GCSE Key Verbs and Structures

advertisement
Key Verbs and Structures for GCSE
Regular verbs (IR)
(Full verb formation)
(Regular verb infinitives)
(Infinitive) Vivir – to live
Me
Te
Se
Nos
Os
Se
Foundation verbs
Ar
Aconsejar – to advise
Apagar – to turn off
Arreglar – to tidy
Bailar – to dance
Bajar – to go down
Cambiar – to change
Caminar – to walk
Cenar – to dine
Comprar – to buy
Contestar – to answer
Dejar – to leave
Enseñar – to teach / show
Entrar – to enter
Enviar – to send
Escuchar – to listen to
Esperar – to hope / wait
Estudiar – to study
Evitar – to avoid
Explicar – to explain
Fumar – to smoke
Ganar – to win / earn
Gastar – to spend £
Lavar – to wash
Llamar – to call
Limpiar – to clean
Llegar – to arrive
Llenar – to fill
Llevar – to wear / carry
Nadar – to swim
Necesitar – to need
Obligar – to force
Pasar – to spend time / pass
Pagar – to pay
Higher verbs
Pasear – to walk
Practicar – to practise
Preguntar – to ask
Preparar – to prepare
Regresar – to return
Sacar – to take out
Terminar – to finish
Tocar – to play (instrument)
Tomar – to take / have (food)
Trabajar – to work
Tratar de – to try to
Utilizar – to use
Viajar – to travel
Visitar – to visit
Er
Aprender – to learn
Beber – to drink
Coger – catch
Comer – eat
Correr – to run
Creer – to believe
Deber – to have to
Vender – to sell
Ver – to watch / see
Ir
Abrir – to open
Cubrir – to cover
Decidir – to decide
Escribir – to write
Recibir – to receive
Subir – to go up
Vivo – I live
Vives – you live
Vive – he/she/it lives
Vivimos – we live
Vivís – you live (pl)
Viven – they live
(Radical Change verbs (Present tense only))
(Irregular in 1st person only (Present tense))
Conducir – to drive
Conocer – to know
Decir – to say / tell
Estar – to be (state / position)
Hacer – to do / make
Oír – to hear
Poner – to put / set
Salir – to go out
Saber – to know (fact)
Tener – to have
Traer – to bring
Venir – to come
Regular verbs (AR)
Regular Verbs (ER)
(infinitive) Hablar – to speak
(Infinitive) Comer – to eat
Hablo – I speak
Hablas – you speak
Habla – he/she/it speaks
Hablamos – we speak
Habláis – you speak (pl)
Hablan – they speak
Como – I eat
Comes – you eat
Come – he/she/it eats
Comemos – we eat
Coméis – you eat (pl)
Comen – they eat
Foundation verbs
Conduzco – I drive
Conozco – I know
Digo – I say / tell
Estoy – I am
Hago – I do / make
Oigo – I hear
Pongo – I put / set
Salgo – I go out
Sé – I know
Tengo – I have
Traigo – I bring
Vengo – I come
(Irregular completely (Need to learn completely))
Ir – to go
Ser – to be
voy – I go
vas – you go
Va – he/she/it goes
Vamos – we go
Vais – you go
Van – they go
Soy – I am
Eres – you are
Es – he/she/it is
Somos – we are
Sois – you are
Son – they are
E – ie
Cerrar (ie) – to close
Despertarse (ie) – to wake up
Divertirse (ie) – to enjoy o.s
Empezar (ie) – to begin
Encender (ie) – to light
Herirse (ie) – to get injured
Pensar (ie) – to think
Perder (ie) – to lose
Preferir (ie) – to prefer
Querer (ie) – to want
Sentirse (ie) – to feel
O – ue
Acordarse (ue) de – to
remember
Acostarse (ue) – to go to bed
Almorzar (ue) – to have lunch
Costar (ue) – to cost
Dormir (ue) – to sleep
Higher verbs
Dormirse (ue) – to fall asleep
Doler (ue) – to hurt
Encontrar (ue) – to find
