strategy roumanian routes 2017

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Global Management ARTE S.R.L.
Mexic Street No. 2, Bloc I3, Sc. 1, Apt. No. 1, parter
Tel.: 021.312.58.40, fax: 021.312.51.03
Nr. Registrul Comerţului: J40/887/1996, C.U.I.: RO8118509
JOINT STRATEGY ON THE DEVELOPMENT, EVALUATION AND INNOVATION OF A
TOURISM IN THE PROJECT
<<Development and promotion of an integrated cultural heritage tourism product: Route
“Natural protected heritage within the cross-border region Romania-Bulgaria”>>,
15.2.1.068.
BENEFICIARY: "Natura Vie" Foundation Calarasi
Tel: 0242331505; Fax: 0242333997
E-mail: [email protected]
SC GLOBAL MANAGEMENT ARTE SRL
Bucharest, November 2017
Project coordinator,
Hristea Cristian Spiru
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. SHORT DESCRIPTION OF THE NATURAL POTENTIAL IN THE ROMANIANBULGARIAN CROSS-BORDER AREA AND IN THE REGIONAL AND
INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT
1.1. Brief description of Romania-Bulgaria cross-border region from the perspective of
ecotourism development
1.2. The international context of the protection of natural heritage and tourism
development, especially ecotourism
1.3. Local context of protection and capitalization of natural and cultural heritage
1.3.1. Legislation in Romania - Protection and Recovery
1.3.2. Legislation in Bulgaria - Protection and Recovery
II. SWOT ANALYSIS OF ROMANIA-BULGARIA CROSS-BORDER
REGARDING THE POSSIBILITY OF ECO-TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
AREA
III. JOINT STRATEGY ON DEVELOPMENT, VALIDATION AND INNOVATION OF A
TOURIST PRODUCT
3.1. Vision
3.2. Mission
3.3. Objectives
3.4. Specific priorities and objectives / strategy actions
3.5. The plan for achieving the priorities established through the route "Natural
protected heritage within the cross-border region Romania-Bulgaria"
IV. IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING SYSTEM
V. ANNEXES
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I. SHORT DESCRIPTION OF THE NATURAL POTENTIAL IN THE ROMANIANBULGARIAN CROSS-BORDER AREA AND IN THE REGIONAL AND
INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT
1.1. Brief description of Romania-Bulgaria cross-border region from the
perspective of ecotourism development
The Romania-Bulgaria cross-border region, which has been largely deployed
along the lower Danube River, and comprises 7 counties in Romania - Mehedinti, Dolj,
Olt, Teleorman, Giurgiu, Calarasi, Constanta - and 8 regions in Bulgaria - Vidin,
Montana , Vratsa, Pleven, Veliko Tarnovo, Ruse, Silistra, Dobrich, has a particularly
valuable natural heritage that creates the premises for the development of ecotourism in
the region.
The relief is particularly varied in this region, where the plain has an important
share - the Romanian Plain, on the Romanian side and the Danube Plain, which
extends to Bulgaria up to the Balkan Mountains. The Danube Cliff is spectacularly
different on the two sides of the border; is rocky on the Bulgarian side, and on the
Romanian side the smooth relief, dominated by meadows and plains. Hills and plateaus
are developing as we leave the Danube, and valleys and lakes are numerous on both
sides of the border.
This border area is covered by six NUTS 2 regions:
 Mehedinţi, Dolj and Olt counties - part of South-West Development Region Oltenia RO41;
 Teleorman, Giurgiu and Calarasi counties - part of South Muntenia Development
Region RO31;
 Constanta County - part of the South-East Development Region RO22;
 Vidin, Vratsa, Montana and Pleven Districts - part of the North-West Region BG31;
 Veliko-Tarnovo, Ruse and Silistra districts - part of the North Central Region BG32;
 Dobrich District - part of the North-East Region BG33.
The level of development of all the Romanian counties and districts in Bulgaria
that form the border region is very low, taking the last positions in the EU in terms of
general regional competitiveness.
The cross-border region Romania-Bulgaria comprises a wide range of
ecosystems and natural habitats with high conservation importance - specific
ecosystems and high biodiversity such as rivers, rivers, confluences, island
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ecosystems, national parks, natural parks, RAMSAR sites and other reserves high
protection status. Thus, the common route proposed in the preliminary study includes
natural objectives recognized for special landscapes, such as sections of the Danube
River, parts of the Stara Planina and Carpathian mountain chains or the Black Sea
coast.
Therefore, the Romanian-Bulgarian cross-border1 region is characterized by a
high biodiversity, as well as protected sites and a diverse natural landscape. These
natural heritage objectives are present along the entire length of the border.
The level of protection of these areas ranges from natural parks to Natura 2000
sites, from biosphere reserves to UNESCO sites. Eight natural and national parks are
located in this region. Thus, there are three natural parks in Romania - Mehedinti
Plateau Geopark, Iron Gate Natural Park and Comana Natural Park and a national park
- Domogled National Park - Cerna Valley, and in Bulgaria there are four natural parks Vrachansky Balkan Natural Park, Persina Nature Park , Rusenski Lom Natural Park and
Zlatni Pyasatsi Natural Park (Gold Sands). Rusenski Lom Natural Park is an exceptional
monument and is on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve is a true biodiversity museum, a natural
value bank of invaluable value for the universal natural heritage. In Bulgaria, there are
two biosphere reserves, Chuprene and Srebena (Ramsar site).
