Organelle Chart

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The following is just a study tool. It should not be used solely to prepare for your BIO 168 course
and/or its assessments.
Organelle
MembraneBound?
Structural Notes
Function
Nucleus
yes
The largest organelle in the
cell. It is dark and round,
and is surrounded by a
double membrane called
the nuclear
envelope/membrane. In
spots the nuclear envelope
fuses to form pores which
are selectively permeable.
The nucleus contains
genetic information (DNA)
on special strands called
chromosomes.
Store DNA, RNA
no
Small particles which are
found individually in the
cytoplasm and also line the
membranes of the rough
endoplasmic reticulum
Synthesis proteins
yes
A network of membranous
canals filled with fluid.
"Transport system" of the
cell.
Ribosome
Endoplasmic
Reticulum
“Brain” or “Control Center”
of the cell
Controls cell metabolism
and reproduction.
Smooth= lipids and
carbohydrates
Rough= proteins
no
Cytoskeleton
a network of protein fibers
supporting cell shape and
anchoring organelles within
the cell
Structural support and
strength for the cell
microtubules (formed by
tubulins) , microfilaments
(formed by actins) and
intermediate filaments
no
organelles that contain
enzymes
Break down proteins
no
Small sac-like structures
surrounded by a single
“Cells Stomach”
Proteasome
The following is just a study tool. It should not be used solely to prepare for your BIO 168 course
and/or its assessments.
Lysosome
membrane and containing
strong digestive enzymes
Breaks down damaged
organelles and pathogens
Can be broken open to
digest the cell in the event
of “apoptosis” or “cell
suicide”
yes
Stacks of flattened
membranous stacks (they
look like pancakes!).
Storage, alteration, and
packaging of materials
(proteins) that are then
secreted in vesicles for use
in/out of the cell
no
hair-like organelles which
extend from the surface
Moves/sweeps things along
the surface of the cell in
ONE direction
Golgi Apparatus
Cilia
cover the entire surface of a
cell
Peroxisome
yes
no
Microvilli
single membrane-bound
organelles that contain
enzymes
Breaks down fats and
organic compounds
hair-like organelles which
extend from the surface
Increase surface area in
order to increase
absorption
shorter than cilia
yes
Mitochondria
Also responsible for
locomotion (movement) of
cell
Round "tube-like"
organelles that are
surrounded by a double
membrane, with the inner
membrane being highly
folded.
Regulated by the Golgi
since we are organic
compounds!
“Powerhouse” of the cell
Produces ATP
Releases food energy from
food molecules to be used
by the cell. This process is
called respiration.
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