sor notes

Studies of Religion Study Note
Aboriginal spirituality
Students Learn about:
Australian Aboriginal Beliefs and
Spiritualities- The Dreaming
Students Learn to:
Outline the nature of the dreaming in relation to:
-The origins of the Universe
The nature of Dreaming
-Explanations of creation are through the ancestral spirit
-A central meaning of The Dreaming is that it was a ​sacred,
heroic time long ago when man and nature came to be.
-All that is natural is connected through the dreaming and their
-Beings come, live, create, return, punish and grant.
-Ancestral being are not worshiped but respected.
-Sacred Sites
-A Sacred site is a place or landscape that is particularly
significant to an Aboriginal tribe.
-They are a connection to the Dreaming or elders in burial sites.
-The Dreaming is an inextricable connection to the land.
(inseparable, strongly connected).
-Also used for rituals: eg. initiation. Some sites are male and
-Specific and have unique stories for different groups.
-Responsibility to pass on stories and protect the sites.
- Uluru Anangu people were created at the beginning of time by
10 ancestors outcroppings on the site represent ancestral
spirits and by touching the rocks they can communicate with
dreamtime and receive blessings from their ancestors.
-Some rock paintings are forbidden for certain groups to see
and therefore no photos can be taken of them.
-Stories of the Dreaming
Some stories explain creation and other beliefs
- To teach proper behaviour
- To teach roles of men and women
- To teach knowledge about animals, places, survival skills,
locations, food
- To give a warning about dangers in the land or foolish
- Family history/ origins of the tribe/ pass on information
Example - Eaglehawk and Crow
- Eaglehawk went hunting and asked crow to look after child
- Crow said no, the child is too noisy
- Crow killed the baby - too noisy
- Eaglehawk returned and Crow gave the baby back saying he
was “asleep”
- Crow ran away
- Found Crow, burnt him alive and his spirit turned to a black
- This is why, today, Crows and Eagles fight as birds
-Symbolism and Art
- Aboriginal Art is abstract and communicates with the purpose
to pass on and teach the Dreaming stories and their tribes
- Expressions of spirituality, they provide a direct spiritual
connection with the dreaming.
- The dreaming can be revealed through song, dance, art,
rituals and stories.
- They teach about right and wrong. And some art is Esoteric.
- Esoteric = Intended for a specific people.
Example - Eora Nation Boys
- Eora nation boys front tooth was knocked out as a coming of
age initiation ritual.
Discuss the diversity of the Dreaming for Aboriginal
-There are hundreds of Aboriginal nations. Each one has a
slightly different understanding of the Dreaming
- Each has a slightly different language, beliefs, stories, rituals
and totems that are unique to the particular Aboriginal nation
- Despite diversity, there are ​common beliefs ​between different
aboriginal tribes such as:
- Each Aboriginal nation has its own Dreaming stories set and
applicable within its land.
There are common beliefs such as:
- Respect for the land (custodians of the land, caretakers of the
land, stewards)
-Respect for ancestral spirits (DO NOT WORSHIP,
respecting, acknowledging ancestors, bringing them
from past to present)
- Origin stories, knowledge and skill stories (how to
survive, where they came from
- Rituals for coming of age, death, roles of men and women
- Art, dance music, laws
Recognise the importance of dreaming for the life of the
aboriginal people’s
- The dreaming is everything an Aboriginal believes. It is their
history, identity, spirituality and culture
- The Dreaming is ​their creation ​and ​determines the roles,
responsibilities and moral values ​of Aboriginal people (kinship).
It also provided guidance on how to live their lives e.g. totem
(spirit guide) (ancestor spirit for individual and tribe)
- The Dreaming is the ​source of knowledge ​about their
ancestral spirits. Without the Dreaming or the land, it is difficult
to remember and honour the ancestral spirits.
- The dreaming informs them of the sacred sites and their
responsibilities to the sites and their ancestral spirits
The inextricable connection
of the dreaming, the land and
Investigate the inextricable connection of the dreaming,
the land and identity.