Ramsar sites are located in the studied area, including 15 sites in Romania including the Danube Delta, Lake Techirghiol and the Iron Gate Natural Park and 6 sites
in Bulgaria - including the Persina Nature Park, Srebarna or Shabla Lake.
The Natura 2000 ecological network is represented by 54 special conservation
areas - SCIs and 46 special avifauna - SPA special protection areas in Romania, while
in Bulgaria there are 92 SCI sites and 40 SPA sites.
From the perspective of the development of tourism in this region, besides the
natural protected areas included in the route "Natural protected patrimony from the
territory of Romania-Bulgaria cross-border region", cultural, historical or archaeological
objectives near the natural areas were taken into account. Thus, the cultural and
historical component of the route is well represented, including attractions such as
Radetski Shipyard in Kozloduy, Ulpia Oescus archaeological site in Karaboaz area,
Ancient Dimu Castrum in Belene, Tsarevets Fortress in Veliko Tarnovo, Aladzha
Monastery near Natural Park The Golden Sands, the Iron Gates Hydropower Museum
in the Portile de Fier Natural Park, the Comana Monastery and the Calugareni History
Museum in Comana Natural Park, the Trophaeum Traiani Monument and the Adamclisi
1
Cohesion Policy Support for Local Development: best practices and and future policy options, DG Regio, CCI
n. 2009.CE.16.0.AT.081, Final Report
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Museum of the Natura 2000 Site Dumbrăveni-Valea Urluia-Vederoasa Lake, Callatis
Fortress and the Callatis Archeology Museum in Mangalia, numerous museums in
Constanta and many other archaeological sites and places of worship on both sides of
the border.
The cultural heritage2 of the Romanian-Bulgarian border area is dense and
diverse, consisting of a wide variety of historical and architectural monuments,
museums or churches and monasteries, archaeological sites, legends, folklore, etc. In
all counties and districts there are cultural heritage objectives.
In the border area, respectively in the seven counties, 268 cultural heritage
objectives of national and international interest were identified in the Romania-Bulgaria
Cross-border Operational Program 2014-2020: monasteries - 26 objectives; cult
buildings - 64 objectives; urban civil buildings - 42 objectives; infrastructures and utility
buildings - 7 objectives; boyars' residences (castles, mansions, palaces) and memorial
houses - 29 objectives; museums - 6 objectives; urban assemblies - 4 objectives.
Globally, tourism is the second largest industry and one of the most expanding
sectors, and both countries, Romania and Bulgaria, rely on tourism for international
openness and economic development, all the more so as tourism generates economic
effects additions in other sectors such as transport, entertainment and services.
Natural heritage has limits beyond which its modification or use of resources
would lead to diminishing or even loss of diversity or natural beauty. From area to area,
specifics, sensitivities, species and habitats vary, as they can cope with economic
activity due to the pressure on tourists in different, unpredictable ways and guiding local
authorities and businesses in tailored management and development plans area.
These elements help the community to develop economic activities, attract local
revenue from the tourists' party, add value to natural products and attract investors. The
way a local community manages to use its natural heritage - wise and moderate - is
essential to ensuring future development options.
Economic activities - particularly ecotourism - that harness the patrimony and
natural resources have a direct impact on them. This impact may be beneficial, such as
the development of a tourist component, or harmful, such as pollution, resource
depletion, unattractive landscapes, or biodiversity loss.
2
Cohesion Policy Support for Local Development: best practices and and future policy options, DG Regio, CCI
n. 2009.CE.16.0.AT.081, Final Report
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1.2. The international context of the protection of natural heritage and tourism
development, especially ecotourism
The legal framework for the capitalization of cultural or natural heritage by
tourism varies substantially, with various purposes: to regulate, to authorize, to prohibit,
to provide resources, to sanction, to grant rights or to restrict.
Regardless of the nature or level of legislation, the legislative framework must
provide for sufficient legal and regulatory instruments to protect the cultural or natural
heritage.
1.2.1. UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural
Heritage3
According to this convention, the natural heritage includes natural aspects
consisting of physical or biological formations or groups of such formations, which have
an extraordinary universal value from an aesthetic or scientific point of view. The natural
heritage also includes geological, physico-geographic formations and well-defined areas
that constitute habitats for plant species or animals of extraordinary scientific or
conservation value that are in danger. Thirdly, the natural heritage includes well-defined
natural sites or well-defined natural areas of extraordinary scientific, aesthetic or
conservation value. Through this convention, signatory members recognize the
responsibility of the state to identify, protect, preserve, present and transmit to the future
generations the cultural and natural heritage of their state. Each member assumes the
following:
- Adopt a general policy that puts cultural and natural assets in the community
lives together and integrates the protection of that heritage into comprehensive planning
programs;
- To establish on its territory services for the protection, preservation and
presentation of the cultural and natural heritage, where it does not already exist, and
having prepared staff who have all the means by which to perform their functions;
- To develop scientific and technical and research studies so that implementation
methods give the state the opportunity to counteract the dangers and threats to which
the natural and cultural heritage is subjected;
- Take the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures
necessary to identify, protect, preserve, present and rehabilitate the patrimony;
3
http://whc.unesco.org
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- Support the establishment or development of national or regional training
centers on the protection, preservation and presentation of natural and cultural heritage,
in order to encourage scientific research in this field.
1.2.2. Convention on Biological Diversity4
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is an international agreement
adopted at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. It has three main objectives:
- conservation of biological diversity;
- use its components in a sustainable way;
- fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources.
