Communication sess 1

Communication is the art of expressing and exchanging ideas in speech or writing. The
complexities of modern life demand that individuals have a mastery of both oral and
written communication skills.
Elements of Communication​:
a. The Message
A message is not only conveyed information, but the emotions that give the words
meaning. Words alone do not establish the full meaning of the message. Nonverbal
communications may give clues that the receiver can use to interpret verbal messages.
b. Sender and Sender’s Process
The sender is the source of communication. The sender starts the communication process
by transmitting information to the receiver. Encoding the message, whether written or
oral, is a process that requires four separate steps.
The sender formulates the message, putting thoughts into words.
He passes the message through many psychological or internal communication barriers.
Transmitting the message and immediately becomes the receiver as he prepares to accept
feedback for verification of message delivery.
c. Transmission Medium
The transmission medium is the pathway by which the message flows. It is the vehicle
that carries the message from the sender to the receiver, and back. The medium can be
electronic, written, verbal, or nonverbal.
d. Receiver and Receiver’s Process
The receiver is the element in the communication process that interprets the meaning of
the message. Only when the receiver has understood the message, can true
communication take place. Upon obtaining the message, the receiver decodes it
The receiving process is made up of the following steps:
● Receive
● Decode
● Filter
● Interpret
e. Feedback
Feedback is the element of communication that confirms the message has been received
and understood. It completes the sender’s process by verifying the meaning has not
changed. The greatest cause of ineffective communication is failure of the sender to
request feedback from the receiver
Nonverbal Elements of communication
● Eye contact: ​This helps to regulate the flow of communication. It signals interest in
others and increases the speaker's credibility. People who make eye contact open the
flow of communication and convey interest, concern, warmth, and credibility.
● Gestures: ​If you fail to gesture while speaking you may be perceived as boring and
stiff. A lively speaking style captures the listener's attention, makes the conversation
more interesting, and facilitates understanding.
● Movement: ​ensure that any movement you make is meaningful and not just nervous
fidgeting, like rocking back and forth on your heels or moving two steps forward and
back, or side to side.
● Posture and body orientation:​ You communicate numerous messages by the way
you talk and move. Standing erect and leaning forward communicates to listeners that
you are approachable, receptive and friendly. Interpersonal closeness results when
you and the listener face each other. Speaking with your back turned or looking at the
floor or ceiling should be avoided as it communicates disinterest.
● Proximity:​ Cultural norms dictate a comfortable distance for interaction with others.
You should look for signals of discomfort caused by invading the other person's
space. Some of these are: rocking, leg swinging, tapping, and gaze aversion.
● Vocal:​ Speaking can signal nonverbal communication when you include such vocal
elements as: tone, pitch, rhythm, timbre, loudness, and inflection. For maximum
teaching effectiveness, learn to vary these six elements of your voice. One of the
major criticisms of many speakers is that they speak in a monotone voice. Listeners
perceive this type of speaker as boring and dull.
● Facial expressions:​ Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits happiness, friendliness,
warmth, and liking. So, if you smile frequently you will be perceived as more likable,
friendly, warm and approachable. Smiling is often contagious and people will react
favorably. They will be more comfortable around you and will want to listen more.
The main ​components of communication process​ are as follows:
1. Context - Communication is affected by the context in which it takes place. This
context may be physical, social, chronological or cultural. Every communication
proceeds with context. The sender chooses the message to communicate within a
2. Sender / Encoder - Sender / Encoder is a person who sends the message. ​The
process of ​encoding converts information from a source into symbols for
communication or storage. ​A message is sent to a receiver in words or other
Message - Message is a key idea that the sender wants to communicate. It is a
sign that elicits the response of recipient.
Medium - Medium is a means used to exchange / transmit the message. The
sender must choose an appropriate medium for transmitting the message else the
message might not be conveyed to the desired recipients. The choice of
appropriate medium of communication is essential for making the message
effective and correctly interpreted by the recipient.
Recipient / Decoder - Recipient / Decoder is a person for whom the message is
intended / aimed / targeted. The degree to which the decoder understands the
message is dependent upon various factors such as knowledge of recipient, their
responsiveness to the message, and the reliance of encoder on decoder.
Decoding-​The receiver then translates the words or symbols into a concept or
information. Decoding is the reverse process of decoding. It is converting code symbols
back into a form that the recipient understands.