- Without access to the land, it is very difficult for an Aboriginal
person to learn, pass on or experience the Dreaming
- Thus, the ​identity ​of an Aboriginal person is inextricably linked
with the land
- Without access to their land, it is difficult to fully access their
history, stories, rituals and ancestors
- The Dreaming includes intricate ​knowledge of the land ​(e.g.
routes, water, food, etc.). Without access to the land, it is
difficult to know, retain or pass on this information
- Sacred sites are linked to the land. ​Aboriginals cannot
perform rituals responsibilities without access to the land
Example - Stolen Generation
- This is why the stolen generation so heavily affected
aboriginals identities as they were taken away from their
connection to the land.
Students Learn about:
Students Learn to:
The historical and cultural context
in which Christianity began
Jesus Christ
Outline the historical and cultural context in which
Christianity began
-Has its roots in hellenistic Judaism and Jewish
-It began with Jewish messianic expectations
-Developed into a worship of Jesus after his ministry on
earth, his crucifixion, resurrection and missionary
journeys by his
The development of early
Christian communities
-Early on, divergent Christian communities developed
during the 1st and 2nd century CE
-They gradually departed from the Pharisees and other
jewish sects and evolved into ‘Orthodox’ Christianity
-Christianity arose in hellenistic world of the first centurydominated by Roman law and Greek culture
Examine the principal events of Jesus’ life
-​His birth​​- beginning of the earthly life of JesusChristmas- born to set us free of sin- humble beginnings
in a stable (​ Matthew 1-2, Luke 2)
-​His baptism by John the Baptist at the Jordan river​​- first
act of his public ministry- symbolised him identifying with
humanity as sinners even though he didn't need a
baptism (​ Matthew 3:13-17, Marj 1:9-11, Luke 3:21-23)
-​His first miracle​​- turns water into wine- shows his divine
power over the elements of the earth- helped strengthen
disciple faith (​ John 2:1-11)
-​Sermon on the mount​​- Sermon preached by Jesus to his
disciples in his public ministry- ​“Blessed are the meek for
they shall inherit the earth”​, ​“an eye for an eye”​, “​ ask and
you will receive”​, ​“wolves in sheeps clothing”​- dealt blow to
Pharisees- rallying believers (​ Matthew 5: 1-7: 29)
-​Feeding of the 5000-​​ from five small loaves and two fish
he created enough food to feed 5000- picture of God’s
power over earthly elements ​(Matthew 14:15-21, Mark
6:34-44, Luke 9:12-17, John 6: 5-13)
-​Raising of Lazarus- ​raised the brother of Mary and
Martha of Bethany, shows power of God over life and
death ​“I am the resurrection and the life”​ ​(John 11:1-44)
Last Supper-​​ last meeting with disciples- he washed their
feet when they were arguing- showed that they should
serve each other- gave command for those to love one
another in the name of the holy spirit (​ ​Matthew 26:1-30;
Mark 14:12-26; Luke 22:7-38; John 13:1-38)
-​Crucifixion and Burial-​​ Death on cross was the
culmination of his ministry on earth- showed that he
would die for the sins of the earth- reason as to why he
was human -body laid in tomb under Sabbath- ​(Matthew
27:27-66; Mark 15:16-47; Luke 23:26-56; John 19:17-42)
-​Resurrection-​​ empty tomb and news that Jesus had
arisen- appearing to many- Jesus appeared to the
disciples- ​(Matthew 28:1-10; Mark 16:1-11; Luke 24:1-12; John
-​Ascension- ​Final act on earth was his acension to
heaven- disciples were present- two angels came and told
them he would return- he had defeated death and offered
Explain why Jesus is the model for Christian life
-Without Jesus there is no Christianity
-jesus being God’s son is God in human form
-He was sinless- making him a model
-The bible encourages to replicate his thoughts words and
-He died for our sins- without his death and resurrectionChristianity is meaningless
-He allowed Christians to live a life in God’s kingdom and
set the moral boundaries for all adherents
Describe early development of Christian
communities after the death of Jesus
-After Jesus’ death- his disciples embarked on many
missionary journeys past Jerusalem
-Simon peter became the leader of the early church
Outline the unique features of:
-Book of common prayer is the foundation prayer
-The Liturgy of the Anglican community has their
own daily experiences of daily office and daily
devotion as well as liturgy on the holy day of Sunday.