Unlike other international agreements setting binding targets and obligations, the
CBD has a flexible approach to implementation. It identifies general objectives and
policies, and countries are free to determine how they want to implement them. One of
the most important CBD achievements so far has been to increase biodiversity interest
in both developed and developing countries. Biodiversity is now seen as a major and
growing issue.
Within the new European tourism policy "Europe, the world's favorite tourist
destination - a new political framework for European tourism", four priorities for action
have been identified:
- Stimulating competitiveness in the European tourism sector;
- Promote the development of sustainable, responsible and high-quality tourism;
- Strengthening Europe's image as a collection of sustainable and high-quality
destinations;
- Maximizing the potential of the European Union's financial policies for tourism
development.
The objectives outlined around the first priority are: promoting a diversification of
tourist offer; development of innovation in the tourism industry; improving professional
skills; encouraging the extension of the tourist season; strengthening the socioeconomic knowledge base on tourism. For Priority 2, the following actions are
envisaged: the development of a system of indicators for sustainable destination
4
www.cbd.int
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management, the organization of awareness-raising campaigns for tourists on the
choice of tourist destinations, means of transport, etc., the development of a European
mark to increase consumer confidence in the product tourism, facilitating the
identification of climate change risks in order to avoid unprofitable investments and the
development of alternative tourism offers, creating a sustainable tourism book,
proposing a strategy for sustainable coastal and maritime tourism, strengthening
cooperation between the European Union and major emerging countries and countries
from the Mediterranean Sea. Priority 3 sets out the following actions: creating a "Europe
mark" to complete national and international promotion, promoting the visisteurope.com
portal, supporting joint promotion for international events, "strengthening the European
Union's participation in international fora".
1.2.3. The European Landscape Convention
The objective of the European Landscape Convention is "to promote landscape
protection, management and planning, and to organize European cooperation in this
area". The Convention applies to the entire territory of the Parties, either land, inland
waters and marine areas, or the landscape is considered special, ordinary or degraded.
The implementation of the agreement will be done "in accordance with its own division
of competences, its constitutional principles and administrative regulations, and
respecting the principle of subsidiarity, taking into account the European Charter of
Local Self-Government."
Each signatory member undertakes:
a) "to legally recognize landscapes as an essential component of the living
environment for the population, an expression of the diversity of the cultural and natural
heritage and the foundation of its identity";
(b) "to establish and implement landscape policies aimed at protecting, managing
and arranging it by adopting specific measures referred to in this Convention";
c) "to set up participation procedures for the general public, regional and local
authorities, as well as other stakeholders to define and implement the landscape
policies referred to in b) ";
d) "to integrate the landscape into spatial, urban, cultural, environmental,
agricultural, social and economic policies, as well as other policies likely to have a direct
or indirect impact on the landscape".
The specific measures defined in the Convention consist of:
- "Increasing the awareness of civil society, private organizations and public
authorities regarding the value of landscapes and the role of their transformation";
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- Promoting the training of "specialists in knowledge of landscape interventions",
"multidisciplinary training programs in policy, protection, landscape management and
landscape planning for private and public sector and stakeholder associations", "school
and university courses which, within the framework of the specialization to address
issues related to landscape and its protection, management and arrangement ";
- "Each Party shall identify the landscapes and any other relevant information
about them: characteristics, dynamics, transformations, etc.";
- "For each landscape identified, targets will be set by public consultation";
- "Each party must put in place the necessary tools to implement its policies."
1.2.4. EU Directive 2015/2302 of the European Parliament and of the Council on
package travel and associated travel services
This directive establishes the rights of consumers with regard to travel packages,
holiday packages and circuits, ensuring transparency and improving the level of legal
certainty for both traders and tourists. In the context of this project, Article 6 of EU
Directive 2015/2302 states: "At present, the cross-border potential of the Union travel
package market is not fully exploited. The disparities between the rules protecting
existing passengers in different Member States are a factor which discourages travelers
from a Member State from purchasing travel and associated travel services from
another Member State and, similarly, organizers and retailers in a Member State to sell
those services in another Member State. In order to allow passengers and traders to
take full advantage of the benefits of the internal market while ensuring a high level of
consumer protection across the Union, a closer approximation of Member States'
legislation on travel packages and services associated travel ".
Article 24 also recommends the development of communication channels
between traders and customers: "With regard to packages, retailers should be
responsible, together with the organizer, for providing pre-contractual information. In
order to facilitate communication, especially in cross-border cases, travelers should be
able to contact the organizer and through the retailer where they purchased the
package. "
Regarding the information required by the consumer prior to the purchase of a
service package, Article 25 states: "The traveler should receive all necessary
information before purchasing a package, whether it is sold by means of distance
communication, in the agency or by other means types of distribution. When providing
that information, the trader should take into account the specific needs that he could
reasonably anticipate for passengers who are particularly vulnerable due to age or
physical disability "; and Article 26 states that "Essential information, such as those
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relating to the main features of travel or pricing services provided in advertising material,
on the organizer's website or in brochures as part of the pre-contractual information,
should be binding , unless the organizer reserves the right to make changes to these
items and the changes are communicated clearly, intelligibly and visibly to the traveler
prior to the conclusion of the package travel contract. However, given the new
communications technologies that allow for easy updating, it is no longer necessary to
provide for specific provisions on brochures, but it is appropriate to ensure that changes
to pre-contractual information are communicated to the traveler. It should always be
possible to make changes to pre-contractual information where both sides of the
package travel contract explicitly agree to this. " Thus, the information provided to the
consumer must include the main features of the services:
- "destination / destinations, itinerary, periods of stay, ... number of nights included";
- the means of transport, their characteristics and categories, the places, dates and
times of departure and return, the times and places of intermediate stops and transport
links;
- "location, main characteristics and, where appropriate, tourist category of
accommodation according to the rules of the country of destination";
- "mass services offered";
- "visits, excursions or other services included in the total agreed package price;
- the fact that "travel services will be provided to the traveler as part of a group";
- "whether the ability of the traveler to benefit from other tourist services depends on
actual oral communication, the language in which the services will be provided";
- "if the journey or holiday is generally adapted for disabled persons and, at the
passenger's request, precise information on the adequacy of the journey or holiday
taking into account the needs of the traveler";
In addition to these features, the package must also include the business agent's
name, address, and contact details - phone, email addresses; package price; payment
methods; minimum number of people; general visa and passport related information;
information about the possibility of terminating the contract; travel insurance information
required or optional.
