Ch23 review AP II

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Chapter 23 Review
Respiratory
1. List five functions of the respiratory system
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Provides a surface for gas exchange
Moves air to and from the exchange surfaces
Produces sound
Detects olfactory stimuli from nasal cavity
Protects respiratory surfaces from damage and invasive pathogens
The upper respiratoery system contains the external nares, nsasl vestibule, nasal
septum, pharynx, nasal concha and meatus, internal nares, hard and soft palate,
paranasal sinuses, nasal mucosa.
2. What divides upper from lower respiratory system?
The larynx? Or hyoid bone?
3. What are the two components of respiratory tract?
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
The conducting portion which is from the nasal cavity to the terminal
bronchioles
The respiratory portion which is the respiratory bronchioles and the alveoli.
4. What are two functions of URS (upper respiratory system)?
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
Filters, warms and humidify incoming air
Cool and dehumidify outgoing air
5. List the three divisions of pharynx
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
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Nasopharynx
Oropharynx
Laryngo-pharynx
The pharynx is shared by both the digestive and the respiratory systems including the
internal nares.
6. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium found where?
Found in the superior portion of the lower respiratory system and the nasal cavity
and nasopharynx
7. Oro- and laryngo-pharynx contain what epithelium? Smaller bronchioles? Alveoli?
Oro and laryngo-pharynx have stratified squamous epithelium.
Smaller bronchioles have cuboidal epithelium with scattered cilia
Alveoli has simple squamous epithelium
8. Role of conchae and meatus?
They create air turbulence which allows the air to stay in the nasal cavity for a
longer time.
9. What are dust cells?
These are the alveolar macrophages that are part of the respiratory defense system.
Other parts of the respiratory defense system is the mucus escalator where mucus is
swept by cilia toward the pharynx which cleans it. Filtration of particles that are
trapped in hairs or mucus is also part of this system.
10. How many pieces of cartilage are found in larynx? What are they?
There are 6 pieces of cartilage found. There are 3 unpaired cartilages: thyroid,
cricoid and epiglottis. There are 3 paired: arytenoid, cuneiform, corniculate
11. List some differences between vestibular folds and vocal folds
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
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The vestibular fold is inelastic while the vocal folds are elastic.
The vestibular fold protects the vocal folds and the glottis from foreign
objects while the vocal folds produce sounds and guard ythe entrance of the
glottis.
When the vocal folds are slender and short, high pitched sounds are
produced.
12. Sound is produced by what two things?
 Phonation: vibration of the vocal folds

Articulation: echoes within the chest
13. What is the difference between right and left lung?
The right lung has 3 lobes: superior, middle and inferior with a horizontal fissure
and an oblique fissure. The left lung has 2 lobes : superior and inferior with an
oblique fissure and a cardiac notch.
14. What is the hilum in lungs?
15. What does sympathetic stimulation do to the trachealis muscle?
It relaxes the trachealis muscle which increases the diameter of the tracheal.
16. What are some differences between the right and left primary bronchus?
The right primary bronchus has a bigger diameter than the left and it has 3
secondary bronchi while the left has 2 secondary bronchi.
 Most foreign objects also enter the right primary bronchus (“probably
because it is wider)
17. Sympathetic or parasympathetic causes bronchio-dilation?
Sympathetic stimulation causes broncho-dilation because more air has to get in for you to
run in a flight or fight situation. It increases the airway diameter and respiratory effect
18. Asthma a result of what?

Broncho-construction, decreased airway diameter, decreased air flow,
increased brinchiolar mucosa. It is caused by excessive stimulation and
bronchoconstriction stimulation that severely restricts airflow.

Pneumonia is caused by bacteria and viruses that attack the alveoli and
19. Pneumocytes Type II cells are also called septal cells___and release __a surfactant
that reduces the surface tension of alveolar fluid and prevents collapse of the
alveoli_
20. Pneumocytes Type III cells are _______________________
21. What is Respiratory distress syndrome?
This is the lack of the surfactant which results in the collapse of the alveoli
22. List some characteristics associated with Emphysema
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

Swelling due to the destruction of alveolar surfaces from smoking or toxic
gas.
Alveoli expand and capillaries deteriorate
Large nonfunctional air cavities in the lungs.
23. What is external and internal respiration?


