missionary journeys past Jerusalem -Simon peter became the leader of the early church ● Outline the unique features of: -Anglicanism: -Book of common prayer is the foundation prayer book -The Liturgy of the Anglican community has their own daily experiences of daily office and daily devotion as well as liturgy on the holy day of Sunday. -The tradition of the liturgy is more involvement of the people and differentiates from the other variants where it isn’t so involved. Key festivals in the Anglican Calendar follow that of the Western church Calendar, and also Saints days and feast days which are acknowledged in the Book of Common Prayer -Catholicism: -Developed after the great schism in 1054 -Orthodoxy -Heart of orthodox is the Divine Liturgy (The service of the Eucharist in the Orthodox Church). -Icons of worship: Highly ornamented image of Christ, Mary, Saints etc… Justified as God is visible and clear to humans -Jesus as head of Church -Strong emphasis on Sacraments -Pentecostalism -Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement within Protestant Christianity that places special emphasis on a direct personal experience of God through baptism with the Holy Spirit. The term Pentecostal is derived from Pentecost, the Greek name for the Jewish Feast of Weeks. -Protestantism -Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians. It originated with the Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. Catholics believe that faith in God alone is needed to get into heaven, a tenet known as sola fide. Protestants believe that both good deeds and faith in God are needed to get into heaven. Principle Beliefs ● ● ● The divinity and humanity of Jesus Christ The death and resurrection of Jesus Christ ● The nature of God and the Trinity ● Revelation Outline the principal beliefs regarding the divinity and humanity of Jesus Christ John 5:16-27 “My Father is always at his work to this very day, and I too am working.” John 1:1-14 -comparing himself to God- but as a father- giving himself a divinity whilst also relating to God as a father- giving himself humanity John 1:1-14 ● Salvation “The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the one and only Son, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth.” -The word of god made flesh- showing he is man and Godcame from his father, humanity- full of grace and truthdivine nature Philippians 2:5-11 -The principle beliefs of Christianity are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The divinity and humanity of Jesus Christ The death and resurrection of Jesus Christ The nature of God and the trinity Revelation Salvation -The first two relate to the life and ministry of Jesus -The trinity relates to the belief that the Christian God is a personal God, best described as a complex monotheism as father, son and spirit. -The revelation relates to how Christians know God -Salvation relates to what Christians believe about their relationship with God, sin and life after death. ● Explain the importance of the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ for Christians “he who raised Christ from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies because of his Spirit who lives in you.”Romans 8:11 -Central concept in Christianity -Cross is the universal symbol of Christianity “Through him you believe in God, who raised him from the dead and glorified him, and so your faith and hope are in God.”- 1 Peter 1:21 -Easter one of the most recognisable celebrations in history -His death allows believers to live after death “I am the resurrection and the life. The one who believes in me will live, even though they die”- John 11: 25-26 -It is important as it solidifies the idea that Jesus is fully human and fully God -It also consolidates the idea that Jesus is sinless- with him dying for our sins- making him the one true messiah “Christ was raised from the dead, he cannot die again; death no longer has mastery over him. The death he died, he died to sin once for all”- Romans 6: 8-11 -His death consolidates him as human- making him relatable, whilst his resurrection consolidates him as a divine being -The living religion of Christianity “Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures” Corinthians 15: 3-8 ● Outline the beliefs of the nature of God and the trinity -One of the most distinctive beliefs of Christianity: 1) There is one God 2) The Father is God, the Son is God and the spirit is God 3) The Father is not the son is not the spirit. -The christian belief is that God exists in three persons having a single divine nature -The trinity consists of the father, the son and the holy spirit -The three persons are distinct yet they are of the same nature, essence, power and action. -They are co-equal and eternal. -”True God from True God”- Nicene Creed - “ One god in three divine persons” - “in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit” - Jesus referring to baptism “That whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life.” -John 3:16 Phrase: Trinity is a complex monotheism -Not modalistic, nor Tritheistic- both hereasies ● Examine the Christian understanding of Revelation -They regard Jesus as the supreme revelation of God -Being a revelation as in to witness him and his deeds -Christians also believe that God can give private revelations to individuals which can come in a variety of ways -The bible is one of the