1.3. Local context of protection and capitalization of natural and cultural heritage
The strategy is based on the legislation of the two countries (Romania and
Bulgaria) on the protection and valorisation of natural and cultural heritage.
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1.3.1. Legislation in Romania - Protection and Recovery
The main legislative regulations in force at national level, relevant for the
development of a tourism product in the project "Development and promotion of a
common natural heritage product: Route" Protected natural patrimony within the crossborder area Romania- Bulgaria »" are:
1.3.1.1. JUDGMENT no. 558 of 4 August 2017 regarding the approval of the
Program for the development of tourism investments - Masterplan of investments
in tourism - and of the criteria for eligibility of investment projects in tourism
According to the Decision no. 558 of August 4, 2017, the Tourism Investment
Program (or the Tourism Master Plan and eligibility criteria for tourism investment
projects) aims to develop local communities in areas with high tourist potential by
increasing public investment in tourism infrastructure, competitive tourism development
and efficient targeting of public investment, the development of a network of
international tourist destinations and the identification of an integrated approach to
regional tourism policy on sustainable development.
The Masterplan of tourism investments covers several major development
directions, namely: the development of health tourism, recreational tourist infrastructure,
the Danube Delta tourist area and the Black Sea seaside resorts, as well as the tourist
infrastructure in the high mountain area and the field ski.
Thus, the following types of investments will be supported: the arrangement or
rehabilitation of the skiing area and the development of the infrastructure for other
recreational activities; arranging or rehabilitation of theme parks, water parks,
installations (toboggan, carousel, etc.), development and arrangement of recreational
areas (camping / holiday village, ice rink, picnic areas, etc.); the construction,
arrangement or rehabilitation of first aid stations, pontoons and recreational ports,
camping and fishing areas and visiting and observation infrastructure in protected
areas, lakes, beaches and nautical projects, mountain refuges and access
infrastructure.
The amounts needed for these investments are allocated from the state budget
by transfer from the Ministry of Health budget to the local budgets of the administrativeterritorial units, which can request the financing of the project proposals by submitting
the technical-economic documentation and the building permits by the end of the next
year (31.12.2018).
The main eligibility criteria to be met by the administrative-territorial units
submitting project proposals are:
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- including in the annexes to Government Emergency Ordinance no. 142/2008 on the
approval of the National Territory Planning Plan Section VIIIa;
- including in annex no. 1 to the Government Decision no.1.016 / 2011 regarding the
granting of the status of spa resort and balneo-climatic resort, with the necessary
additions;
- the proposal for projects concerning the development of the ski area requires the
inclusion in the annex to the Law no. 526/2003 for the approval of the National Tourism
Development Program "Skiing in Romania";
- the administrative-territorial units that submit project proposals referring to the program
"Development of recreational tourist infrastructure" may be: - tourist resorts of national
interest, respectively local, according to Government Decision no. 852/2008.
1.3.1.2. ORDINANCE no. 58 of August 21, 1998 on the organization and
development of tourism activity in Romania
According to Ordinance 58/1998, tourism is a priority for the national economy,
this ordinance regulating the organization, coordination and development of tourism.
The tourism resources are defined as "components of the natural and anthropic
environment, which by their qualities and specificity are recognized, registered and
valorised by tourism, insofar as they are not subject to an integral protection regime",
namely "natural - elements geological, geomorphological, climate, flora and fauna,
landscapes, deposits of mineral substances and other factors; anthropic sites:
archaeological monuments, archaeological sites, monuments, memorial ensembles,
technical and artistic monuments, museums, folklore and folk art, etc. ". Touristic
accommodation structures are defined as "any construction and fitting intended, by
design and execution, for accommodation of tourists, serving the table for tourists,
recreation, special transport for tourists, spa treatment for tourists, together with the
related services" and includes "reception facilities touristic tourist functions: Hotels,
hotels, apartments, motels, tourist cottages, cottages, bungalows, holiday villages,
campsites, rooms for rent in family homes, river and sea boats, tourist boarding houses
and agritourism tourist accommodation; tourist reception facilities with public catering
functions: catering units within the reception facilities with functions of accommodation,
catering establishments located in tourist resorts, as well as those managed by tourism
companies, restaurants, bars, fast food establishments , confectioners, pastries and
which are certified according to the law; tourist reception facilities with leisure functions:
clubs, casinos, polyvalent halls, facilities and facilities specific to the tourist leisure;
(railway trains, rack trains, etc.), river and sea transport (touristic boats), cable transport
(cable cars, ski lifts, etc.) ; tourism reception facilities with balneary treatment functions:
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health service provision units, integrated or integrated components of spa tourism
complexes ".
