APUSH Midterm Study Guide European Exploration—Articles of Confederation 1. Pre-Columbian Period a. Major aspects of American natives prior to the Columbian Exchange 2. European exploration a. Motives for exploration, especially economic and religious b. Major countries involved c. Major explorers d. Interaction between explorers and natives 2. The Colonies a. Differentiate the colonial regions in terms of: i. Reason for settlement ii. Religion iii. Social structure iv. Education v. Government structure vi. Economy and exports vii. Interaction with natives viii. etc b. Major events within the colonies 3. Colonial relationship with England a. Impact of English wars on the colonies b. Economic relationship developments c. English laws/actions and colonial reactions d. Events that led to tension/Declaration of Independence War 4. Revolutionary War a. Major battles b. Characteristics of English and American armies c. Foreign policy developments 5. Articles of Confederation a. Competing interests of delegates who created Articles b. Impact of colonial history on the formulation of Articles c. Strengths and weaknesses of the Articles Constitution—War of 1812 1. The Constitution a. Major components of the Constitution b. People who influenced the creation and ratification of the Constitution c. Competing social, ideological, economic, and political interests present in the creation and ratification of the Constitution 2. Washington’s Presidency a. Washington’s impact on the presidency b. Domestic issues and events c. Foreign policy issues and events d. Role of Hamilton and Jefferson in Washington’s presidency 3. Adam’s Presidency a. Election of 1796 and 1800 b. Domestic issues and events c. Foreign policy issues and events 4. Jefferson’s Presidency a. Domestic issues and events b. Foreign policy issues and events c. Jefferson’s ideology vs. actions as president 5. Madison’s Presidency a. Social, political, and economic causes of the War of 1812 b. Major events and military strategies used by both sides during the War of 1812 c. Social, political, and economic effects of the War of 1812 Era of Good Feelings—Antebellum Era 1. Era of Good Feelings a. Cultural Nationalism i. Literature ii. Art iii. Education b. Economic Nationalism i. Henry Clay ii. Industrialization iii. Transportation iv. Inventions c. Political Nationalism i. Democratic-Republican Party ii. James Monroe iii. Expansion and the Role of Slavery d. Supreme Court Nationalism i. John Marshall ii. Federal vs. State governments 2. Jacksonian Democracy a. Social characteristics i. Alexis de Tocqueville b. Political characteristics i. Suffrage ii. Political parties c. John Quincy Adams d. Andrew Jackson i. Elections of 1824 and 1828 ii. Common man president? iii. Nullification iv. Indian removal v. Economic policies vi. Politicial opposition 3. Antebellum Economics a. Northern Economy i. Eli Whitney ii. Samuel Slater 1. Rise of Factories 2. Factory conditions 3. Role of women/immigrants 4. Unions b. Southern Economy i. Eli Whitney ii. Cotton Kingdom iii. Slavery c. Western Economy i. Technological Impact ii. Internal improvements and expansion iii. Life on the frontier d. Market Revolution i. National economic system 1. Interdependence between North, South, and West e. Sectionalism i. North vs. South vs. West 4. Antebellum Society and Culture a. Immigration i. German and Irish ii. Nativism b. Movement of people i. Urbanization ii. The West c. Religion i. Deism 1. Thomas Paine 2. Unitarianism ii. Second Great Awakening 1. Camp meetings 2. Charles Finney 3. “Common man” religion 4. Women and reform 5. Mormonism d. Culture i. Transcendentalists ii. Utopian societies iii. Art and Literature 1. Hudson River School 2. Major writers 5. Antebellum Reform a. Major Reformers b. Prisons and Asylums c. Education d. Temperance e. Women’s Rights f. i. ii. iii. Slavery i. ii. iii. Expanding role of women Major activists Seneca Falls Convention Abolitionism 1. Wiliam Lloyd Garrison 2. Frederick Douglass Colonization Slave resistance Sectionalism—Civil War—Reconstruction 1. Antebellum Sectionalism a. Southern life i.Social structure ii.Economic structure iii.Conditions for slaves iv.Slave resistance b. Antislavery movements i.Abolitionists ii.Abolitionist organizations iii.Black abolitionists iv.Southern defense of slavery 2. Expansion a. Expansion politics i.James K. Polk ii.Manifest Destiny b. Land acquisition i.Maine ii.Oregon iii.Texas iv.California c. Mexican War i.Causes ii.Major events during war iii.Political opposition to the war iv.Consequences 1. Land acquired 2. Issue of slavery 3. Road to the Civil War a. Expansion and slavery i.Compromise of 1850 1. Causes 2. Terms of agreement 3. Impact of terms ii.Gadsden Purchase iii.Kansas-Nebraska Act 1. Causes 2. Terms of agreement 3. Impact of terms iv.Attempts to expand slavery in Latin America b. Antislavery movement i.Literature ii.Underground Railroad iii.John Brown c. Political events i.Free Soil party ii.Know-Nothing party iii.Republican party iv.Abraham Lincoln 1. Lincoln-Douglas debates 2. Election of 1860 v.Compromise of 1850 1. Fugitive Slave Law vi.Kansas-Nebraska Act 1. Popular sovereignty 2. Bleeding Kansas 3. Sumner-Brooks incident 4. Lecompton Constitution d. Supreme Court i.Dred Scott v. Sandford ii.Sectional Reaction iii.Freeport Doctrine e. Southern response to Panic of 1857 4. The Civil War a. Election of 1860 b. Secession of southern states c. Fort Sumter d. Border states e. North vs. South i.Military, economic, political, advantages and disadvantages ii.Role of foreign countries iii.Military strategies iv.Leaders f. Major turning points i.Military ii.Political iii.Emancipation Proclamation 1. Freedmen in the war g. Social Impact of Civil War i.Civil liberties ii.Question of nullification iii.Free blacks iv.Women h. Economic Impact of Civil War i.Financing the war ii.Modernizing industrial economies iii.Loss of slavery iv.Inflation v.Republican-backed laws passed during war 5. Reconstruction a. Freedmen’s Bureau b. Presidential Reconstruction plans c. Congressional Reconstruction plans d. Andrew Johnson vs. Congress i.Readmittance of southern governments ii.Overriding Johnson’s vetoes iii.Impeachment of Johnson e. Civil War Amendments (13, 14, 15) and other civil rights legislation f. Grant’s administrations i.Corruption/scandals ii.Panic of 1873 g. Corruption of Northern political machines h. Reconstruction in the South i.Scalawags and Carpetbaggers ii.Blacks in government iii.Ku Klux Klan iv.Sharecropping/tenant farming v.Black communities and Exodusters vi.Segregation vii.Plessy v. Ferguson i. Compromise of 1877 i.Causes ii.Terms iii.Impact of terms One of the following five essay prompts will be on your midterm. Make sure that you follow the prompt EXACTLY. 1. Compare and contrast the culture and economy of the southern colonies with that of the New England colonies. 2. Evaluate the extent to which the Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War, 1754— 1763) marked a turning point in American relations with Great Britain, analyzing what changed and what stayed the same from the period before the war to the period after it. 3. Evaluate the extent to which political parties contributed to the development of national unity in the United States, analyzing what changed and what stayed the same from the time period 1790-1840. 4. Analyze the impact of the market revolution (1815-1860) on the economies of TWO of the following regions: The Northeast The Midwest The South 5. Evaluate the extent to which the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) marked a turning point in the debate over slavery in the United States, analyzing what changed and what stayed the same from the period before the war to the period after it.