ElementBuilderVocab

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Vocabulary: Element Builder
Vocabulary
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Atom – the basic unit of matter.
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An atom is the smallest particle of an element that still
has all the properties of the element.
o
Atoms are made up of smaller particles called protons,
neutrons, and electrons. The smaller electrons orbit
around a central nucleus of protons and neutrons.
Atomic number – the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
o
Elements are distinguished from one another by their atomic numbers.
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For example, any atom with two protons is an atom
of helium.
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The symbol for the atomic number is Z.
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In an element symbol, the atomic number is shown
at lower left.
Electron – a negatively charged particle that moves around the nucleus.
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Electron dot diagram – a diagram that shows the element symbol surrounded by dots
representing valence electrons.
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The mass of an electron is less than one thousandth of the mass of a proton.
For example, the electron dot diagram at right shows that neutral
helium atoms have two valence electrons.
Element – a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by
ordinary chemical means.
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Elements are made of one type of atom.
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Atoms of different elements are distinguished by the number of protons in the
nucleus. For example, all carbon atoms have 6 protons.
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Energy level – a particular region where electrons can orbit a nucleus.
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Ion – an atom or molecule that has an electrical charge because it has gained or lost
electrons.
o
An atom with more protons than electrons is a
positively charged ion, or cation.
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An atom with more electrons than protons is a
negatively charged ion, or anion.
o
In an element symbol, the electric charge is shown
at upper right.
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Isotope – one of several forms of the same element.
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All isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons, but differ in the
number of neutrons.
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Most isotopes are radioactive. Usually only one or two stable isotopes exist for a
given element.
Mass number – the number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
o
For example, the mass number of helium is 4 (2
protons and 2 neutrons).
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The symbol for the mass number is A.
o
In an element symbol, the mass number is shown
at upper left.
Neutron – a particle with no charge located in the nucleus of an atom.
o
Neutrons have slightly more mass than protons.
o
The number of neutrons is described by the neutron number, N.
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To find the number of neutrons, subtract the atomic number from the mass
number.
Nucleus – the positively charged, dense center of an atom.
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The nucleus contains protons and neutrons.
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Periodic table – a chart that organizes the chemical elements based on their properties.
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Proton – a positively charged particle located in the nucleus of an atom.
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Protons have slightly less mass than neutrons.
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The number of protons determines the element.
Radioactive – capable of releasing radiation.
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In a radioactive atom, the nucleus can spontaneously decay and emit particles
and/or light. These emissions are called radiation.
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The energy released by radioactive substances can be harnessed to produce
electricity in a nuclear power plant. This energy also can be used to create a
massive explosion in a nuclear bomb.
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If the emissions change the number of protons in the nucleus, the atom becomes
a different element.
Valence electrons – electrons found in the outermost energy level of an atom.
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