highest forms of revelation- they believe that the authors were under the influence of the holy spirit And behold, a voice from heaven said, “This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased.” Matthew 3:17 God said to Moses, “I AM WHO I AM.” And he said, “Say this to the people of Israel, ‘I AM has sent me to you.’” Exodus 3:14 ● Describe the christian understanding of Salvation -They believe that everyone is born in sin and need salvation to redeem themselves -They believe that one is saved by Jesus christ who is fully man and died for our sins- so that we can be redeemed -They emphasise that judgment in Hell is of limited duration -Salvation is ultimately the saving of the soul from sinthrough the life death and resurrection of Jesus -Cannot achieve salvation without believing in the trinityJesus is God and the holy spirit -Cannot believe that Jesus saves you- can only save you if he was God- unsinful, cannot be saved by someone who deserves death “For by grace you have been saved through faith. And this is not your own doing; it is the gift of God”-Ephesians 2:8 “He saved us, not because of works done by us in righteousness, but according to his own mercy”- Titus 3:5 Sacred Texts and Writings ● ● Identify the importance of the Bible in Christianity Bible -The bible is important to Christians for many reasons: 1. It contains teachings about the principle beliefs of Christianity 2. It contains teachings about ethics that Christians live their life by 3. It records the events of Jesus’ life, which is the model for Christians 4. It contains a historical record of God’s involvement in the world, and the worldview that God created the world, the important place of humans in the world, and information about God’s character. ● Overview -The Bible is the primary sacred text in Christianity -It is made up of 66 books and is divided into two main sections -The Old testament which contains 39 books and the New testament which contains 27 books. -These books were written over many different years in different years in different locations in different languages by different people. -The old testament would have been the scripture that Jesus had -The New Testament was written about and after Jesus’ life and ministry ● Examine extracts from the bible which demonstrate the principle beliefs of Christianity -The passages of: Matthew 16:13-20, John 1:1-14 and Hebrews 4:14-16 show the divinity and humanity of Jesus -The passages of: Luke 9:22, 1 Corinthians 15:12-19 and 1 Corinthians 15: 35-44 show the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ -The passages of: Luke 3:21-22, John 16:5-16 and 1 John 5:1-12 all show the nature of God and the trinity -The passages of: John 20:30-31, 2 Timothy: 3:15-16 and 2 Peter 1:20-21 all show revelation -The passages of: Matthew 25:26-31, John 3:16-17, Romans 5:1-11 Core ethical Teachings ● ● The ten commandments Outline the principle ethical teachings in: -The ten commandments 1) You shall have no other Gods 2) You shall not make idols 3) You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in Vain 4) Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy ● New Testament Ethics -The beatitudes -Jesus’ commandment of love 5) Honour your Father and your Mother 6) You shall not murder 7) You shall not commit adultery 8) You shall not steal 9) You shall not bear false witness against your neighbour(do not lie) -The beatitudes ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. (Verse 3) Blessed are the meek: for they shall possess the land. (Verse 4) Blessed are they who mourn: for they shall be comforted. (Verse 5) Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after justice: for they shall have their fill. (Verse 6) Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy. (Verse 7) Blessed are the clean of heart: for they shall see God. (Verse 8) Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God. (Verse 9) Blessed are they that suffer persecution for justice' sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. (Verse 10) -Jesus’ commandment of love “Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind” “Love your neighbor as yourself.” ● Describe the importance of ethical teachings in the life of adherents -Ethical teachings show Christians how to properly adhere to God -Set moral boundaries -Allows for one to honour the holy trinity -Following ethical teachings among other things grants passage into heaven Personal Devotion ● Prayer ● Describe the different types of personal prayer -Communion- (All day, all the time) -Supplication- (Lifting up your needs) -intercession (On behalf of others) •Spiritual Warfare — There are two types: Dealing with yourself (Your mind is the battlefield) & (Repentance and Forgiveness); Dealing with Satan and demons (Putting on the Full Armor) & (Binding & Loosing) • Prayers of Agreement (Corporate Prayer) •Watch & Pray (Continual State of Awareness as a Watchman on the Wall) •Prayers of Thanksgiving (Count your Blessings name them one by one) Islam Students Learn About Students Learn to Origins , Pre Islamic Arabia as the cultural and historical context for the development of Islam ● Outline the social conditions and religious practices that existed in pre-islamic Arabia Many separate tribes lined the Arabian Peninsula with a harsh and hostile environment that had numerous clan wars for power and land. Muhammad was