External is the gas exchange between the interstitial fluid and the external
environment.
Internal is the gas exchange between the cells and the capillaries.
24. Define hypoxia: this low oxygen level in the tissues
25. Define anoxia: this is no oxygen in the tissue; leads to stroke and heart attack
26. What is compliance of lungs?
This is the expandability of the lungs. It correlates with proper lung function.
 High compliance means easy to fill and empty the lungs
 Low compliance means more force is needed to fill and empty the lungs
 In emphysema, there is high compliance but poor lung function.
27. What is the intrapulmonary pressure during inhalation and exhalation?
 Inhalation: it is -1mmHg (759)
 Exhalation: it is +1 mmgHg (761)
28. What is the intrapleural pressure during inhalation and exhalation
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
Inhalation: -3 to -6 mmHg
Exhalation: -6 to -3 mmHg
29. What muscles are involved in inhalation at rest?
 Diaphragm, external intercostal muscles, sterncleidomastoid, scalene,
pectoralis, serratus anterior muscle.
 Exhalation: passive is relaxation of the inhalation muscles; active:
tracnsverse thoracic, abdominal, internal intercostal muscles.
30. Define eupnea: this is quiet and normal breathing
31. Define hyperpnea: this is forced breathing
32. Equation for respiratory minute volume
VE = f x Vt where f is breath per min and Vt is tidal volume in ml per breath
33. Equation for alveolar ventilation
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

VA = f x (Vt – Vd) where Vd is the volume of dead anatomical space (about
150ml)
Pressure gradient for ventilation: Patm – Palv
Transpulmonary pressure: Palv - Pip
34. Equation for Vital capacity
VC = ERV + IRV +Vt where ERV is the expiratory reserve volume; IRV is the
inspiratoiry reserve volume
 It is the maximum amount of air one can move out their lungs after maximum
inhalation
35. Equation for Total lung capacity
TLC = VC + RV where RV is the residual volume (1200ml)
36. Percentage of Hb-O2 saturation in left atrium vs Right atrium of heart
 Left atrium (98.5% because PO2 is 100mmHg)
 Right atrium (75% because PO2 is 40 mmHg)
37. What is the Bohr effect?
Curve shift when temperature, pH or BPG is changed.
38. Increase in temperature shifts Hb-O2 saturation curve to ___right (more O2 is
released)_______decrease in pH shifts the curve to the right__
39. What is BPG and how does it shift Hb-O2 saturation curve?
BPG Is 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate and it decreases the affinity of oxygen to
hemoglobin.
40. What controls respiratory rate?
CO2 levels.
41. How does CO2 travel in blood?
 70% travel as bicarbonate ions (HCO3-)
 23% bind to hemoglobin
 7% remain in plasma
42. Where does the bicarbonate ion stay most of the time? Where is it the other part of
the time?
 It stays in the capillaries of the tissues
 Other time, it stays in the alveoli of the lungs
43. Formula for formation of bicarbonate ion
 CO2 + H2O  H2CO3  H+ + HCO3- by carbonic anhydrase
44. What is the chloride shift?
This is where chlorine enters RBC from the plasma in exchange for bicarbonate ion leaving
the rbc.
45. Where is the respiratory center?
It is in the medulla oblongata and the pons.
 DRG: Dorsal respiratory group controls quiet and forced
46. What is the difference between CO2 and CO in how they bind to RBC?
CO has higher affinity for oxygen and binds to the iron of the heme while CO2 binds
to the alpha and beta chains of hemoglobin.
47. DRG controls __quiet and forced breathing__________________ while VRG controls
______forced breathing_______________
48. What is the Hering-Breuer Reflex?


