Session 3. Research Designs MKTG 3010 MARKETING RESEARCH 1 Harley Goes Whole Hog (p 67-68) What was the management decision problem? What was the marketing research problem? How did they arrive at the problems? What are the components of the broad statement? What theory was used in developing the approach? Give an example of the research question and the hypotheses related to it. What information is identified to be needed? 2 Grade Descriptors Grade Overall Course 3 A Outstanding performance on all learning outcomes. A- Generally outstanding performance on all (or almost all) learning outcomes. B Substantial performance on all learning outcomes, OR high performance on some learning outcomes which compensates for less satisfactory performance on others, resulting in overall substantial performance. C Satisfactory performance on the majority of learning outcomes, possibly with a few weaknesses. D Barely satisfactory performance on a number of learning outcomes F Unsatisfactory performance on a number of learning outcomes, OR failure to meet specified assessment requirements. Marketing Research Process Step 1: Defining the Problem Step 2: Developing an Approach to the Problem Step 3: Formulating a Research Design Step 4: Doing Field Work or Collecting Data Step 5: Preparing and Analyzing Data Step 6: Preparing and Presenting the Report 4 5 The Process of Defining the Problem and Developing an Approach Tasks Involved Discussion with Decision Maker(s) Interviews with Experts Secondary Data Analysis Qualitative Research Environmental Context of the Problem Step I: Problem Definition Management Decision Problem Marketing Research Problem Step II: Approach to the Problem Objective/ Theoretical Foundations Analytical Model: Verbal, Graphical, Mathematical Research Questions Hypotheses Step III: Research Design 6 Specification of Information Needed Step 3: Research Design – Determine the ways to collect data 7 Definition A research design is a framework or blueprint for conducting the marketing research project. It details the procedures necessary for obtaining the information needed to structure or solve marketing research problems. 8 Basic Research Designs Exploratory • Flexible • Versatile • Often the front end of total research design Descriptive • Preplanned and structured design • Marked by the prior formulation of specific hypotheses Causal • Manipulation of one or more independent variables • Control of other mediating variables 9 A Comparison of Basic Research Designs Exploratory Descriptive Causal Objective: Discovery of ideas and insights Describe market characteristics or functions Determine cause and effect relationships Characteristics: Flexible, versatile Methods: 10 Marked by the prior Manipulation of formulation of specific independent hypotheses variables, effect on dependent Often the front end Preplanned and variables of total research structured design design Control mediating Expert surveys Secondary data: variables Pilot surveys quantitative analysis Focus group Surveys Experiments Secondary data: Panels qualitative analysis Observation and other qualitative research data Uses of exploratory research In the 1st and 2nd stages of the marketing research process: Used when the research question is still fluid or undetermined. Formulate a problem or define a problem more precisely Gain insights for developing an approach to the problem Help delineate the dependent and independent variables Develop hypotheses 11 Methods of Exploratory Research Literature search; Secondary data analysis Qualitative Research Experience survey, Expert survey Focus group. Depth interviews Projective techniques Ethnographic methods (last week) 12 the detailed observation of consumers during their ordinary daily lives using direct observations, interviews, and video and audio recording. Case studies Exploratory Research: 1. Secondary Data 13 Primary Data vs. Secondary data Primary data are originated by a researcher for the specific purpose of addressing the problem at hand. The collection of primary data involves all six steps of the marketing research process. Secondary data are data which have already been collected for purposes other than the problem at hand. 14 15 How to use data to make a hit TV show? https://www.ted.com/talks/sebastian_wernicke_how_to_use _data_to_make_a_hit_tv_show#t-251588 Questions – 1. 2. 3. 16 What type of data did Roy Price use to make the decision? What type of data did Ted Sarandos use to make the decision? What can we learn from the cases? (good or bad of using data?) Reminder Secondary data must be considered first before any decision to undertake primary data Be critical with secondary data 17 Why, what, when, how, dependable? Homework -- An Unusually Crowded Summer Box Office, in Charts 18 Read the article in attachment and answer the following question: 19 Provide a description of Figure 1? What’s the difference between Figure 1 and Figure 2? Why we create Figure 2? What is “endogeneity”? What is the “endogeneity” problem in this context? What are the explanations for the crowded summer box office? Which one is more plausible? Why? Shall we release the new movie in summer? Exploratory Research: 2. Qualitative Research 20 Qualitative research is one type of exploratory