7. Feedback - Feedback is the main component of communication process as it
permits the sender to analyze the efficacy of the message
1. For instruction: ​The instructive function unvarying and importantly deals with the
commanding nature. It is more or less of directive nature. Under this, the communicator
transmits with necessary directives and guidance to the next level, so as to enable them to
accomplish his particular tasks. In this, instructions basically flow from top to the lower
2. For integration: ​It is consolidated function under which integration of activities is
endeavoured. The integration function of communication mainly involves to bring about
inter-relationship among the various functions of the business organization. It helps in the
unification of different management functions.
3. For information: ​The purposes or function of communication in an organization is to
inform the individual or group about the particular task or company policies and
etc. Top management informs policies to the lower level through the middle level. In
the lower level informs the top level the reaction through the middle level. Information
flow vertically, horizontally and diagonally across the organization. Becoming informed
inform others is the main purpose of communication.
4. For evaluation: ​Examination of activities to form an idea or judgement of the worth of
task is achieved through communication. Communication is a tool to appraise the
or team, their contribution to the organization. Evaluating one’s own inputs or other’s
outputs or some ideological scheme demands an adequate and effective communication
5. For direction: ​Communication is necessary to issue directions by the top management
manager to the lower level. Employee can perform better when he is directed by his
Directing others may be communicated either orally or in writing. An order may be
common order, request order or implied order.
6. For teaching: ​The importance of personal safety on the job has been greatly
recognized. A
complete communication process is required to teach and educate workers about personal
safety on the jobs. This communication helps the workers to avert accidents, risk etc. and
avoid cost, procedures etc.
7. For influencing: ​A complete communication process is necessary in influencing
others or
being influenced. The individual having potential to influence others can easily persuade
others. It implies the provision of feedback which tells the effect of communication.
8. For image building: ​A business enterprise cannot isolate from the rest of the society.
is interrelationship and interdependence between the society and an enterprise operating
the society. Goodwill and confidence are necessarily created among the public. It can be
done by the communication with the different media, which has to project the image of
firm in the society. Through an effective external communication system, an enterprise
to inform the society about its goals, activities, progress and social responsibility.
9. For employees orientation: ​When a new employee enter into the organization at that
time he or she will be unknown to the organization programs, policies, culture etc.
Communication helps to make people acquainted with the co-employees, superior and
the policies, objectives, rules and regulations of the organization.
10. Other: ​Effective decision-making is possible when required and adequate
information is
supplied to the decision-maker. Effective communication helps the process of
In general, everyone in the organization has to provide with necessary information
so as to enable to discharge tasks effectively and efficiently.
✓ Courtesy/Consideration​-Consideration implies “not stepping into the shoes of
others”. Effective communication must take the audience into consideration, i.e.,
the audience’s view points, background, mind-set, education level, etc. Modify
your words in message to suit the audience’s needs while making your message
✓ Clarity​-implies emphasizing on a specific message or goal at a time, rather than
trying to achieve too much at once. Clear message makes use of exact,
appropriate and concrete words. It makes understanding easier and enhances the
meaning of message.
✓ Correctness​-implies that there are no grammatical errors in communication. The
message is exact, correct and well-timed, precise and accurate in and figures used
in the message.
✓ Concreteness​-Concrete communication implies being particular and clear rather
than fuzzy and general. Concreteness strengthens the confidence.It is supported
with specific facts and figures and makes use of words that are clear and that
build the reputation.
✓ Completeness and Consistency​-The communication must be complete. It should
convey all facts required by the audience. The sender of the message must take
into consideration the receiver’s mind set and convey the message accordingly.
✓ Conciseness​- Conciseness means wordiness, i.e, communicating what you want
to convey in least possible words without forgoing the other C’s of
communication. It underlines and highlights the main message as it avoids using
excessive and needless words thus providing short and essential message in
limited words to the audience.
✓ Credibility- ​if the sender can establish credibility, the receiver has no problem
with accepting his statements. It’s based on the trust built between the two.
➢ Shortness- It is said that, “Brevity is the soul of wit,”. The same can be
said about communication. If the message can be made brief, and
verbosity done away with, then transmission and comprehension of
messages is going to be faster and more effective.
➢ Simplicity-​Simplicity both in the usage of words and ideas reveals clarity
in the thinking process. It is normally a tendency that when an individual
is himself confused that he tries to use equally confusing strategies to lead
the receiver in a maze
➢ Strength​-The strength of a message emanates from the credibility of the
sender. If the sender himself believes in a message that he is about to
transmit, there is bound to be strength and conviction in whatever he tries
to state.
