Chapter 23 Review Respiratory 1. List five functions of the respiratory system Provides a surface for gas exchange Moves air to and from the exchange surfaces Produces sound Detects olfactory stimuli from nasal cavity Protects respiratory surfaces from damage and invasive pathogens The upper respiratoery system contains the external nares, nsasl vestibule, nasal septum, pharynx, nasal concha and meatus, internal nares, hard and soft palate, paranasal sinuses, nasal mucosa. 2. What divides upper from lower respiratory system? The larynx? Or hyoid bone? 3. What are the two components of respiratory tract? The conducting portion which is from the nasal cavity to the terminal bronchioles The respiratory portion which is the respiratory bronchioles and the alveoli. 4. What are two functions of URS (upper respiratory system)? Filters, warms and humidify incoming air Cool and dehumidify outgoing air 5. List the three divisions of pharynx Nasopharynx Oropharynx Laryngo-pharynx The pharynx is shared by both the digestive and the respiratory systems including the internal nares. 6. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium found where? Found in the superior portion of the lower respiratory system and the nasal cavity and nasopharynx 7. Oro- and laryngo-pharynx contain what epithelium? Smaller bronchioles? Alveoli? Oro and laryngo-pharynx have stratified squamous epithelium. Smaller bronchioles have cuboidal epithelium with scattered cilia Alveoli has simple squamous epithelium 8. Role of conchae and meatus? They create air turbulence which allows the air to stay in the nasal cavity for a longer time. 9. What are dust cells? These are the alveolar macrophages that are part of the respiratory defense system. Other parts of the respiratory defense system is the mucus escalator where mucus is swept by cilia toward the pharynx which cleans it. Filtration of particles that are trapped in hairs or mucus is also part of this system. 10. How many pieces of cartilage are found in larynx? What are they? There are 6 pieces of cartilage found. There are 3 unpaired cartilages: thyroid, cricoid and epiglottis. There are 3 paired: arytenoid, cuneiform, corniculate 11. List some differences between vestibular folds and vocal folds The vestibular fold is inelastic while the vocal folds are elastic. The vestibular fold protects the vocal folds and the glottis from foreign objects while the vocal folds produce sounds and guard ythe entrance of the glottis. When the vocal folds are slender and short, high pitched sounds are produced. 12. Sound is produced by what two things? Phonation: vibration of the vocal folds Articulation: echoes within the chest 13. What is the difference between right and left lung? The right lung has 3 lobes: superior, middle and inferior with a horizontal fissure and an oblique fissure. The left lung has 2 lobes : superior and inferior with an oblique fissure and a cardiac notch. 14. What is the hilum in lungs? 15. What does sympathetic stimulation do to the trachealis muscle? It relaxes the trachealis muscle which increases the diameter of the tracheal. 16. What are some differences between the right and left primary bronchus? The right primary bronchus has a bigger diameter than the left and it has 3 secondary bronchi while the left has 2 secondary bronchi. Most foreign objects also enter the right primary bronchus (“probably because it is wider) 17. Sympathetic or parasympathetic causes bronchio-dilation? Sympathetic stimulation causes broncho-dilation because more air has to get in for you to run in a flight or fight situation. It increases the airway diameter and respiratory effect 18. Asthma a result of what? Broncho-construction, decreased airway diameter, decreased air flow, increased brinchiolar mucosa. It is caused by excessive stimulation and bronchoconstriction stimulation that severely restricts airflow. Pneumonia is caused by bacteria and viruses that attack the alveoli and 19. Pneumocytes Type II cells are also called septal cells___and release __a surfactant that reduces the surface tension of alveolar fluid and prevents collapse of the alveoli_ 20. Pneumocytes Type III cells are _______________________ 21. What is Respiratory distress syndrome? This is the lack of the surfactant which results in the collapse of the alveoli 22. List some characteristics associated with Emphysema Swelling due to the destruction of alveolar surfaces from smoking or toxic gas. Alveoli expand and capillaries deteriorate Large nonfunctional air cavities in the lungs. 