born into the Quraysh tribe who were positioned in and around Mecca. Before Islam was founded, Mecca was a social and cultural hub for all sorts of religions who traded and bought new ideologies with them. ● Examine the principle events in Muhammad's life Birth - 570 The Prophet Muhammed First Revelation - 610 - Muhammad's first revelation was an event described in Islam as taking place in 610 AD, during which the Islamic prophet, Muhammad was visited by the archangel Jibrīl, who revealed to him the beginnings of what would later become the Quran. Emigration of Muslims to Abyssinia - 615 - The Migration to Abyssinia, also known as the First Hegira, was an episode in the early history of Islam, where Prophet Muhammad's first followers fled from the persecution of the ruling Quraysh tribe of Mecca. Prophets emigration to Medina - 622 - T he Hejira is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib, later renamed by him to Medina, in the year 622.In June 622, after being warned of a plot to assassinate him, Muhammad secretly left his home in Mecca to emigrate to Yathrib, 320 km (200 mi) north of Mecca, along with his companion Abu Bakr. Battle of Badr - 624 - The Battle of Badr, fought on Tuesday, 13 March 624 CE in the Hejaz region of western Arabia, was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraish in Mecca. Battle of Uhud - 625 - The Battle of Uhud was a battle between the early Muslims and their Quraish Meccan enemies in AD 624 in the northwest of the Arabian peninsula. Many Muslims were killed and the battle was considered a setback for the Muslims. Treaty of Hudaybiyyah - 628 - T he Treaty of Hudaybiyyah was an event that took place during the formation of Islam. It was a pivotal treaty between the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, representing the state of Medina, and the Quraysh tribe of Mecca in March 628. Hajj Pilgrimage - 629 - The first pilgrimage was the first pilgrimage that Muhammad and the Muslims made after the Migration to Medina. It took place on the morning of the fourth day of Dhu al-Qi'dah (629AD) Opening of Mecca - 630 Last Revelation - 631 - “And fear the day when ye shall be brought back to God. Then shall every soul be paid what it earned and none shall be dealt with unjustly.” - Sura 2, 281. Prophet Muhammad in the 7th century CE. Muhammad was born in Mecca in Saudi Arabia in 570 Death of Prophet - 632 - Died by fever in Medina. The development of Islam under the leadership of the four rightly guided Caliphs ● Explain why the Prophet Muhammed as the final messenger is the model for Muslim life - The Qu’ran is based and written around his teachings that were passed down from generations. - The only human to have been visited by God/Allah. - He has had a direct link to God, therefore understanding his words and wants. - The title of ‘Final Messenger’ is also a great significance. ● Describe the development of Islam after the death of Muhammed under the leadership of the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs, accounting the emergence of the Sunni and Shia - The First Caliph, Abu Bakr (632-634 A.C.) - He was a compassionate and honest leader. During the two years of his caliphate, Abu Bakr established Muslim domination in Arabia. - The Second Caliph, 'Umar (634-644 A.C.) Umar was a good administrator and, astute political leader and military general. Umar and the Muslim army conquered Syria and part of Egypt and Mesopotamia. - The Third Caliph, Uthman (644-656 A.C.) Uthman was a generous, gentle, and enterprising leader, but he also was charged with nepotism (favouring relatives in giving jobs). He was murdered by a group of Ali’s followers. - The Fourth Caliph, Ali (656-661 A.C.) - He was known for his bravery and humility. He faced powerful enemies including Aisha and Muawiyah, the Umayyad governor of Syria. . While Aisha’s armies were unsuccessful in the Battle of Camel in 656, Muawiyah’s armies faced Ali’s armies at the Battle of Siffin. Muawiyah ordered his army to place pages of the Qur’an on the end of their spears, and Ali’s troops refused to strike them. Thus Ali agreed to arbitration. Ali’s own supporters were shocked and formed a group called the Kharijites. Ali was struck down by one of their members in 661. - As successor to the Prophet, the Caliph was the head of the Muslim community and his primary responsibility was to continue in the path of the Prophet i.e. the caliph became the one who had two functions, Commander of the Faithful and the Imam (prayer leader) of the Muslims. - On his deathbed Muawiyah (Caliph from 661-750) nominated his son Yazid as successor, instead of Ali’s son Hussain. The Kharijites never accepted Yazid and formed the Shi’at Ali (Party of Ali and his descendents). ). The Shiite revolt culminated with the Battle of Karbala in 680, in which Hussain was slaughtered, and which split the Muslim community into two groups: the Sunni and the Shiite. Principle Beliefs ● The article of faith explained in the Aqida as: -Tawhid -Angels -Books of Allah -Rusul -Akhira -Fate/predestination ● ● Outline the implications of Tawhid for Muslim belief - The Tawhid outlines Allah is existing separately from creation in a transcendent way and Allah is all knowing, powerful and eternal. - Tawhid expresses the monotheism of Islam; and portrays Allah to be understood as being close to the heart of every person. - The concept