These are the carotid and aortic reflexes involved in forced breathing.
Inflation reflex: prevents overexpansion of the lungs
Deflation reflex: prevents collapse of the lungs by inhibiting expiratory centers and
stimulating inspiratory centers.
49. At a higher altitude the percentage of oxygen in air decreases. T/F ?
False
50. What is decompression sickness?
A sudden drop in atmospheric pressure causes Nitrogen gas to form bubbles in the joint
cavitiies
51. Hypocapnia vs hypercapnia


Hypocapnia is a decrease in Pco2 in arterial blood. It is caused by
hypervanetilation and results in hypoventilation and decrease in breath rate.
Hypercapnia is an increase in PO2 in arterial blood. It is caused by
hypoventilation and results in hyperventilation and increase in breath rate
52. Pneumothorax is what, and results in what?
 It allows air into the pleural cavity and results in atelectasis which is collapsed lung
Answers
1. Gas exchange, sound, smell, moving air, protection of surfaces
2. Larynx
3. Conducting and Respiratory pathways
4. (1) Filter, warm, and humidify incoming air (2) cool, dehumidify outgoing air
5. Nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
6. Nasopharynx, superior portion of LRS and trachea
7. Stratified squamous; cuboidal; simple squamous
8. Create air turbulence; allows air to stay in nasal cavity longer
9. Alveolar macrophages
10. Nine cartilages; (1) Thyroid (2) Cricoid (3) Epiglottis (4) Right Arytenoid (5) Left
Arytenoid (6) Right corniculate (7) Left corniculate (8) Right cuneiform (9) Left
cuneiform.
11. Vestibular: top, inelastic, protection of vocal folds Vocal: bottom, elastic, produces
sound
12. Phonation (vibration) and Articulation (echoes)
13. Right lung has 3 lobes, left has 2
14. Area in lung where pulmonary arteries, veins, nerve, lymphatic vessels enter/exit.
15. Relaxation – this makes sense because in sympathetic stimulation the body needs
more oxygen to prepare for fight/flight, and relaxation of the trachealis muscle
causes trachea to open wider
16. Right primary bronchus is larger in diameter, shorter, and more vertical than left
17. Sympathetic
18. Excessive stimulation and bronchoconstriction
19. Septal; surfactant
20. Alveolar macrophages
21. A lack of surfactant, which causes the alveoli to collapse
22. Destruction of alveolar surfaces; increased nonfunctional air cavities; high
compliance, but low respiratory function
23. Internal: gas exchange between cells and capillaries in peripheral tissues. External:
gas exchange between blood capillaries and alveoli (external environment) in lungs.
24. Low tissue oxygen level
25. No tissue oxygen
26. Expandability of lungs; high compliance means it is easy to fill and empty lungs
27. Rest: 759 mmHg (-1mmHg) Exhalation: 761 mmHg (+1mmHg)
28. Inhalation: -3 to -6 mmHg. Exhalation: -6 to -3 mmHg of atmospheric pressure.
29. Diaphragm and External intercostals
30. Quiet breathing
31. Forced breathing
32. f x (Tidal volume)
33. f x (Tidal volume – dead space)
34. VC = ERV + IRV + TV
35. TLC = VC + RV
36. Left atrium = 99% ; RA = 75%
37. An increase of acid in blood  increase in oxygen unloaded to tissues; Hb-O2
saturation curve shifts to right
38. Right; a higher temperature increases oxygen delivery to tissues
39. BPG decreases the affinity of HbO2; an increase in BPG increases oxygen released to
tissues, so the curve shifts to the right
40. CO2 concentration in blood
41. 70% as bicarbonate in plasma, 23% bound to hemoglobin (on alpha and beta chains,
not on iron), and 7% is dissolved in blood
42. Usually stays in plasma, but enters RBC when in lung
43. CO2 + H2O  H2CO3  H+ and HCO344. HCO3 leaves RBC (enters plasma) and Cl- enters RBC
45. Medulla Oblongata and pons
46. CO2 binds to the alpha and beta chains, while CO binds to the iron of heme
47. Quiet and forced breathing; forced breathing
48. Inflation reflex: prevents overexpansion of lungs.
Deflation reflex: prevents collapse of lungs
49. False (still 21 %)
50. Sudden drop in pressure  nitrogen gas (primary factor) and oxygen come out of
solution into cavities or joints of body
51. Hypo-capnia: decrease PCO2 in bloodlead to hypoventilation
Hyper-capnia: increase in PCO2 in blood  lead to hyperventilation
52. Air enters pleural cavity  loss of negative pressure  collapse of lung.
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