Ch. 19 -- Notes Student

Period Five: The Globe Encompassed, 1500 CE – 1800 CE
East Asia in Global Perspectives, 1500–1750 (pp. 448-467)
After studying Chapter 19, students should be able to:
Describe the Tokugawa political system and explain why and how the decentralized political
structure contributed simultaneously to both (a) economic growth and to (b) the weakening of
the Tokugawa state.
Describe the causes and symptoms of the decline of the Qing state in the eighteenth century.
Understand the roles of the Jesuits and the East India Companies in the development of
cultural exchange and trade between Europe and Northern Eurasia.
Use the concept of land-based empires to analyze the territorial expansion, the economic and
political structures, and the foreign relations of the Russian and Qing Empires.
I. Introduction (p. 449)
How did the West & East Asia affect each other commercially & intellectually? (p. 449)
East Asia and Europe (pp. 449-452)
A. Trading Companies and Missionaries
1. Europeans were eager to trade with China [
2. Limited access to Chinese trade [Portuguese struggled to trade]
3. Dutch East India Company [
4. Jesuit Matteo Ricci (1552–1610)
B. Chinese Influences on Europe
1. Cultural diffusion
2. Wealth + power of the Qing
Ch. 19 - East Asia: 1500-1750
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C. Japan + the Europeans
1. Jesuits came to Japan in the late 1500s
2. “Closed” country policy
3. Some overseas trade
Prompt: What was the effect of Japanese unification on Korea and Japan? (p. 453)
II. Japanese Unification + the Imjin War (pp. 453-454)
1. Daimyo [“great names”, Japanese warlords + landowners in control]
2. Hideyoshi [
3. Korean and Japanese languages are closely related
4. Koreans and their Chinese allies were defeated by the Japanese
5. Hideyoshi died in 1598
6. The Manchu [Federation of Northeast Asian people who founded Qing Empire]
How did Japan respond to unification and domestic peace, and Korea to the ravages
of the Imjin War? (p. 454)
III. Tokugawa Japan + Choson Korea, to 1800 (pp. 454-456)
A. Japanese Reunification + Economic Growth
1. Tokugawa Shogunate (1603)
2. Wholesale rice exchanges
3. Samurai became bureaucrats and consumers of luxury goods, spurring the development of
an increasingly independent merchant class
B. Japanese Elite Decline + Social Crisis
1. Patterns of population growth and economic growth
2. Tokugawa system undermined
3. Decentralized political system
4. Tokugawa Japan’s transformation from a military to a civil society
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C. Choson Korea
1. Choson dynasty
2. Model Confucian state with a very strict social hierarchy.
How did China deal with military and political challenges both inside and outside its
borders? (p. 456)
IV. From Ming to Qing (pp. 456-463)
A. Ming Economic Growth, 1500–1644
1. Cultural brilliance and economic achievements of the early Ming
2. Climate change
3. Flow of New World silver into China in the 1500s + early 1600s
4. In addition to these global causes of Ming decline, there were also internal factors
particular to China.
B. Ming Collapse + the Rise of the Qing
1. The Ming also suffered from increased threats:
2. Rebel forces led by Li Zicheng overthrew the Ming in 1644
3. A Manchu imperial family ruled the Qing Empire
C. Emperor Kangxi
1. Kangxi (r. 1662–1722) took formal control over his government in 1669 (at the age of 16)
2. Kangxi negotiated a treaty with Russia
D. Tea & Diplomacy
1. Qing were eager to expand trade, but they wanted to control it to be able to tax it more
efficiently and to control piracy and smuggling.
2. British East India Company (late 1700s)
3. The Macartney mission (1793–1794)
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E. Population Growth + Environmental Stress
1. Population explosion
2. Increased environmental stress
3. The Qing depended on local elites to maintain local order
V. Conclusion (p. 463)
VI. Issues in World History: The Little Ice Age (pp. 466-467)
NOTE: Beginning in the 14th century, there was a decrease in mean temperatures, often referred to
as the Little Ice Age, around the world that lasted until the 19th century, contributing to changes in
agricultural practices and the contraction of settlement in parts of the Northern Hemisphere.
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Actively Read the following paragraphs.
Theme: Creation, Expansion, and Interaction of Economic Systems (ECON)
This theme surveys the diverse patterns and systems that human societies have developed to
produce, distribute, and consume desired goods and services across time and place. It explores how
these interactions influence cultural and technological diffusion, migration, state formation, social
classes, and human interaction with the environment.
This theme analyzes and compares major transitions in human economic activity, such as the
growth and spread of agricultural, pastoral, and industrial production; the development of various
labor systems associated with these economic systems (including different forms of household
management and the use of coerced or free labor); and the ideologies, values, and institutions (such
as capitalism and socialism) t hat sustained them. This theme also calls attention to patterns of trade
and commerce between various societies, with particular attention paid to the relationship between
regional and global networks of communication and exchange, and their effects on economic
growth and decline. These webs of interaction strongly influence cultural and technological
diffusion, migration, state formation, social classes, and human interaction with the environment.
Key Concept: State Consolidation and Imperial Expansion
Empires expanded and conquered new peoples around the world, but they often had
difficulties incorporating culturally, ethnically, and religiously diverse subjects, and administrating
widely dispersed territories. Agents of the European powers moved into existing trade networks
around the world.
Around the world, empires and states of varying sizes pursued strategies of centralization,
including more efficient taxation systems that placed strains on peasant producers, sometimes
prompting local rebellions. Rulers used public displays of art and architecture to legitimize state
power. African states shared certain characteristics with larger Eurasian empires. Changes in
African and global trading patterns strengthened some West and Central African states — especially
on the coast; this led to the rise of new states and contributed to the decline of states on both the
Ch. 19 - East Asia: 1500-1750
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coast and in the interior.
I. Rulers used a variety of methods to legitimize and consolidate their power.
A. Rulers used the arts to display political power and to legitimize their rule.
1] Give examples of the arts as displays of political power:
B. Rulers continued to use religious ideas to legitimize their rule.
2] Give examples of these religious ideas:
Key Concept — Although the world’s productive systems continued to be heavily centered on
agriculture, major changes occurred in agricultural labor, the systems and locations of
manufacturing, gender and social structures, and environmental processes.
I. As social and political elites changed, they also restructured ethnic, racial, and gender hierarchies.
II. Both imperial conquests and widening global economic opportunities contributed to the
formation of new political and economic elites.
Give illustrative examples of new elites:
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III. The power of existing political and economic elites fluctuated as they confronted new challenges
to their ability to affect the policies of the increasingly powerful monarchs and leaders.
Give illustrative examples of existing elites:
IV. Some notable gender and family restructuring occurred, including demographic changes in
Africa that resulted from the slave trades.
Give illustrative examples of gender and family restructuring:
V. Recruitment and use of bureaucratic elites, as well as the development of military professionals,
became more common among rulers who wanted to maintain centralized control over their
populations and resources.
Give illustrative examples of bureaucratic elites or military professionals:
Ch. 19 - East Asia: 1500-1750
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