23. What is external and internal respiration? External is the gas exchange between the interstitial fluid and the external environment. Internal is the gas exchange between the cells and the capillaries. 24. Define hypoxia: this low oxygen level in the tissues 25. Define anoxia: this is no oxygen in the tissue; leads to stroke and heart attack 26. What is compliance of lungs? This is the expandability of the lungs. It correlates with proper lung function. High compliance means easy to fill and empty the lungs Low compliance means more force is needed to fill and empty the lungs In emphysema, there is high compliance but poor lung function. 27. What is the intrapulmonary pressure during inhalation and exhalation? Inhalation: it is -1mmHg (759) Exhalation: it is +1 mmgHg (761) 28. What is the intrapleural pressure during inhalation and exhalation Inhalation: -3 to -6 mmHg Exhalation: -6 to -3 mmHg 29. What muscles are involved in inhalation at rest? Diaphragm, external intercostal muscles, sterncleidomastoid, scalene, pectoralis, serratus anterior muscle. Exhalation: passive is relaxation of the inhalation muscles; active: tracnsverse thoracic, abdominal, internal intercostal muscles. 30. Define eupnea: this is quiet and normal breathing 31. Define hyperpnea: this is forced breathing 32. Equation for respiratory minute volume VE = f x Vt where f is breath per min and Vt is tidal volume in ml per breath 33. Equation for alveolar ventilation VA = f x (Vt – Vd) where Vd is the volume of dead anatomical space (about 150ml) Pressure gradient for ventilation: Patm – Palv Transpulmonary pressure: Palv - Pip 34. Equation for Vital capacity VC = ERV + IRV +Vt where ERV is the expiratory reserve volume; IRV is the inspiratoiry reserve volume It is the maximum amount of air one can move out their lungs after maximum inhalation 35. Equation for Total lung capacity TLC = VC + RV where RV is the residual volume (1200ml) 36. Percentage of Hb-O2 saturation in left atrium vs Right atrium of heart Left atrium (98.5% because PO2 is 100mmHg) Right atrium (75% because PO2 is 40 mmHg) 37. What is the Bohr effect? Curve shift when temperature, pH or BPG is changed. 38. Increase in temperature shifts Hb-O2 saturation curve to ___right (more O2 is released)_______decrease in pH shifts the curve to the right__ 39. What is BPG and how does it shift Hb-O2 saturation curve? BPG Is 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate and it decreases the affinity of oxygen to hemoglobin. 40. What controls respiratory rate? CO2 levels. 41. How does CO2 travel in blood? 70% travel as bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) 23% bind to hemoglobin 7% remain in plasma 42. Where does the bicarbonate ion stay most of the time? Where is it the other part of the time? It stays in the capillaries of the tissues Other time, it stays in the alveoli of the lungs 43. Formula for formation of bicarbonate ion CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H+ + HCO3- by carbonic anhydrase 44. What is the chloride shift? This is where chlorine enters RBC from the plasma in exchange for bicarbonate ion leaving the rbc. 45. Where is the respiratory center? It is in the medulla oblongata and the pons. DRG: Dorsal respiratory group controls quiet and forced 46. What is the difference between CO2 and CO in how they bind to RBC? CO has higher affinity for oxygen and binds to the iron of the heme while CO2 binds to the alpha and beta chains of hemoglobin. 47. DRG controls __quiet and forced breathing__________________ while VRG controls ______forced breathing_______________ 48. What is the Hering-Breuer Reflex? These are the carotid and aortic reflexes involved in forced breathing. Inflation reflex: prevents overexpansion of the lungs Deflation reflex: prevents collapse of the lungs by inhibiting expiratory centers and stimulating inspiratory centers. 