➢ Sincerity​- A sincere (genuine) approach to an issue is clearly evident to
the receiver. It will be reflected in the manner in which he communicates.
Suppose there is a small element of deceit involved in the interaction or on
the part of the sender. If the receiver is keen an observant, he would be
able to sense it.
Recognizing barriers to effective communication is a first step in improving
communication style.
Encoding Barriers​: The process of selecting and organizing symbols to represent a
message requires skill and knowledge. Obstacles listed below can interfere with an
effective message.
1. ​Lack of Sensitivity to Receiver​. A breakdown in communication may result when a
message is not adapted to its receiver. Recognizing the receiver’s needs, status,
knowledge of the subject, and language skills assists the sender in preparing a successful
message. If a customer is angry, for example, an effective response may be just to listen
to the person vent for a while.
2. ​Lack of Basic Communication Skills​. The receiver is less likely to understand the
message if the sender has trouble choosing the precise words needed and arranging those
words in a grammatically-correct sentence.
3. ​Insufficient Knowledge of the Subject​. If the sender lacks specific information about
something, the receiver will likely receive an unclear or mixed message.
4. ​Information Overload. If you receive a message with too much information, you may
tend to put up a barrier because the amount of information is coming so fast that you may
have difficulty comfortably interpreting that information.
5. ​Emotional Interference. An emotional individual may not be able to communicate
well. If someone is angry, hostile, resentful, joyful, or fearful, that person may be too
preoccupied with emotions to receive the intended message. If you don’t like someone,
for example, you may have trouble “hearing” them.
Transmitting Barriers: Things that get in the way of message transmission are
sometimes called “noise.” Communication may be difficult because of noise and some of
these problems:
1. ​Physical Distractions. A bad cellular phone line or a noisy restaurant can destroy
communication. If an E-mail message or letter is not formatted properly, or if it contains
grammatical and spelling errors, the receiver may not be able to concentrate on the
message because the physical appearance of the letter or E-mail is sloppy and
2. ​Conflicting Messages. Messages that cause a conflict in perception for the receiver
may result in incomplete communication. For example, if a person constantly uses
jargon or slang to communicate with someone from another country who has never heard
such expressions, mixed messages are sure to result.
3. ​Channel Barriers. If the sender chooses an inappropriate ​channel of communication​,
communication may cease. Detailed instructions presented over the telephone, for
example, may be frustrating for both communicators. If you are on a computer technical
support help line discussing a problem, it would be helpful for you to be sitting in front of
a computer, as opposed to taking notes from the support staff and then returning to your
computer station.
4. ​Long Communication Chain. The longer the communication chain, the greater the
chance for error. If a message is passed through too many receivers, the message often
becomes distorted.
Decoding Barriers. The communication cycle may break down at the receiving end for
some of these reasons:
1. ​Lack of Interest. If a message reaches a reader who is not interested in the message,
the reader may read the message hurriedly or listen to the message carelessly.
Miscommunication may result in both cases.
2. ​Lack of Knowledge. If a receiver is unable to understand a message filled with
technical information, communication will break down. Unless a computer user knows
something about the Windows environment, for example, the user may have difficulty
organizing files if given technical instructions.
3. ​Lack of Communication Skills. Those who have weak reading and listening skills
make ineffective receivers. On the other hand, those who have a good professional
vocabulary and who concentrate on listening, have less trouble hearing and interpreting
good communication.
4. ​Emotional Distractions. If emotions interfere with the creation and transmission of a
message, they can also disrupt reception. If you receive a report from your supervisor
regarding proposed changes in work procedures and you do not particularly like your
supervisor, you may have trouble even reading the report objectively. You may read, not
objectively, but to find fault. You may misinterpret words and read negative impressions
between the lines. Consequently, you are likely to misunderstand part or all of the report.
5. ​Physical Distractions. If a receiver of a communication works in an area with bright
lights, glare on computer screens, loud noises, excessively hot or cold work spaces, or
physical ailments, that receiver will probably experience communication breakdowns on
a regular basis.
​ esponding Barriers​—The communication cycle may be broken if feedback is
1. No Provision for Feedback. Since communication is a two-way process, the
sender must search for a means of getting a response from the receiver. If a team
leader does not permit any interruptions nor questions while discussing projects,
he may find that team members may not completely understand what they are to
Face-to-face oral communication is considered the best type of communication
since feedback can be both verbal and nonverbal. When two communicators are
separated, care must be taken to ask for meaningful feedback.
