CHAPTER ONE What Is an Organization? Definition Organizations are social entities that are goal directed, with deliberately structured activity systems, and with a link to the external environment. Types of Organizations Organization can differ by size, by purpose (service or product /manufacturing), for profit or not for profit, and legal status – corporation, partnership or sole proprietorship. Importance of Organizations See Slides Dimensions of Organizational Design Structural Dimensions Structural dimensions provide labels to describe an organization’s internal characteristics. A few examples: 1) Formalization: the amount of written documentation in the organization Include procedures, job descriptions, regulations, and policy manuals 2) Specialization: the degree to which organizational tasks are subdivided into separate jobs Skilled trades often exhibit a high degree of specialization 3) Hierarchy of Authority: describes who reports to whom and the span of control of each managerThe number of layers of management: tall vs. flat organizations 4) Centralization: refers to the hierarchical level that has authority to make a decision Centralized decision making (at top) gives little discretion to lower level employees 5) Professionalism: - is the level of formal education and training of employees accounting firms have a high level of professionalism 5) Personnel Ratios: Refer to the deployment of people to various functions and departments Measures include various ratios such as administrative ratio (e.g. the workplace consists of 25% administrators and professional staff, 60% front line employees, and 15% executive level management) Contextual Dimensions Contextual dimensions characterize the whole organization and describe the organizational setting. 1) Size: is the organization’s magnitude as reflected in the number of people in the organization 2) Organizational Technology is the nature of the production subsystem that changes inputs to outputs Includes assembly lines, classrooms, oil refineries, etc. 3) Environment: includes all elements outside the boundaries of the organization Includes customers, suppliers, competitors, government, etc. 4) Goals & Strategy: define the purpose and competitive techniques that set one organization apart from others - Includes mission statements and plans of action 5) Culture: is the underlying set of key values, beliefs, understandings, and norms shared by employees May be observed in stories, symbols, ceremonies, etc. Performance and Effectiveness Outcomes The organization must learn to be efficient—using the least amount of resources to achieve its goals, as well as effective—the degree to which an organization actually achieves its goals. In doing so, the organization must consider its stakeholders who are any groups within or outside the organization that have a stake in the organization’s performance. Contingency Theory Contingency theory means that one thing depends or is influenced by other things, and for organizations to be effective, there must be a proper fit (or goodness of fit) between the structure and the conditions in the external environment. There is no one best way to manage or structure and organization; the structure of an organization is contingent or dependent upon a nos of factors that influence to operations of an organization (such as the external environment). Contemporary Organizational Design Before the Industrial Revolution, when most organizations were involved in agriculture or craft work, communication was primarily face-to-face, and structures were simple. In the industrial age, however, a different paradigm emerged, focusing on stable environment, routine technology, large organization size, growth and efficiency goals, and a culture in which employees were taken for granted. Challenges presented by today’s environment including global competitiveness, diversity, rise of e-commerce, a shift to knowledge and information as organizations’ most important form of capital, and worker expectations for meaningful work and opportunities for personal and professional growth.