49. At a higher altitude the percentage of oxygen in air decreases. T/F ? False 50. What is decompression sickness? A sudden drop in atmospheric pressure causes Nitrogen gas to form bubbles in the joint cavitiies 51. Hypocapnia vs hypercapnia Hypocapnia is a decrease in Pco2 in arterial blood. It is caused by hypervanetilation and results in hypoventilation and decrease in breath rate. Hypercapnia is an increase in PO2 in arterial blood. It is caused by hypoventilation and results in hyperventilation and increase in breath rate 52. Pneumothorax is what, and results in what? It allows air into the pleural cavity and results in atelectasis which is collapsed lung Answers 1. Gas exchange, sound, smell, moving air, protection of surfaces 2. Larynx 3. Conducting and Respiratory pathways 4. (1) Filter, warm, and humidify incoming air (2) cool, dehumidify outgoing air 5. Nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx 6. Nasopharynx, superior portion of LRS and trachea 7. Stratified squamous; cuboidal; simple squamous 8. Create air turbulence; allows air to stay in nasal cavity longer 9. Alveolar macrophages 10. Nine cartilages; (1) Thyroid (2) Cricoid (3) Epiglottis (4) Right Arytenoid (5) Left Arytenoid (6) Right corniculate (7) Left corniculate (8) Right cuneiform (9) Left cuneiform. 11. Vestibular: top, inelastic, protection of vocal folds Vocal: bottom, elastic, produces sound 12. Phonation (vibration) and Articulation (echoes) 13. Right lung has 3 lobes, left has 2 14. Area in lung where pulmonary arteries, veins, nerve, lymphatic vessels enter/exit. 15. Relaxation – this makes sense because in sympathetic stimulation the body needs more oxygen to prepare for fight/flight, and relaxation of the trachealis muscle causes trachea to open wider 16. Right primary bronchus is larger in diameter, shorter, and more vertical than left 17. Sympathetic 18. Excessive stimulation and bronchoconstriction 19. Septal; surfactant 20. Alveolar macrophages 21. A lack of surfactant, which causes the alveoli to collapse 22. Destruction of alveolar surfaces; increased nonfunctional air cavities; high compliance, but low respiratory function 23. Internal: gas exchange between cells and capillaries in peripheral tissues. External: gas exchange between blood capillaries and alveoli (external environment) in lungs. 24. Low tissue oxygen level 25. No tissue oxygen 26. Expandability of lungs; high compliance means it is easy to fill and empty lungs 27. Rest: 759 mmHg (-1mmHg) Exhalation: 761 mmHg (+1mmHg) 28. Inhalation: -3 to -6 mmHg. Exhalation: -6 to -3 mmHg of atmospheric pressure. 29. Diaphragm and External intercostals 30. Quiet breathing 31. Forced breathing 32. f x (Tidal volume) 33. f x (Tidal volume – dead space) 34. VC = ERV + IRV + TV 35. TLC = VC + RV 36. Left atrium = 99% ; RA = 75% 37. An increase of acid in blood increase in oxygen unloaded to tissues; Hb-O2 saturation curve shifts to right 38. Right; a higher temperature increases oxygen delivery to tissues 39. BPG decreases the affinity of HbO2; an increase in BPG increases oxygen released to tissues, so the curve shifts to the right 40. CO2 concentration in blood 41. 70% as bicarbonate in plasma, 23% bound to hemoglobin (on alpha and beta chains, not on iron), and 7% is dissolved in blood 42. Usually stays in plasma, but enters RBC when in lung 43. CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H+ and HCO344. HCO3 leaves RBC (enters plasma) and Cl- enters RBC 45. Medulla Oblongata and pons 46. CO2 binds to the alpha and beta chains, while CO binds to the iron of heme 47. Quiet and forced breathing; forced breathing 48. Inflation reflex: prevents overexpansion of lungs. Deflation reflex: prevents collapse of lungs 49. False (still 21 %) 50. Sudden drop in pressure nitrogen gas (primary factor) and oxygen come out of solution into cavities or joints of body 51. Hypo-capnia: decrease PCO2 in bloodlead to hypoventilation Hyper-capnia: increase in PCO2 in blood lead to hyperventilation 52. Air enters pleural cavity loss of negative pressure collapse of lung.