FIN515– Managerial Finance - 61767 Professor Juan Roman Student: Alejandra Humpierres Week 6 – Homework Chapter 12 Problems (p. 533) 12-1 AFN Equation Broussard Skateboard’s sales are expected to increase by 15% from $8 million in 2016 to $9.2 million in 2017. Its assets totaled $5 million at the end of 2016. Broussard is already at full capacity, so its assets must grow at the same rate as projected sales. At the end of 2016, current liabilities were $1.4 million, consisting of $450,000 of accounts payable, $500,000 of notes payable, and $450,000 of accruals. The after-tax profit margin is forecasted to be 6%, and the forecasted payout ratio is 40%. Use the AFN equation to forecast Broussard’s additional funds needed for the coming year. Additional Funds Needed Ao = current level of assets $5,000,000.00 Lo = current level of liabilities $900,000 Current Liabilities - notes payable ΔS = change in sales $1,200,000 So = beginning sales level $8,000,000 S1 = new level of sales $9,200,000 PM = profit margin 6.0% b = retention rate = 1 – payout rate 60% Payout rate 40% Additional Funds Needed $283,800.00 12-2 AFN Equation Refer to Problem 12-1. What would be the additional funds needed if the company’s year-end 2016 assets had been $7 million? Assume that all other numbers, including sales, are the same as in Problem 12-1 and that the company is operating at full capacity. Why is this AFN different from the one you found in Problem 12-1? Is the company’s “capital intensity” ratio the same or different? Additional Funds Needed Ao = current level of assets $7,000,000.00 $900,000 Lo = current level of liabilities ΔS = change in sales $1,200,000 So = beginning sales level $8,000,000 S1 = new level of sales $9,200,000 PM = profit margin 6.0% 60% b = retention rate = 1 – payout rate Payout rate 40% Additional Funds Needed $583,800.00 The capital intensity Ratio will be different also, as this is total assets/sales, increasing assets. 12-3 AFN Equation Refer to Problem 12-1. Return to the assumption that the company had $5 million in assets at the end of 2016, but now assume that the company pays no dividends. Under these assumptions, what would be the additional funds needed for the coming year? Why is this AFN different from the one you found in Problem 12-1? Additional Funds Needed $5,000,000.00 Ao = current level of assets Lo = current level of liabilities $900,000 ΔS = change in sales $1,200,000 So = beginning sales level $8,000,000 S1 = new level of sales $9,200,000 PM = profit margin 6.0% b = retention rate = 1 – payout rate 100% Payout rate 0% Additional Funds Needed $63,000.00 Because the payout rate is 0% as you did not pay dividends 12-7 Forecasted Statements and Ratios Upton Computers makes bulk purchases of small computers, stocks them in conveniently located warehouses, ships them to its chain of retail stores, and has a staff to advise customers and help them set up their new computers. Upton’s balance sheet as of December 31, 2016, is shown here (millions of dollars): Sales for 2016 were $350 million and net income for the year was $10.5 million, so the firm’s profit margin was 3.0%. Upton paid dividends of $4.2 million to common stockholders, so its payout ratio was 40%. Its tax rate was 40%, and it operated at full capacity. Assume that all assets/sales ratios, (spontaneous liabilities)/sales ratios, the profit margin, and the payout ratio remain constant in 2017. a. If sales are projected to increase by $70 million, or 20%, during 2017, use the AFN equation to determine Upton’s projected external capital requirements. Additional Funds Needed $122.50 Ao = current level of assets Lo = current level of liabilities $17.50 ΔS = change in sales $70 So = beginning sales level $350 S1 = new level of sales $420 PM = profit margin 3.00% b = retention rate = 1 – payout rate 60% Payout rate 40% Additional Funds Needed $13.44 b. Using the AFN equation, determine Upton’s self-supporting growth rate. That is, what is the maximum growth rate the firm can achieve without having to employ nonspontaneous external funds? Self-supporting Growth Rate Ao = current level of assets $122.50 $17.50 Lo = current level of liabilities ΔS = change in sales $70 So = beginning sales level $350 S1 = new level of sales $420 PM = profit margin 3.00% b = retention rate = 1 – payout rate 60% Payout rate 40% Self-supporting Growth Rate 6.38% c. Use the forecasted financial statement method to forecast Upton’s balance sheet for December 31, 2017. Assume that all additional external capital is raised as a line of credit at the end of the year and is reflected (because the debt is added at the end of the year, there will be no additional interest expense due to the new debt). Assume Upton’s profit margin and dividend payout ratio will be the same in 2017 as they were in 2016. What is the amount of the line of credit reported on the 2017 forecasted balance sheets? (Hint: You don’t need to forecast the income statements because the line of credit is taken out on the last day of the year and you are given the projected sales, profit margin, and dividend payout ratio; these figures allow you to calculate the 2017 addition to retained earnings for the balance sheet without actually constructing a full income statement.) LOC= $13.44 million Chapter 13 Questions (pp. 561) 13-2 Agency conflict What is the possible agency conflict between inside owner/managers and outside shareholders? The main conflict between owner/managers and outside shareholders is conflict of interest. The first ones will most likely operate the company to maximize their on welfare. This welfare obviously includes the increased wealth due to increasing the value of the company, but it also includes perquisites (or “perks”) such as more leisure time, luxurious offices, executive assistants, expense accounts, limousines, corporate jets, and generous retirement plans. The issue is that if the owner/manager sells some stocks to outsiders the cost of those perks now are spreads to the outsiders, maybe increasing the consumption of those perks by the owner/managers as it become less expensive for them. 13-3 Agency Conflict - Borrowers and Lenders What are some possible agency conflicts between borrowers and lenders? The investment decisions a borrower makes after the loan has been originated, these decisions might be harmful to the lender. If the borrower invests in high risk projects. If the project pays off big, most of the benefits accrue to the borrowers, and the creditors just get the principal back, it doesn’t benefit them at all. If the project fails the borrower doesn't get anything, and most likely will ask for more debt, to which lenders protect themselves by charging higher interest rates.