Attestation, highlighting and monitoring the valorisation and protection of the
tourist patrimony are carried out by the National Authority for Tourism. The procedure
for setting up, functioning, accreditation and re-accreditation of destination management
organizations is developed by the Ministry of Tourism and approved by the Government
in order to co-locate the organizations and stakeholders for the development,
valorisation of tourism potential and coordination of the tourist destination. The
organization, functioning, role, attributions and accreditation of the national and local
tourist information and promotion centers are approved by joint order of the Minister of
Tourism and of the Minister responsible for spatial planning and urban planning.
The Ordinance assigns to the local and county councils the following attributions
in the field of tourism: "inventory of the main tourism resources, administration of the
local heritage registers, elaboration of tourism development proposals, which are the
basis of the annual Tourism Product Development Program, participation in the
approval of tourist routes and ski slopes, contributing to the increase of the quality of the
tourist products, the pursuit of tourism activity, so that the economic operators with
tourism activity have access to the tourism resources, observing the norms of their
value and protection, the organization of centers national or local tourist information and
promotion in tourist localities, association for the purpose of setting up destination
management organizations ".
Also, the ordinance stipulates that "in order to protect tourists, the offering, sale,
sale of services and packages of tourist services, as well as the creation of tourist
products on the territory of Romania can be achieved only by the tourism economic
agents authorized by the National Authority for Tourism, tourism license holders or
classification certificate, as the case may be ".
1.3.1.3. ORDINANCE no. 107 of July 30, 1999 regarding the activity of marketing
the packages of tourist services
Through this ordinance, the Romanian legislation is harmonized with that of the
European Union member states regarding the sale of tourist packages on the territory of
Romania. The package of tourist services is defined as the "pre-arranged combination
of at least two of the following three groups of services, provided that their uninterrupted
duration exceeds 24 hours or includes overnight accommodation, namely: transport,
accommodation, other services, without related to transport or accommodation or not
belonging to them and which represent a significant part of the package of tourist
services, such as: food, spa treatment, recreation and the like ".
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1.3.1.4. JUDGMENT no. 120 of February 17, 2010 regarding the approval of the
List of tourism investment programs and projects and the sources of financing of
technical documentation and the execution of tourism investment programs and
objectives, as well as the approval of the eligibility criteria for the programs and
projects of tourism investment in tourism
Decision no.120 of 17 February 2010 on the approval of the List of tourism
investment programs and projects and the sources of funding for technical
documentation and the execution of tourism investment programs and objectives and
for the approval of eligibility criteria of tourism investment programs and projects
stipulates that the financing of the technical documentation and execution of the
programs for which the local public administration authorities are beneficiaries is
provided from the state budget and the local budgets. These amounts shall be
allocated, within the limit of the funds earmarked annually for this purpose, by transfers
from the Ministry of Economy, Commerce and Business Environment through the
budget of the National Tourism Authority to the local budgets, in addition to their own
sources.
The projects to be financed will receive the opinion of the Technical and
Economic Council of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Business Environment
Relations. They will also obtain from the National Institute for Research and
Development in Tourism (INCDT) 3 a special opinion on the opportunity of tourism
investment for the feasibility studies carried out.
1.3.1.5. JUDGMENT no. 20 of 11 January 2012 on the approval of the Multiannual
Tourism Marketing and Promotion Program and the Multiannual Program for the
Development of Tourist Destinations, Forms and Products
The program is financed from the budget of the Ministry of Regional
Development and Tourism and promotes the most important tourist destinations and
forms of tourism in Romania, internally and externally, and tourism potential, generating
the necessary infrastructure to increase Romania's attractiveness as a tourist
destination. The judgment provides for marketing studies, PR work, promotion,
advertising. "The program aims to support domestic tourism to improve tourist traffic
along with preserving natural and cultural heritage" and its objectives are "improving the
quality of tourism services in Romania", "participation in joint projects initiated
domestically and internationally in tourism", "public investments in tourism
infrastructure", "development of some products and the major tourist destinations in
Romania", "modernization and expansion of information system in tourism", "improving
the legal and institutional framework in the tourism sector under good practices at EU
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level", "improving the quality of vocational training of employees in the tourism sector,
especially those in the reception facilities".
1.3.2. Legislation in Bulgaria - Protection and Recovery
The main legislative regulations in the field of reference in Bulgaria are:
1.3.2.1. Law 56/2002 on tourism
Law 56/2002 on tourism is the law regulating tourism activity in Bulgaria through
the Ministry of Economy and Energy. It provides for the organization and management
of tourism, with the objective of providing conditions for tourism development,
introducing criteria for tourism practices, providing protection for users of tourist
products, determining the rights and obligations of tourists and providing control over
tourism activities. Touristic activities include the following: "tour operator activity and
travel agency activity, hotel and restaurant maintenance, additional tourist services".
The tourist sites are classified as: "shelters - hotels, villas and tourist settlements;
places of accommodation - boarding houses, holiday houses, family hotels, villas,
houses, bungalows, camping sites, tourist cottages; food areas and places of
entertainment - restaurants, fast food, bars, cafes; places of tour operators, agencies
and information services; centers and places offering leisure services – balneo climatic, sports, entertainment; museums, reserves, cultural monuments, historical
heritage monuments; national parks, natural parks, protected reserves and natural
protected areas".