-The tradition of the liturgy is more involvement of
the people and differentiates from the other
variants where it isn’t so involved.
Key festivals in the Anglican Calendar follow that of
the Western church Calendar, and also Saints days
and feast days which are acknowledged in the Book
of Common Prayer
-Developed after the great schism in 1054
-Heart of orthodox is the Divine Liturgy (T​he service
of the Eucharist in the Orthodox Church).
-Icons of worship: Highly ornamented image of
Christ, Mary, Saints etc… Justified as God is visible
and clear to humans
-Jesus as head of Church
-Strong emphasis on Sacraments
-​Pentecostalism​ or Classical ​Pentecostalism​ is a
renewal movement within Protestant Christianity
that places special emphasis on a direct personal
experience of God through baptism with the Holy
Spirit. The term ​Pentecostal​ is derived from
Pentecost, the Greek name for the Jewish Feast of
-Protestantism is the second largest form of
Christianity with collectively more than 900 million
adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
It originated with the Reformation, a movement
against what its followers perceived to be errors in
the Roman Catholic Church. Catholics believe that
faith in God alone is needed to get into heaven, a
tenet known as sola fide. Protestants believe that
both good deeds and faith in God are needed to get
into heaven.
Principle Beliefs
The divinity and humanity of Jesus
The death and resurrection of
Jesus Christ
The nature of God and the Trinity
Outline the principal beliefs regarding the divinity
and humanity of Jesus Christ
John 5:16-27
“My Father is always at his work to this very day, and I too
am working.”
John 1:1-14
-comparing himself to God- but as a father- giving himself
a divinity whilst also relating to God as a father- giving
himself humanity
John 1:1-14
“The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us.
We have seen his glory, the glory of the one and only Son,
who came from the Father, full of grace and truth.”
-The word of god made flesh- showing he is man and Godcame from his father, humanity- full of grace and truthdivine nature
Philippians 2:5-11
-The principle beliefs of Christianity are:
The divinity and humanity of Jesus Christ
The death and resurrection of Jesus Christ
The nature of God and the trinity
-The first two relate to the life and ministry of Jesus
-The trinity relates to the belief that the Christian God is a
personal God, best described as a complex monotheism as
father, son and spirit.
-The revelation relates to how Christians know God
-Salvation relates to what Christians believe about their
relationship with God, sin and life after death.
Explain the importance of the death and
resurrection of Jesus Christ for Christians
“he who raised Christ from the dead will also give life to
your mortal bodies because of his Spirit who lives in you.”​Romans 8:11
-Central concept in Christianity
-Cross is the universal symbol of Christianity
“Through him you believe in God, who raised him from the
dead and glorified him, and so your faith and hope are in
God.”​-​ 1 Peter 1:21
-Easter one of the most recognisable celebrations in
-His death allows believers to live after death
“I am the resurrection and the life. The one who believes in
me will live, even though they die”-​ ​John 11: 25-26
-It is important as it solidifies the idea that Jesus is fully
human and fully God
-It also consolidates the idea that Jesus is sinless- with him
dying for our sins- making him the one true messiah
“Christ was raised from the dead, he cannot die again;
death no longer has mastery over him. ​ ​The death he died,
he died to sin once for all”-​ ​Romans 6: 8-11
-His death consolidates him as human- making him
relatable, whilst his resurrection
consolidates him as a divine being
-The living religion of Christianity
“Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures”​ Corinthians 15: 3-8
Outline the beliefs of the nature of God and the
-One of the most distinctive beliefs of Christianity:
1) There is one God
2) The Father is God, the Son is God and the spirit is
3) The Father is not the son is not the spirit.
-The christian belief is that God exists in three persons
having a single divine nature
-The trinity consists of the father, the son and the holy
-The three persons are distinct yet they are of the same
nature, essence, power and action.
-They are co-equal and eternal.