of Tawhid is incompatible with pride as all individual gifts and talents are attributed to the gift of Allah. - Tawhid affirms that all things happen for a purpose ,whatever the circumstances this is what Allah has allowed, therefore acceptance of this leads trusting in the great love and compassion of Allah. - The implication of Tawhid is that Allah knows all things, therefore to act with impure motives which in effect seek to deceive others and deceive Allah . - Furthermore any belief that diminishes this faith in the oneness and absoluteness of Allah is referred to as shirk. - Tawhid leads to a greater surrender to the will of Allah, and It reminds Muslims that they are accountable for their actions and for their use of worldly possessions. Examine the role of the books of Allah and prophecy in Islam - - Prophecy is regarded as an important element of Muslim belief. It is the way in which Allah become revealed to humankind. - The Qur'an gives special attention to the figures that were responsible for the handing down of significant books. The scrolls given to Ibrahim are known as "Sahifa", the books revealed to Musa are known as "Tawrah", those revealed to Dawud are known as "Zabur" and the teachings given to Isa are known as "Injil". The revealed books of the rusul are known as the Books of Allah. - Muslims believe that initially each of these revealed books contained the complete revelation of Allah, however, over time they were not properly preserved and some such as the Sahifa given to Ibrahim have been completely lost. - These books of Allah have been changed and they no longer faithfully represent the message of Allah .Thus the scriptures of the Jewish and Christian religions are profoundly respected by Muslims, however cannot be relied upon because they have not been properly conserved. - The Qur'an is regarded as the last of the revealed books and surely stands apart as the reliable and complete source of the revelation of Allah. ● Outline the principle beliefs about Angels, life after death a nd fate/predestination - Angels are understood to be the messengers of Allah. Muslims believe angels to be creatures of light which exist everywhere throughout the universe and are constantly interacting with human beings as some people are occasionally able to see angels. - Muslims believe that each person has two angels designated to keep a record of their deeds, good and bad. - The Qur'an names a number of angels and designates specific purposes to each. - Jibril is the messenger bringing the word of Allah to those who are the chosen ones. - One of the muslim belief is at the time of death the angel Azra'il will be present at the side of the person dying to receive their soul as it leaves them. - The angel Israfil has the role of calling all souls of the Day of Judgment. - The angel Mika'il has the special role of guarding places of worship. - Muslim belief is human life on earth is a test and the outcome of this test determines the fate of the person for eternity. Muslims believe in a life after death which is known as"akhirah". - Each individual is called to respond positively to the will of Allah and submit to it and their choice to do so or to refuse to do so is the key factor in their destiny. - As well Muslims believe that everything that takes place is the will of Allah and they have been given free will in order to respond to those things and it is this response that is important. - Muslim belief holds that each person is entirely responsible for their own actions and every action thought in a person's lifetime is recorded and will be revealed at the time of judgment. - This record is kept by the two guardian angels which are assigned to each person and the opportunity to pass the test is limited to a person's earthly life. - The reward known as Paradise is described in the Qur'an as a kind of oasis in the desert. For those who fail the test, the punishment is known as Jahannam. The Qur'an describes this as a place of fire and hot winds, of torture and torment. - The Muslim belief is that It all happens by design, with a purpose and it is Allah the creator who determines what will happen.The idea that all things happen through the plan of Allah is called "Al-Qadr". - Muslims believe that while our destiny is already known to Allah, it is our free will and our choice which determines it. Each person is given the freedom to choose and Allah respects this free will absolutely. - Muslims reject any notion of fate as it is believed that fate is not compatible with free will and as such is rejected by Muslim beliefs. Sacred Texts and Writings ● ● Identify the importance of: The Quran and Hadith The Quran: - The Quran is the holy book of Islam and is viewed by Muslims as the direct word of God, the culmination of a series of revelations that included the Torah and the Bible. - The Quran is significant not only because of its history, but also because of its continual daily use in Muslim worship. - Muslims believe that the Quran was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad over a period of approximately 23 years by the angel Gabriel, who related to Muhammad the direct words of God. - Abu Bakr sought to preserve the Quran and ordered the compilation of a written version. Under his guidance, the fragments that had been written down were combined with the knowledge of others who had likewise