research It results in primary data 21 Primary Data: Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research Objective Qualitative Research Quantitative Research To gain a qualitative understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations To quantify the data and generalize the results from the sample to the population of interest Just like the difference between exploratory and descriptive research! Sample Small number of nonrepresentative cases Large number of representative cases Data Collection Unstructured Structured Data Analysis Nonstatistical Statistical Outcome Develop an initial understanding Recommend a final course of action 22 Classification of Qualitative Research Procedure Qualitative Research Procedures Direct (Nondisguised) Focus Groups Association Techniques 23 Indirect (Disguised) Projective Techniques Depth Interviews Completion Techniques Construction Techniques Expressive Techniques I. Focus Group Watch the video and answer the following questions: 24 What is Focus Group? What is the advantage of using Focus Group? What is the disadvantage of using Focus Group? Focus Group An interview conducted by a trained moderator among a small group of respondents in an unstructured and natural manner. 25 A Group Discussion Generate insights into thoughts and feelings Best for preliminary research Focus Group Advantages: Richness of data Versatility Impact on managers Disadvantages: Lack of generalizability High cost per respondent ($3,000-$5,000 per focus group) Difficult to moderate Potentially misleading data 26 Conformity and Cultural Influence II. Depth Interviews Like focus groups, depth interviews are an unstructured and direct way of obtaining information. Unlike focus groups, however, depth interviews are conducted on a one-on-one basis. 27 Major Difference between Focus Group and Depth Interview Group Interaction 28 On one side: One answer could trigger unexpected reaction from others The other side: Conformity III. Projective Techniques: Word Association What is the first word that comes to your mind when you hear the following… Apple _____________ Samsung Nokia Motorola 29 _____________ _____________ _____________ Projective Techniques: Sentence Completion People who use Master Card are _________. A man who has an American Express is _________. A Platinum Card is most liked by _________. 30 Projective Techniques: Construction Techniques Ask subjects to draw cartoons and write about the subject of interest (or in a more sub 31 TV Characters Find out what types of characters the audience like or dislike. How? 32 The Girl With the Gun (WSJ, Sep 2, 2012) Back ground: Network executives regularly commission market research to find out what types of characters viewers like or dislike. Client: The CW network, known for such soapy female-targeted shows as "Gossip Girl" and "90210“. More than 60% of the network's viewers are women, mostly between the ages 18 to 34. Researcher: Trendera, a market research and trend forecasting firm Research Question: what women in their 20s and 30s want. Research Method: Market researchers asked groups of 10 to 12 women gathered at local coffee shops or a friend's house as well as in traditional focus groups in New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Atlanta, and Denver to make collages of magazine images they liked. 33 Findings: They chose Jennifer Aniston paddle boarding over actresses lying on the beach in bikinis. They preferred beer to wine or fruity pink cocktails and gravitated to toned athletes in fitness magazines over models in evening gowns. They also thought men had gotten wimpier and associated the opposite sex with the bumbling losers played by Jonah Hill and Seth Rogen in recent romantic comedies. Implications: "It was obvious that these women feel like they have to take charge and be the hero," says Jane Buckingham, president of Trendera. 34 So, what did they create? http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703882304575465672667170524.html 35 Projective Techniques: Expressive Techniques Role Playing: Subject is asked to act out someone else’s behavior in a specified setting. Examples: A customer is trying to return an item and does not have a receipt. The customer insists on a cash refund but store policy clearly states that all returns must be accompanied by a receipt. The store manager is only permitted to allow store credit in these circumstances. The customer is irate. What would you do if you were the store manager in this situation? 