-​”True God from True God”​- Nicene Creed
- “​ One god in three divine persons”
- ​“in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy
Spirit” -​ Jesus referring to baptism
“That whoever believes in him shall not perish but have
eternal life.”
-John 3:16
Phrase: Trinity is a complex monotheism
-Not modalistic, nor Tritheistic- both hereasies
Examine the Christian understanding of Revelation
-They regard Jesus as the supreme revelation of God
-Being a revelation as in to witness him and his deeds
-Christians also believe that God can give private
revelations to individuals which can come in a variety of
-The bible is one of the highest forms of revelation- they
believe that the authors were under the influence of the
holy spirit
And behold, a voice from heaven said, “This is my beloved
Son, with whom I am well pleased.” ​Matthew 3:17
God said to Moses, “​I AM WHO I AM​.” And he said, “Say this to
the people of Israel, ‘​I AM​ has sent me to you.’” ​Exodus 3:14
Describe the christian understanding of Salvation
-They believe that everyone is born in sin and need
salvation to redeem themselves
-They believe that one is saved by Jesus christ who is fully
man and died for our sins- so that we can be redeemed
-They emphasise that judgment in Hell is of limited
-Salvation is ultimately the saving of the soul from sinthrough the life death and resurrection of Jesus
-Cannot achieve salvation without believing in the trinityJesus is God and the holy spirit
-Cannot believe that Jesus saves you- can only save you if
he was God- unsinful, cannot be saved by someone who
deserves death
“For by grace you have been saved through faith. And this
is not your own doing; it is the gift of God”​-Ephesians 2:8
“He saved us, not because of works done by us in
righteousness, but according to his own mercy”​- Titus 3:5
Sacred Texts and Writings
Identify the importance of the Bible in Christianity
-The bible is important to Christians for many reasons:
It contains teachings about the principle beliefs of
It contains teachings about ethics that Christians
live their life by
It records the events of Jesus’ life, which is the model
for Christians
It contains a historical record of God’s involvement
in the world, and the worldview that God created the
world, the important place of humans in the world,
and information about God’s character.
-The Bible is the primary sacred text in Christianity
-It is made up of 66 books and is divided into two main
-The Old testament which contains 39 books and the New
testament which contains 27 books.
-These books were written over many different years in
different years in different locations in different languages
by different people.
-The old testament would have been the scripture that
Jesus had
-The New Testament was written about and after Jesus’ life
and ministry
Examine extracts from the bible which demonstrate
the principle beliefs of Christianity
-The passages of: ​Matthew 16:13-20, John 1:1-14 and
Hebrews 4:14-16​​ show the divinity and humanity of Jesus
-The passages of:​ Luke 9:22, 1 Corinthians 15:12-19 and 1
Corinthians 15: 35-44​​ show the death and resurrection of
Jesus Christ
-The passages of: ​Luke 3:21-22, John 16:5-16 and 1 John
5:1-12​​ all show the nature of God and the trinity
-The passages of: ​John 20:30-31, 2 Timothy: 3:15-16 and 2
Peter 1:20-21 ​all show revelation
-The passages of: ​Matthew 25:26-31, John 3:16-17, Romans
Core ethical Teachings
The ten commandments
Outline the principle ethical teachings in:
-The ten commandments
1) You shall have no other Gods
2) You shall not make idols
3) You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in Vain
4) Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy
New Testament Ethics
-The beatitudes
-Jesus’ commandment of love
5) Honour your Father and your Mother
6) You shall not murder
7) You shall not commit adultery
8) You shall not steal
9) You shall not bear false witness against your neighbour(do not lie)
-The beatitudes
Blessed are the ​poor​ in ​spirit​: for theirs is the
kingdom of heaven​. (​Verse 3​)
Blessed are the meek: for they shall possess the land.
(​Verse 4​)
Blessed are they who mourn: for they shall be
comforted. (​Verse 5​)
Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after ​justice​:
for they shall have their fill. (​Verse 6​)
Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy.
(​Verse 7​)
Blessed are the clean of heart: for they shall see ​God​.