The Bulgarian state is obliged to implement the tourism policy by "supporting the
development of tourism as a priority branch of the national economy, financial
assurance and national promotion of the tourism product, creating a normative basis for
the development of tourism in accordance with the usual international norms and
practices, the conditions for the development of cultural tourism, the achievement of
tourism quality management and control, and the achievement of intergovernmental
cooperation in tourism".
The law stipulates that regional governors are responsible for the implementation
of territorial policies and strategies at the territorial level, taking the following measures:
1. "to organize together with tourism associations the development of a tourism
development strategy and programs and to coordinate their implementation; strategy
and programs must be part of the regional development plan and must be done on the
basis of national tourism development priorities and local and regional tourism
resources and needs”;
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2. "coordinate with city halls in the region, but also with other governors regional, the
implementation of the National Tourism Development Program".
1.3.2.2. BCEG Project (2000-2004) - Biodiversity Conservation and Economic
Growth
This project was possible with the support of USAID and was the first strategy for
the development of ecotourism in Bulgaria - the National Ecotourism Strategy. The
central idea of the project was to start local development through small private
entrepreneurs, thus directly involving the local community while respecting the
principles of environmental protection. The strategy aims at preserving biodiversity and
cultural heritage, developing networks of actors active in ecotourism, improving
legislation and regional and local development. Thus, 12 regional action plans for ecotourism have been created.
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II. SWOT ANALYSIS OF ROMANIA-BULGARIA TRANSFRONTAL REGION
REGARDING THE POSSIBILITY OF ECO-TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
STRENGTHS
1. Geographical position, climate variety
and relief determine the uniqueness of
biodiversity in both countries.
2. The tourist potential is remarkable due
to geological and biological diversity.
Existence of a rich and varied natural
heritage and a large concentration of
anthropogenic resources in the crossborder area, starting from archaeological
sites over 2000 years, architectural
monuments,
religious
buildings,
museums and public collections, show
and concert institutions, but also festivals
and cultural events.
3. Complementarity between the natural
and cultural tourism objectives of the
cross-border region.
4. Both countries have legislation
protecting cultural heritage harmonized
with the international and European
framework. Legislation in both countries
regulates the main management tool for
protected areas, namely the management
plan, which is an official document setting
the framework for an efficient, productive
and adequate management of the
protected area.
5. Previous experience in cross-border
cooperation between Bulgaria and
Romania is a strong foundation that can
be built in the future.
6. The legal framework in force in both
countries for direct participation in the
development
of
strategies
and
development plans for actors directly
involved in capitalizing on natural
WEAKNESSES
1. There is a limited number of border
crossing facilities between Romania and
Bulgaria - two bridges across the Danube
River, three ferryboats and two land
crossing points. The optimal cross-border
route must take advantage of these
possibilities to a large extent.
2. Depopulation of the area is a serious
impediment to the provision of quality
tourism services.
3. Access difficult access to tourist
attractions
due
to
poor
quality
infrastructure, unsupervised.
4. Organizational weakness in transport.
5. Poor management of natural areas.
6. Local quality of accommodation and
meal services or lack thereof near areas
of interest.
7. Lack of secondary services in tourism,
such as interpretation or guidance.
8. The availability of information in the
languages of the region and international
languages.
9. Low cooperation between local and
regional authorities, economic and
tourism actors and local communities.
10. The weak involvement of the owners /
administrators / custodians, especially the
key ones, in the business projects /
initiatives, from the early stages.
11. Insufficient technical and financial
resources to protect natural heritage.
12. Local specialties in both countries are
poorly qualified and do not cope with the
volume and the qualitative requirements
of complex activities that are required to
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heritage.
7. IT technologies offer solutions to solve
the problem of preserving the natural
heritage.
8. For the community, economic activities
based on natural heritage generate jobs,
maintain resources and value them,
attract other investors encouraged by the
success of the former, stimulate a whole
value chain on the vertical of the industry.
9. Non-industrial general character of the
cross-border area, with the exception of
Constanţa County, Romania.
10. In the cross-border area there is a
potential latent entrepreneurial spirit,
which can be exploited by the
development of ecotourism.
11. Closure and greening of noncompliant or ad-hoc landfills.
OPPORTUNITIES
1. The border area is characterized by
common multicultural traditions and
ethnic diversity that provide a solid basis
for "people to people" actions and for
community-based
communities
in
different
areas,
leading
to
the
enhancement of the integrity of the entire
border area and the foundations
cooperation in other areas.
2. Stakeholders are concerned about
providing sufficient space for tourism
development so as not to affect the
protected natural heritage.
3. A well-preserved, well-preserved
natural heritage associated with the
cultural one can reduce risk factors to
social exclusion and discrimination,
strengthen the capacity of a community to
resist, and find sources of funding to
better protect it.
4. Existence at the EU level of complex
preserve and protect the natural heritage.
Insufficient staffing in the field of project
management
or
management
in
protected areas.
THREATS
1. Natural and erosion phenomena that
may cause unexpected or long-term
damage to cultural heritage (reducing
attractiveness, productivity, etc.).
2. Migration of qualified staff in various
countries of the European Union.
3. Mass tourism, hit-and-run tourism.
4. Decreasing the financial resources due
to the economic context, respectively lack
thereof, decreasing budget allocations
and, implicitly, the financing possibilities.
