The following is just a study tool. It should not be used solely to prepare for your BIO 168 course and/or its assessments. Organelle MembraneBound? Structural Notes Function Nucleus yes The largest organelle in the cell. It is dark and round, and is surrounded by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope/membrane. In spots the nuclear envelope fuses to form pores which are selectively permeable. The nucleus contains genetic information (DNA) on special strands called chromosomes. Store DNA, RNA no Small particles which are found individually in the cytoplasm and also line the membranes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum Synthesis proteins yes A network of membranous canals filled with fluid. "Transport system" of the cell. Ribosome Endoplasmic Reticulum “Brain” or “Control Center” of the cell Controls cell metabolism and reproduction. Smooth= lipids and carbohydrates Rough= proteins no Cytoskeleton a network of protein fibers supporting cell shape and anchoring organelles within the cell Structural support and strength for the cell microtubules (formed by tubulins) , microfilaments (formed by actins) and intermediate filaments no organelles that contain enzymes Break down proteins no Small sac-like structures surrounded by a single “Cells Stomach” Proteasome The following is just a study tool. It should not be used solely to prepare for your BIO 168 course and/or its assessments. Lysosome membrane and containing strong digestive enzymes Breaks down damaged organelles and pathogens Can be broken open to digest the cell in the event of “apoptosis” or “cell suicide” yes Stacks of flattened membranous stacks (they look like pancakes!). Storage, alteration, and packaging of materials (proteins) that are then secreted in vesicles for use in/out of the cell no hair-like organelles which extend from the surface Moves/sweeps things along the surface of the cell in ONE direction Golgi Apparatus Cilia cover the entire surface of a cell Peroxisome yes no Microvilli single membrane-bound organelles that contain enzymes Breaks down fats and organic compounds hair-like organelles which extend from the surface Increase surface area in order to increase absorption shorter than cilia yes Mitochondria Also responsible for locomotion (movement) of cell Round "tube-like" organelles that are surrounded by a double membrane, with the inner membrane being highly folded. Regulated by the Golgi since we are organic compounds! “Powerhouse” of the cell Produces ATP Releases food energy from food molecules to be used by the cell. This process is called respiration.