(​Verse 8​)
Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be
called the children of ​God​. (​Verse 9​)
Blessed are they that suffer ​persecution​ for ​justice'
sake, for theirs is the ​kingdom of heaven​. (​Verse 10​)
-Jesus’ commandment of love
“Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all
your soul and with all your mind”
“Love your neighbor as yourself.”
Describe the importance of ethical teachings in the
life of adherents
-Ethical teachings show Christians how to properly adhere
to God
-Set moral boundaries
-Allows for one to honour the holy trinity
-Following ethical teachings among other things grants
passage into heaven
Personal Devotion
Describe the different types of personal prayer
-Communion- (All day, all the time)
-Supplication- (Lifting up your needs)
(On behalf of others)
•Spiritual Warfare — There are two types: Dealing with
yourself (Your mind is the battlefield) & (Repentance and
Forgiveness); Dealing with Satan and demons (Putting on
the Full Armor) & (Binding & Loosing)
• Prayers of Agreement (Corporate Prayer)
•Watch & Pray (Continual State of Awareness as a
Watchman on the Wall)
•Prayers of Thanksgiving (Count your Blessings name them
one by one)
Students Learn About
Students Learn to
Pre Islamic Arabia as the cultural
and historical context for the
development of Islam
Outline the social conditions and religious practices
that existed in pre-islamic Arabia
Many separate tribes lined the Arabian Peninsula with a
harsh and hostile environment that had numerous clan
wars for power and land.
Muhammad was born into the Quraysh tribe who were
positioned in and around Mecca.
Before Islam was founded, Mecca was a social and
cultural hub for all sorts of religions who traded and
bought new ideologies with them.
Examine the principle events in Muhammad's life
Birth - 570
The Prophet Muhammed
First Revelation - 610​​ - ​Muhammad's first revelation was an
event described in Islam as taking place in 610 AD, during
which the Islamic prophet, Muhammad was visited by the
archangel Jibrīl, who revealed to him the beginnings of
what would later become the Quran.
Emigration of Muslims to Abyssinia - 615 - ​The Migration
to Abyssinia, also known as the First Hegira, was an
episode in the early history of Islam, where Prophet
Muhammad's first followers fled from the persecution of
the ruling Quraysh tribe of Mecca.
Prophets emigration to Medina - 622 -​​ T
​ he Hejira is the
migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib, later renamed by
him to Medina, in the year 622.In June 622, after being
warned of a plot to assassinate him, Muhammad secretly
left his home in Mecca to emigrate to Yathrib, 320 km (200
mi) north of Mecca, along with his companion Abu Bakr​.
Battle of Badr - 624 -​​ ​The Battle of Badr, fought on
Tuesday, 13 March 624 CE in the Hejaz region of western
Arabia, was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a
turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents
among the Quraish in Mecca.
Battle of Uhud - 625 -​​ ​The Battle of Uhud was a battle
between the early Muslims and their Quraish Meccan
enemies in AD 624 in the northwest of the Arabian
peninsula. Many Muslims were killed and the battle was
considered a setback for the Muslims.
Treaty of Hudaybiyyah - 628 -​​ T
​ he Treaty of Hudaybiyyah
was an event that took place during the formation of
Islam. It was a pivotal treaty between the Islamic Prophet
Muhammad, representing the state of Medina, and the
Quraysh tribe of Mecca in March 628.
Hajj Pilgrimage - 629 - ​The first pilgrimage was the first
pilgrimage that Muhammad and the Muslims made after
the Migration to Medina. It took place on the morning of
the fourth day of Dhu al-Qi'dah (629AD)
Opening of Mecca - 630 Last Revelation - 631 - “​​And fear the day when ye shall
be brought back to God. Then shall every soul be
paid what it earned and none shall be dealt with
unjustly.” - Sura 2, 281. ​Prophet ​Muhammad​​ in the 7th
century CE. ​Muhammad​​ was born in Mecca in Saudi
Arabia in 570
Death of Prophet - 632 - ​Died by fever in Medina.
The development of Islam under the
leadership of the four rightly guided
Explain why the Prophet Muhammed as the final
messenger is the model for Muslim life
The Qu’ran is based and written around his
teachings that were passed down from generations.