5. The proximity of industrial platforms,
nuclear
facilities,
waterways
and
commercial ports is an important risk
factor contributing to the degradation of
the
environment
and
generating
continued air and water pollution.
6. Cross-border pollution.
7. The difficulty of joint management of
areas
affected
by
natural
and
technological risks.
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programs
for
sensitization
and 8. Limited availability of funds earmarked
involvement of tourists in activities to for patrimony protection and capitalization
protect the natural heritage and the interventions.
possibility of their adoption by the two
member
countries,
Romania
and
Bulgaria.
5. Tourists are increasingly interested in
preserving and protecting the natural
heritage that is the object of ecotourism.
6.
The
concept
of
sustainable
development of ecotourism is promoted
through development strategies and
plans, including at the level of each
European project, there is a dialogue
framework on sustainability and concrete
possibilities
for
moving
towards
sustainable
valorisation
of
natural
heritage.
7. The existence of European funds for
investment and cooperation in the field of
tourism in protected areas, as well as the
availability of European and national
funds accessible to the private sector and
dedicated to cooperation between the
stakeholders, other institutional actors,
the private sector, etc. in the sustainable
valorisation of natural heritage. (SUERD,
Cross-Border Cooperation Programs
2014-2020, etc.)
8. Promotion of local and international
official documents in targeted strategies
and projects of cooperation between
central and local authorities, between
public and private sectors, as well as
between specialists and ordinary citizens.
9. Establish national and cross-border
strategies to promote the sustainable use
of natural heritage.
10. Both countries with cross-border
areas have untapped tourism potential.
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III. JOINT STRATEGY ON DEVELOPMENT, VALIDATION AND INNOVATION OF A
TOURIST PRODUCT
3.1. Vision
Highlighting the natural, cultural and historical values of the Romania-Bulgaria
cross-border region by creating an internationally recognized functional touristic route
linking southern Romania with northern Bulgaria and thus contributing to the region's
socio-economic development and protection and conservation of resources and natural
and cultural values.
3.2. Mission
Development and promotion of sustainable tourism in the Romania-Bulgaria
cross-border area. The project <<DEVELOPING AND PROMOTING A COMMON
NATURAL PATRIMONIUM TOURISM: ROUTE “PROTECTED NATURAL PATRIMONY
IN ROMANIA-BULGARIA TRANSFRONTAL ARIA">> creates the opportunity of a
sustainable economic approach that protects the natural and cultural resources of
Romania and Bulgaria.
Sustainable use of the heritage through the development of ecotourism will
ensure the quality, authenticity and integrity of the heritage, generating a chain of
opportunity to capitalize on the cultural and natural heritage - business opportunities
and attracting investors, social opportunities for employment and the development of a
society inclusive talents and creative industries that will bring together the community in
cultural exploration and nature, linking to the core values of an environment for the
community.
3.3. Objectives
The overall objective of this joint strategy is to create an innovative tourism
product at the level of Romania-Bulgaria cross-border region by developing, capitalizing
on and promoting natural and cultural resources along an ecotourism route.
Strategic goals are conducive to achieving the overall goal or goal. The strategic
objectives are:
Strategic Objective 1 - Establishment of institutional and organizational
partnerships at local, regional, national and international level;
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Strategic Objective 2 - Supporting funding initiatives to maintain or implement
conservation activities for protected natural areas and their biodiversity;
Strategic Objective 3 - Active Encouragement to Implement Sustainable
Development Actions and Environmental Protection within the Protected Natural Areas
Included in the Ecotourism Route;
Strategic Objective 4 - Creating a friendly, environment-friendly tourist
infrastructure;
Strategic Objective 5 - Active support for the development of tourism reception
facilities and the improvement of their services;
Strategic Objective 6 - Improve access routes and connecting routes between
protected natural areas of the route;
Strategic Objective 7 - Developing tools to maintain local specificity;
Strategic Objective 8 - Monitoring the tourist flow and assessing the tourists'
experience;
Strategic Objective 9 - Developing a common marketing strategy for the two
neighboring countries;
Strategic Objective 10 - Raising the level of education and awareness of
environmental protection, nature conservation and cultural and historical values among
all actors involved, from visitors and the local community, to local authorities and public
institutions;
Strategic Objective 11 - Increasing the level of professional training of the staff
working in the structures operating on the eco-tourism route;
Strategic Objective 12 - Raising the efficiency and organization level within the
structures operating on the eco-tourism route;
Strategic Objective 13 - Extending local tourist offerings around protected natural
areas on the eco-tourism route.
3.4. Specific priorities and objectives / strategy actions
The specific objectives / actions are built around the main elements that are the
actors on which the success of the implementation of the joint strategy depends, so the
strategic objectives are drawn to the following priorities:
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Priority I. Collaboration
Strategic Objective 1 - Establishment of institutional and organizational
partnerships at local, regional, national and international level:
- Ob.Sp.1.1. Identifying and contacting local, regional, national, regional, local and
regional economic actors to build partnerships;
- Ob.Sp.1.2. Establishment of local and regional partnerships to ensure the transport of
tourists both between the destinations included on the eco-touristic route and from the
localities of access to the natural, cultural and historical tourist attractions;
- Ob.Sp.1.3. Making local and regional partnerships to ensure accommodation and
meals for tourists arriving at destinations on the eco-tourism route;
- Ob.Sp.1.4. Making partnerships to ensure the visibility of the natural, cultural and
historical tourist attractions included in the route, both in public areas in access localities
and in receiving and serving facilities, as well as in the online environment, on
presentation websites or service operators leisure;
The main activity is to establish the optimal ecotourism route.