Llover (ue) – to rain
Poder (ue) – to be able to
Probar (ue) – to try
Soñar (ue) con – to dream of
Soler (ue) – to usually ….
Volar (ue) – to fly
Volver (ue) – to return
E–i
Elegir (i) – to choose
Medir (i) – to measure
Pedir (i) – to ask for
Reír (i) – to laugh
Repetir (i) – to repeat
Seguir (i) – to continue
Servir (i) – to serve
Vestirse (i) – to get dressed
(Reflexive Verb Infinitives)
Radical change verbs (E-ie)
* Be aware of verbs which are both reflexive and radically changing
Foundation verbs
Higher verbs
Ar
1. Present tense
levanto – I get (myself) up
levantas – you get up
levanta – he/she/it gets up
levantamos – we get up
levantáis – you get up
levantan – they get up
Acordarse (ue) de – to
remember
Acostarse (ue) – to go to bed
Arreglarse – to sort out
Bañarse – to have a bath
Despertarse (ie) – to wake up
Inquietarse de – to worry about
Lavarse – to have a wash
Levantarse – to get up
Olvidarse de – to forget
Preocuparse de – to worry
about
Quedarse / alojarse – to stay
Quejarse de – to complain
about
Relajarse – to relax
Ir
Divertirse (ie) – to enjoy o.s
Dormirse (ue) – to fall asleep
Herirse (ie) – to get injured
Vestirse (i) – to get dressed
Empiezo – I begin
Empiezas – you begin
Empieza – he/she it begins
Empezamos – we begin
Empezáis – you begin (pl)
Empiezan – they begin
(o-ue)
Vuelvo – I return
Vuelves – you return
Vuelve – he/she/it returns
Volvemos – we return
Volvéis – you return (pl)
Vuelven – they return
(e – i)
Sirvo – I serve
Sirves – You serve
Sirve – He/she/it serves
Servimos – We serve
Servís – You serve (pl)
Sirven – They serve
* Notice no change from infinitive in these persons
2. Two past tenses
2) Ir – to go
Preterite (Finished action/ once)
Iba – I used to go (etc)
(use same endings as SER)
Regular verbs (AR)
Regular Verbs (ER) + (IR)
(infinitive) Hablar – to speak
(Infinitive) Comer – to eat
4. Future and conditional tenses
3. The perfect and pluperfect tense
Future (All endings same for AR,ER,IR)
Conditional (All endings same for AR,ER,IR)
Regular verbs (Future)
Regular Verbs (Conditional)
(infinitive) Hablar – to speak
(Infinitive) Comer – to eat
Hablaré – I will speak
Hablarás – you will speak
Hablará – he/she/it will speak
Hablaremos – we will speak
Hablaréis – you will speak (pl)
Hablarán – they will speak
Comería – I would eat
Comerías – You would eat
Comería – He/she/it would eat
Comeríamos – We would eat
Comeríais – You would eat (pl)
Comerían – They would eat
* Both tenses are made up of a helper and a past participle
Hablé – I spoke
Hablaste – you spoke
Habló – he/she/it spoke
Hablamos – we spoke
Hablasteis – you spoke (pl)
Hablaron – they spoke
Comí – I ate
Comiste – you ate
Comío – he/she/it ate
Comimos – we ate
Comisteis – you ate (pl)
Comieron – they ate
(Irregular preterites)
Ir – to go
Hacer – to do
Fui – I went
Fuiste – You went
Fue – he went
Fuimos – we went
Fuistéis – you went
Fueron – they went
Hice – I did
Hiciste – you did
Hizo – he/she/it dd
Hicimos – we did
Hicisteis – you did (pl)
Hicieron – they did
(Perfect tense)
Helper
Past participle (AR) (ER + IR)
He – I have
Has – You have
Ha – He/she/it has
Hemos – we have
Habéis – you have
Han – they have
Infinitive – (Hablar)
Hablado – spoken