The only human to have been visited by God/Allah.
He has had a direct link to God, therefore
understanding his words and wants.
The title of ‘Final Messenger’ is also a great
Describe the development of Islam after the death
of Muhammed under the leadership of the Four
Rightly Guided Caliphs, accounting the emergence
of the Sunni and Shia
The First Caliph, Abu Bakr (632-634 A.C.) ​- He
was a compassionate and honest leader.
During the two years of his caliphate, Abu
Bakr established Muslim domination in
The Second Caliph, 'Umar (634-644 A.C.) ​Umar was a good administrator and, astute
political leader and military general. Umar
and the Muslim army conquered Syria and
part of Egypt and Mesopotamia.
The Third Caliph, Uthman (644-656 A.C.)​​ Uthman was a generous, gentle, and
enterprising leader, but he also was charged
with nepotism (favouring relatives in giving
jobs). He was murdered by a group of Ali’s
The Fourth Caliph, Ali (656-661 A.C.) -​​ He was
known for his bravery and humility. He faced
powerful enemies including Aisha and
Muawiyah​​, the Umayyad governor of Syria. .
While Aisha’s armies were unsuccessful in the
Battle of Camel in 656, Muawiyah’s armies
faced Ali’s armies at the Battle of Siffin.
Muawiyah ordered his army to place pages of
the Qur’an on the end of their spears, and
Ali’s troops refused to strike them. Thus Ali
agreed to arbitration. Ali’s own supporters
were shocked and formed a group called the
Kharijites. Ali was struck down by one of their
members in 661.
As successor to the Prophet, the Caliph was
the head of the Muslim community and his
primary responsibility was to continue in the
path of the Prophet i.e. the caliph became the
one who had two functions, Commander of
the Faithful and the Imam (prayer leader) of
the Muslims.
On his deathbed ​Muawiyah (Caliph from
661-750)​​ nominated his son Yazid as
successor, instead of Ali’s son Hussain. The
Kharijites never accepted Yazid and formed
the Shi’at Ali (Party of Ali and his
descendents). ). The Shiite revolt culminated
with the Battle of Karbala in 680, in which
Hussain was slaughtered, and which split the
Muslim community into two groups: the Sunni
and the Shiite.
Principle Beliefs
The article of faith explained in
the Aqida as:
-Books of Allah
Outline the implications of Tawhid for Muslim belief
The Tawhid outlines Allah is existing
separately from creation in a transcendent
way and Allah is all knowing, powerful and
Tawhid expresses the monotheism of Islam;
and portrays Allah to be understood as being
close to the heart of every person.
The concept of Tawhid is incompatible with
pride as all individual gifts and talents are
attributed to the gift of Allah.
Tawhid affirms that all things happen for a
purpose ,whatever the circumstances this is
what Allah has allowed, therefore acceptance
of this leads trusting in the great love and
compassion of Allah.
The implication of Tawhid is that Allah knows
all things, therefore to act with impure
motives which in effect seek to deceive others
and deceive Allah .
Furthermore any belief that diminishes this
faith in the oneness and absoluteness of
Allah is referred to as shirk.
Tawhid leads to a greater surrender to the
will of Allah, and It reminds Muslims that they
are accountable for their actions and for
their use of worldly possessions​.
Examine the role of the books of Allah and
prophecy in Islam
Prophecy is regarded as an important element of
Muslim belief. It is the way in which Allah become
revealed to humankind.
The Qur'an gives special attention to the figures
that were responsible for the handing down of
significant books.
The scrolls given to Ibrahim are known as "Sahifa", the
books revealed to Musa are known as "Tawrah", those
revealed to Dawud are known as "Zabur" and the
teachings given to Isa are known as "Injil". The revealed
books of the rusul are known as the Books of Allah.
Muslims believe that initially each of these revealed
books contained the complete revelation of Allah,
however, over time they were not properly preserved
and some such as the Sahifa given to Ibrahim have
been completely lost.
These books of Allah have been changed and they
no longer faithfully represent the message of Allah
.Thus the scriptures of the Jewish and Christian
religions are profoundly respected by Muslims,
however cannot be relied upon because they have
not been properly conserved.