2. Inadequate Feedback. Delayed or judgmental feedback can interfere with good
If your supervisor gives you instructions in long,
compound-complex sentences without giving you a chance to speak, you may
pretend to understand the instructions just so you can leave the stress of the
conversation. Because you may have not fully understood the intended
instructions, your performance may suffer.
Physical Barriers
1. Distance
2. Noise
b. Psychological Barriers
1) Fear
2) Lack of common experiences
3) Self-concept
4) Family
5) Culture
6) Skills
7) Feelings
8) Attitudes
9) Values
10) Knowledge
11) Beliefs
12) Biases
13) Personal space
1. Active Listening
Learn to listen actively in order to overcome communication barriers. Concentrate
solely on what the other person is saying rather than planning what you are going
to say in return. Repeat everything the other person is saying in your mind. Ask
questions when you do not comprehend something the other party says.
2. Understanding Communication Styles
One common issue with relaying ideas is not understanding the communication
style of the other person. Different people communicate in different ways. You
must learn to decipher the style of the communicator in order to comprehend what
he is saying.
3. Interpreting Nonverbal Clues
Verbal and written communications are the main ways we relate to one another,
but there are important nonverbal body language messages we need to consider.
Many people communicate their feelings with body postures rather than speaking
aloud, or their body language might conflict with the words they are saying. In the
latter case, you should trust the nonverbal cues over the words.
4. Dealing with Cultural Differences
Cultural differences can often impede your understanding of what someone is
trying to relate. Persons with a different ethnicity from yours have different
"lingos" that are unique to their specific cultures. Persons from different places
and background may speak an entirely different language from you, in which case
an interpreter may be needed.
5. Utilize the Written Word
One difficulty that often arises when presenting material to one or more persons is
losing your audience due to the sheer amount of information. It is difficult to
process such a large volume of data in one sitting. When you have a substantial
amount of information to impart, it is helpful to provide a written account to those
with whom you're communicating. This will help others to keep up with what you
are saying and gives them a reference when they lose track of your words or need
to clarify something.
6. Eliminating differences in perception: The organization should ensure that it is
recruiting right individuals on the job. It’s the responsibility of the interviewer to
ensure that the interviewee has command over the written and spoken language.
There should be proper Induction program so that the policies of the company are
clear to all the employees. There should be proper trainings conducted for
required employees (for eg: Voice and Accent training).
7. Use of Simple Language: Use of simple and clear words should be emphasized.
Use of ambiguous words and jargons should be avoided.
8. Reduction and elimination of noise levels: Noise is the main communication
barrier which must be overcome on priority basis. It is essential to identify the
source of noise and then eliminate that source.
9. Active Listening: Listen attentively and carefully. There is a difference between
“listening” and “hearing”. Active listening means hearing with proper
understanding of the message that is heard. By asking questions the speaker can
ensure whether his/her message is understood or not by the receiver in the same
terms as intended by the speaker.
10. Emotional State: During communication one should make effective use of body
language. He/she should not show their emotions while communication as the
receiver might misinterpret the message being delivered. For example, if the
conveyer of the message is in a bad mood then the receiver might think that the
information being delivered is not good.
11. Simple Organizational Structure: The organizational structure should not be
complex. The number of hierarchical levels should be optimum. There should be
a ideal span of control within the organization. Simpler the organizational
structure, more effective will be the communication.
12. Avoid Information Overload: The managers should know how to prioritize their
work. They should not overload themselves with the work. They should spend
quality time with their subordinates and should listen to their problems and
feedbacks actively.
13. Give Constructive Feedback: Avoid giving negative feedback. The contents of
the feedback might be negative, but it should be delivered constructively.
Constructive feedback will lead to effective communication between the superior
and subordinate.
14. Proper Media Selection: The managers should properly select the medium of
communication. Simple messages should be conveyed orally, like: face to face
interaction or meetings. Use of written means of communication should be
encouraged for delivering complex messages. For significant messages reminders
can be given by using written means of communication such as : Memos, Notices
15. Flexibility in meeting the targets: For effective communication in an
organization the managers should ensure that the individuals are meeting their
targets timely without skipping the formal channels of communication. There
should not be much pressure on employees to meet their targets.
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