Hablado – spoken
Hablado – spoken
Hablado – spoken
Hablado – spoken
Hablado – spoken
Infinitive – (Comer)
Comido – eaten
Comido – eaten
Comido – eaten
Comido – eaten
Comido – eaten
Comido – eaten
Ejemplos:
He hablado – I have spoken
He comido – I have eaten
(Irregular past participles)
Follow hacer endings for following
Puse – I put
Pude – I could
Tuve – I had
Quise – I wanted
Estuve – I was
Anduve – I walked
Dije – I said
Supe – I knew
Hecho – done/ made
Dicho – said
Visto – seen
Puesto – put
Escrito – written
Roto – broken
Ejemplo: He hecho – I have done
(Imperfect tense (ongoing action/ description / was doing))
(Plu-Perfect tense)
Regular verbs (AR)
Regular Verbs (ER) + (IR)
Helper
Past participle (AR) (ER + IR)
(infinitive) Hablar – to speak
(Infinitive) Comer – to eat
Había – I had
Habías – You had
Había – He/she/it had
Habíamos – we had
Habiáis – you had
Habían – they had
Infinitive – (Hablar)
Hablado – spoken
Hablado – spoken
Hablado – spoken
Hablado – spoken
Hablado – spoken
Hablado – spoken
Hablaba – I used to speak
Hablabas – you used to speak
Hablaba – he/she/it used to
speak
Hablábamos – we used to
speak
Hablabáis – you used to
speak (pl)
Hablaban – they used to speak
Comía – I used to eat
Comías – you used to eat
Comía – he/she/it used to eat
Comíamos – we used to eat
Comíais – you used to eat
(pl)
Comían – they used to eat
Infinitive – (Comer)
Comido – eaten
Comido – eaten
Comido – eaten
Comido – eaten
Comido – eaten
Comido – eaten
Ejemplos:
Había hablado – I had spoken
Había comido – I had eaten
(* 2 Irregulars only)
Había hecho – I had done
1) Ser – to be (Important**)
(Irregular past participles are same as above)
Era – I was / used to be
Eramos – we were/ used to be
Eras – you were / used to be Eráis – you were/ used to be
Era – he was /used to be
Eran – they were / used to be
(Irregular stems (Work for both Future and Conditional))
Saldré – I will go out
Sabrás – you will know
Habrá – there will be
Tendremos – we will have
Podremos – we will be able to
Pondréis – you will put (pl)
Vendrán – they will come
Saldría – I would go out
Sabrías – You would know
Habría – there would be
Tendríamos – there would be
Pondríamos – We would be able to
Pondríais – you would put (pl)
Vendrían – they would come
(Compound verbs (Contain part of a familiar verb))
Contener (ie) – to contain
Contiene – it contains
Obtener (ie) – to obtain
Obtengo – I obtain
Mantener (ie) – to maintain
Mantienen – they
maintain
Tener lugar (ie) – to take place
Tiene lugar – it takes
place
Tener en cuenta (ie) – to take into account
Reconocer – to recognise
Reconozco – I recognise
Sonreir (i) – to smile
Sonrío – I smile
Descubrir – To discover
Descubro – I discover
Aprobar (ue) – to pass (exam)
Apruebo – I pass
(Families of words (Verbs / nouns / adjectives)
VERB
NOUN
Volar (ue) – to fly
Llenar – to fill
Vender – to sell
Viajar – to travel
Elegir – to choose
Aconsejar – to
advise
Vuelo - Flight
ADJECTIVE
Lleno – full
Venta - sale
Viaje – journey
Elección – choice
Consejo - advice
Download
Random flashcards
State Flags

50 Cards Education

Countries of Europe

44 Cards Education

Art History

20 Cards StudyJedi

Sign language alphabet

26 Cards StudyJedi

Create flashcards