The Qur'an is regarded as the last of the revealed
books and surely stands apart as the reliable and
complete source of the revelation of Allah.
Outline the principle beliefs about A​ngels, l​i​fe after
death​ a
​ nd fate/predestination
Angels are understood to be the messengers
of Allah. Muslims believe angels to be
creatures of light which exist everywhere
throughout the universe and are constantly
interacting with human beings as some
people are occasionally able to see angels.
Muslims believe that each person has two
angels designated to keep a record of their
deeds, good and bad.
The Qur'an names a number of angels and
designates specific purposes to each.
Jibril is the messenger bringing the word of
Allah to those who are the chosen ones.
One of the muslim belief is at the time of
death the angel Azra'il will be present at the
side of the person dying to receive their soul
as it leaves them.
The angel Israfil has the role of calling all
souls of the Day of Judgment.
The angel Mika'il has the special role of
guarding places of worship.
Muslim belief is human life on earth is a test
and the outcome of this test determines the
fate of the person for eternity. Muslims
believe in a life after death which is known
Each individual is called to respond positively
to the will of Allah and submit to it and their
choice to do so or to refuse to do so is the key
factor in their destiny.
As well Muslims believe that everything that
takes place is the will of Allah and they have
been given free will in order to respond to
those things and it is this response that is
Muslim belief holds that each person is
entirely responsible for their own actions and
every action thought in a person's lifetime is
recorded and will be revealed at the time of
This record is kept by the two guardian
angels which are assigned to each person
and the opportunity to pass the test is limited
to a person's earthly life.
The reward known as Paradise is described in
the Qur'an as a kind of oasis in the desert. For
those who fail the test, the punishment is
known as Jahannam. The Qur'an describes
this as a place of fire and hot winds, of
torture and torment.
The Muslim belief is that It all happens by
design, with a purpose and it is Allah the
creator who determines what will happen.The
idea that all things happen through the plan
of Allah is called "Al-Qadr".
Muslims believe that while our destiny is
already known to Allah, it is our free will and
our choice which determines it. Each person
is given the freedom to choose and Allah
respects this free will absolutely.
Muslims reject any notion of fate as it is
believed that fate is not compatible with free
will and as such is rejected by Muslim beliefs.
Sacred Texts and Writings
Identify the importance of:
The Quran and Hadith
The Quran:
The ​Quran​​ is the holy book of Islam and is viewed
by Muslims as the direct word of God, the
culmination of a series of revelations that included
the Torah and the Bible.
The ​Quran​​ is significant not only because of its
history, but also because of its continual daily use
in Muslim worship.
Muslims believe that the Quran was revealed to the
Prophet Muhammad over a period of approximately
23 years by the angel Gabriel, who related to
Muhammad the direct words of God.
Abu Bakr sought to preserve the Quran and
ordered the compilation of a written version. Under
his guidance, the fragments that had been written
down were combined with the knowledge of others
who had likewise memorized the revelation to
produce the written Quran that Muslims use today.
Muslims use the Quran in almost all Islamic rituals.
Muslim prayer consists of reciting various verses
from the Quran, the most important being the first
chapter, or sura, of the Quran, called al-Fatihah
(Arabic for “the opener”) is also the comment verse
in the Quran, similar to Christianities Lord Prayer.
The Hadith:
The hadith represents a personal source of divine
guidance which Allah granted his prophet which
was similar in its nature to the Qur’an itself. The
prophet reiterated this point in one of his recorded
statements, “Indeed, I was given the Qur’an and
something similar to it along with it”.
Examine extracts from the Quran and Hadith which
demonstrate the principle beliefs of Islam
“…. And We revealed to you the message that you
may make clear to the people what was sent down
to them and that they might give thought.”(Qur’an
"He is Allah, the One, Allah is eternal and absolute" Sura 112.
"He sends forth guardians to watch over you" - Sura
"Believe in what has been sent down to thee
Muhammad and what has been sent down before
thee" - Sura 2:4.