36 Projective Techniques: Expressive Techniques Third-Person Technique: Subject is asked to verbalize how a third person (such as a neighbor or friend) would react to a specific question. For example: sensitive questions Drug use What Will the Neighbors Say? A study was performed for a commercial airline to understand why some people do not fly. When the respondents were asked, "Are you afraid to fly?" very few people said yes. The major reasons given for not flying were cost, inconvenience, and delays caused by bad weather. However, it was suspected that the answers were heavily influenced by the need to give socially desirable responses. Therefore, a follow-up study was done. In the second study, the respondents were asked, "Do you think your neighbor is afraid to fly?" The answers indicated that most of the neighbors who traveled by some other means of transportation were afraid to fly. 37 Projective Techniques Advantages may elicit responses that subjects would be unwilling or unable to give if they knew the purpose of the study helpful when underlying motivations, beliefs and attitudes are operating at a subconscious level Disadvantages 38 interpretation Descriptive Research 1.Survey 39 Classification of survey methods Survey Methods Telephone Traditional Telephone ComputerAssisted Telephone Interviewing 40 Personal Mail Electronic In-Home Mail Panel E-Mail Mall Intercept Mail/Fax Interview Internet ComputerAssisted Personal Interviewing South Korean Soap Operas: Just Lowbrow Fun? (WSJ, Jul 23, 2013) Researcher: Seoul National University Research Method: Survey Sample: 400 people aged between 20 – 60 in China in January Approach: divided viewers’ tastes into categories according to the levels of income and education. Findings: 1. the main audience for South Korean series tends to be less educated and have less income than viewers that prefer programs from other countries. 2. The high-education-and-high-income group showed a preference for the subject matter’s novelty, fast pace and suspense — often found in U.S. TV shows, the report said. 3. “The Big Bang Theory” was the most popular feature for fans of American TV. Implication: What is it about South Korean TV soap operas that appeals to foreign audiences? it’s because it’s lowbrow entertainment. The report also offers a caveat: highly-educated and high-income viewers may conceal their fondness of lowbrow entertainment. (http://blogs.wsj.com/korearealtime/2013/07/23/south-korean-soap-operas-just41 lowbrow-fun-2/) Advantage of survey research Ease: Questionnaires are relatively easy to administer. Reliability: Using fixed-response (multiple-choice) questions reduces variability in the results that may be caused by differences in interviewers and enhances reliability of the responses. Simplicity: It also simplifies coding, analysis, and interpretation of data. reliability: the measure produces similar results under consistent conditions 42 Disadvantage of survey research Respondents may be unable or unwilling to provide the desired information. Structured data collection involving a questionnaire with fixed-response choices may result in loss of validity for certain types of data, such as beliefs and feelings. Properly wording questions is not easy. validity: the degree to which the tool measures what it claims to measure. 43 Methods of improving response rate Methods of Improving Response Rates Prior Notification Incentives Monetary Prepaid 44 Follow-up Nonmonetary Promised Other Facilitators (e.g. personalization) Descriptive Research 2.Observation 45 Observational Research Observation involves recording the behavioral patterns of people as well as data on objects and events in a systematic manner to obtain information about phenomenon of interest. 46 A Classification of Observation Methods Observation Methods Personal Observation 47 Mechanical Observation Audit Content Analysis Trace Analysis Relative Advantages of Observation Actual behavior vs. intended or preferred behavior No reporting bias, and potential bias caused by the interviewer Certain types of data can be collected only by observation (example?) 48 The hand-washing habits of Americans. The study, conducted every few years, was released by the American Society for Microbiology and the American Cleaning Institute at a microbiology conference in Boston. Some subjects were asked about their washing habits in telephone interviews; others were watched by undercover observers in public restrooms. The researchers, from Harris Interactive, stood in restrooms while pretending to fix their hair or put on makeup, said Brian Sansoni, a spokesman for the American Cleaning Institute, a trade group for producers of cleaning products. “After they took care of business, the observer checked whether or not they actually washed their hands,” Mr. Sansoni said. Only about two-thirds of the men observed washed their hands after using the restroom at Turner Field — the lowest rate for any of the locations cited in the study. 20 percent of people using the restrooms at Pennsylvania Station and Grand Central Terminal in New York did not wash their hands. Women tended to be more responsible hand-washers than men — and female Braves fans were no exception: 98 percent of women observed at Turner Field exercised proper hygiene before exiting the restroom. 49Many, ‘Washroom’ Seems to Be Just a Name – NYT (2010)) (For Relative Disadvantages of Observation Little is known about the underlying motives, beliefs, attitudes, and preferences. Time-consuming and expensive May be unethical It is best to view observation as a complement to survey methods, rather than as being in competition with them. 50 Science of Shopping Cameras and Software that Track our Shopping Behavior (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NG4lFmSO7VQ) (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dm6kPvJQTPI) Questions – 1. 2. 3. 51 What research design is used in the video? What questions can be answered based on the collected data? Any comment?