memorized the revelation to produce the written Quran that Muslims use today. - Muslims use the Quran in almost all Islamic rituals. Muslim prayer consists of reciting various verses from the Quran, the most important being the first chapter, or sura, of the Quran, called al-Fatihah (Arabic for “the opener”) is also the comment verse in the Quran, similar to Christianities Lord Prayer. The Hadith: - The hadith represents a personal source of divine guidance which Allah granted his prophet which was similar in its nature to the Qur’an itself. The prophet reiterated this point in one of his recorded statements, “Indeed, I was given the Qur’an and something similar to it along with it”. ● Examine extracts from the Quran and Hadith which demonstrate the principle beliefs of Islam - “…. And We revealed to you the message that you may make clear to the people what was sent down to them and that they might give thought.”(Qur’an 16:44) - "He is Allah, the One, Allah is eternal and absolute" Sura 112. - "He sends forth guardians to watch over you" - Sura 6:61. - "Believe in what has been sent down to thee Muhammad and what has been sent down before thee" - Sura 2:4. - "Your good actions will benefit only you" - Sura 41:46. - "Whatever Allah grants to humanity of His mercy, no one can withhold and what He withholds no one can grant apart from Him" - Sura 35:2. - Surah 112 says "He is Allah, the One, Allah is Eternal and Absolute. None is born of Him, He is unborn. There is none like unto Him". - "No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision. He is above all comprehension, yet it acquainted with all things" (surah 6:103). - " It was We who created man, and We know even the secret suggestions his soul makes to him; for We are nearer to him than his jugular vein" (surah 50:16). - "The Lord said to the angels."when I have created Man and breathed My spirit into him then fall ye down and worship him." So all he angels bowed down in worship, all of them together. But not so Iblis the chief jinn: he refused to be among those who bowed down" (surah 15:28-31) - "Behold two guardians appointed to learn his doings, one sitting on his right and one on the left. Not a word does he utter but there is a sentinel by him, ready to note it." (surah 50:17-18). - "He sends forth guardians to watch over you and when death overtakes you, the messengers will carry away your soul." (surah 6:61) ● - Outline the principle ethical teachings within Islam The principal ethical teachings within Islam is: - To follow the will of Allah. - The primary foundation to guide them in ethical ways is the Qur’an. - The other books of Allah do not carry the same authority as the Qur’an; it is the initial source of Islamic teachings. - Islam does not recognise any differences among people, a major ethical belief is to love Allah, maintaining suitable values and do not degrade the opposite sex or sexual relationships. ● - Outline the process of Islamic Jurisprudence The most important source of reference for Islamic jurisprudence is the Qur’an. - This process involves knowledge and understanding known as “fiqh”. - The process of application of principles through analogy is called “qiyas”, which is used to determine appropriate responses to the complex issues of modern societies. Core Ethical Teachings ● Islamic Jurisprudence -The Quran -The Sunnah and Hadith -Ijma- consensus amongst religious leaders -Qiyas- comparison of teachings of the Quran or Hadith ● - - Expressions of Faith ● The five pillars are the expression of the faith of Islam Describe the importance of ethical teachings in determining that which is: Halal: Halal stands for things that are permitted, when something isn’t forbidden then it is permitted, but even though it is permitted it shouldn’t always be done. Haram Haraam represents actions that are forbidden; actions that are not approved are regarded as hateful and should never be done. Actions that could harm people in any given situation is to be avoidable. ● 1. 2. 3. 4. Texts to consult on ethical issues: Qur’an - The primary sacred text Sunnah - Examples from the Prophet Qiyas - Reasoning/Deduction Ijma - Norms/ Practices accepted by most ● Outline each of the five pillars - Shahada: . Shahada is a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God (Allah) and that Muhammad is God's messenger. "There is no god but God (and) Muhammad is the messenger of God." It is essential to utter it to become a Muslim and to convert to Islam. - Salah: Salah (ṣalāh) is the Islamic p rayer. Salah consists of five daily prayers according to the Sunna; the names are according to the prayer times: Fajr(dawn), Dhuhr (noon), ʿ Aṣr (afternoon), Maghrib (evening), and ʿ Ishāʾ (night). - Zakat: Z akāt or alms-giving is the practice of charitable giving based on accumulated wealth. The word zakāt can be defined as purification and growth because it allows an individual to achieve balance and encourages new growth. - Sawn: Three types of fasting (Siyam) are recognized by the Quran: Ritual fasting, fasting as compensation for repentance (both from sura Al-Baqara), and ascetic fasting (from Al-Ahzab). - Hajj: The Hajj is a pilgrimage that occurs during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah to the holy city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim is obliged to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their life.