"Your good actions will benefit only you" - Sura 41:46.
"Whatever Allah grants to humanity of His mercy, no
one can withhold and what He withholds no one can
grant apart from Him" - Sura 35:2.
Surah 112 says "He is Allah, the One, Allah is Eternal
and Absolute. None is born of Him, He is unborn.
There is none like unto Him".
"No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all
vision. He is above all comprehension, yet it
acquainted with all things" (surah 6:103).
" It was We who created man, and We know even the
secret suggestions his soul makes to him; for We are
nearer to him than his jugular vein" (surah 50:16).
"The Lord said to the angels."when I have created
Man and breathed My spirit into him then fall ye
down and worship him." So all he angels bowed
down in worship, all of them together. But not so
Iblis the chief jinn: he refused to be among those
who bowed down" (surah 15:28-31)
"Behold two guardians appointed to learn his
doings, one sitting on his right and one on the left.
Not a word does he utter but there is a sentinel by
him, ready to note it." (surah 50:17-18).
"He sends forth guardians to watch over you and
when death overtakes you, the messengers will carry
away your soul." (surah 6:61)
Outline the principle ethical teachings within Islam
The principal ethical teachings within Islam is:
To follow the will of Allah.
The primary foundation to guide them in ethical
ways is the Qur’an.
The other books of Allah do not carry the same
authority as the Qur’an; it is the initial source of
Islamic teachings.
Islam does not recognise any differences among
people, a major ethical belief is to love Allah,
maintaining suitable values and do not degrade the
opposite sex or sexual
Outline the process of Islamic Jurisprudence
The most important source of reference for Islamic
jurisprudence is the Qur’an.
This process involves knowledge and understanding
known as “fiqh”.
The process of application of principles through
analogy is called “qiyas”, which is used to determine
appropriate responses to the complex issues of
modern societies.
Core Ethical Teachings
Islamic Jurisprudence
-The Quran
-The Sunnah and Hadith
-Ijma- consensus amongst
religious leaders
-Qiyas- comparison of teachings
of the Quran or Hadith
Expressions of Faith
● The five pillars are the expression
of the faith of Islam
Describe the importance of ethical teachings in
determining that which is:
Halal stands for things that are permitted, when
something isn’t forbidden then it is permitted, but
even though it is permitted it shouldn’t always be
Haraam represents actions that are forbidden;
actions that are not approved are regarded as
hateful and should never be done. Actions that
could harm people in any given situation is to be
Texts to consult on ethical issues:
Qur’an​​ - The primary sacred text
Sunnah​​ - Examples from the Prophet
Qiyas​​ - Reasoning/Deduction
Ijma​​ - Norms/ Practices accepted by most
Outline each of the five pillars
Shahada: ​.​ ​Shahada​ is a ​declaration of faith​ and
trust that professes that there is only one ​God
(​Allah​)​ and that ​Muhammad​ is God's messenger.
"There is no god but God (and) Muhammad is the
messenger of God." It is essential to utter it to
become a Muslim and to convert to Islam.
Salah: ​Salah​ (​ṣalāh) is the Islamic p
​ rayer​. ​Salah
consists of five daily prayers according to the
Sunna; the names are according to the prayer
times: ​Fajr​(dawn), ​Dhuhr​ (noon), ʿ​ Aṣr (afternoon),
Maghrib​ (evening), and ʿ​ Ishāʾ​ (night).
Zakat: Z
​ akāt​ or ​alms-giving​ is the practice of
charitable giving based on accumulated wealth. The
word zakāt can be defined as purification and
growth because it allows an individual to achieve
balance and encourages new growth.
Sawn: ​Three types of ​fasting​ (​Siyam​) are recognized
by the Quran: Ritual fasting,​ ​fasting as
compensation for repentance (both from ​sura
Al-Baqara​),​ ​and ascetic fasting (from ​Al-Ahzab​).
Hajj: The ​Hajj​ is a ​pilgrimage​ that occurs during the
Islamic month​ of ​Dhu al-Hijjah​ to the holy city of
Mecca​. Every able-bodied Muslim is obliged to make
the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their life.
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