Priority II. Conservation and protection of nature
Strategic Objective 2 - Supporting funding initiatives to maintain or implement
conservation activities of protected natural areas and their biodiversity:
- Ob.Sp.2.1. Allocation of funds from the local budget for maintenance or for the
implementation of conservation activities and protected natural areas and their
biodiversity;
- Ob.Sp.2.2. Providing consultancy to obtain funding from either the local or state
budget or from other sources;
- Ob.Sp.2.3. Creating local facilities for potential tourism stakeholders.
Strategic Objective 3 - Active Encouragement to Implement Sustainable
Development Actions and Environmental Protection within the Protected Natural
Areas Included in the Ecotourism Route:
- Ob.Sp.3.1. Active involvement of communities, organizations, institutions and
authorities in the actions of sustainable development of the destinations included in the
ecotourism route and environmental protection;
- Ob.Sp.3.2. Setting up areas for practicing the picnic through minimal interventions on
the natural environment, without deforestation, changes in banks or river beds, or
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concrete or asphalting soil. These areas will be provided with special fire-fighting
places, and high-rise buildings will be temporary. Facilities specially designated for
picnic activities and areas designated for picnic activities with selective waste collection
containers, properly inscribed, as well as ecological toilets must be provided. In
addition, it is necessary to ensure that the points for selective collection of waste are
properly marked and that the rules on selective collection are compulsory, exemplifying
the types of waste;
- Ob.Sp.3.3. Providing sanitation services at the level of tourists' access places and
within the protected natural areas included in the ecotourism route;
- Ob.Sp.3.4. Sustainable overall tourism development through:
• Practicing ecological and sustainable tourism in order to protect and preserve
existing tourism resources, especially bird species that either nest here or are passing
through the area, but also fish species;
• Promotion of ecological tourism on the Danube;
• Construction of observation points and arbors for nature lovers, but also for
specialists (ornithologists, photographers), for practicing birdwatching;
• Building sightseeing paths (can be also for cycling);
• Improving the management of protected natural areas;
• Neutralizing the ecological imbalance among the predatory and predatory
species and restoring the quality of the environment;
• Development and modernization of the wastewater collection infrastructure;
• Collecting and managing floating waste;
• Promoting environment friendly "friendly" means of transport;
• Promoting green energy;
• Creation of ecological landfills;
• Greening the banks of the Danube and tourist areas;
• Making investments in green infrastructures (including protected areas,
ecological corridors, ecodesigns or ecological passages);
• Creation, arrangement and extension of ecological parks with social and
recreational destinations;
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• Investments for the management, restoration and monitoring of ecosystems
and habitats (including forest regeneration and landscaping, restoration of the fauna
fund);
• Promoting eco-education, establishing a partnership with line ministries to
establish specific curricula;
• Supporting non-governmental organizations in the process of raising citizens'
awareness on environmental protection;
• Exercise control of catching, harvesting, acquisition and marketing activities on
the internal and external market of plants and animals in wild flora and fauna;
• Achieving a thematic route for observation of microreliefs typical of islands and
animal species.
- Ob.Sp.3.5. Stimulation and development of the marketing of tourist products
(especially fish) through:
• Signaling and promoting cycling routes along the Danube;
• Development of fishing activities and capitalization of its results;
• Opening stores, especially in fishing areas, with fishing materials;
• Opening of fresh fish stores, eggs and other specific products;
• Making and selling hand-made fishery products.
- Ob.Sp.3.6. Developing activities related to tourism through:
• Identifying competitive products and services, based on local identity and
experience;
• Promoting and supporting business development initiatives in agritourism;
• Creation and development of small and medium enterprises in non-agricultural
sector in rural areas;
• Providing support for association and integration into producer networks;
• Developing cross-border relations and expanding cooperation in the field of
culture;
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• Promoting partnership between cultural operators, the business environment
and local public administration.
Priority III. Infrastructure
Strategic Objective 4 - Creating an environment-friendly tourist infrastructure:
- Ob.Sp.4.1. Developing an infrastructure to visit protected natural areas and cultural
and historical objectives included in the ecotourism route including elements such as
information boards, signs, observatories, routes, marked trails, thematic routes,
stopping places, etc .;
- Ob.Sp.4.2. Creation of tourist information centers for the main natural areas, where
appropriate, creation of tourist information points in access localities, creation of
recreation areas near natural areas (outside the protection area), as well as
arrangement of main attractions without affect the protected area.
Strategic Objective 5 - Active support for the development of tourism reception
facilities and the improvement of their services:
- Ob.Sp.5.1. Creating tourist accommodation structures that can accommodate the
estimated average flow of tourists at the route level by:
• Diversification, modernization and development of the technical-material tourist
base;
• Construction or rehabilitation of dwellings and their transformation into boarding
houses;
• Identification of accommodation spaces (rooms and apartments in the rural
area (and not only) to be used for rental, approval and introduction to the tourist circuit;
• Setting up of camps for practicing sport fishing (starting from the fact that no
such accommodation structure is currently authorized, this situation being maintained
for over 20 years);
• Hygienisation and maintenance of green spaces, especially those located in the
vicinity of the main tourist attractions, those located around accommodation structures,
recreational areas, car parks, etc .;
• Renovation and restoration of facades of accommodation establishments and of
anthropic tourist attractions such as: monasteries, churches, museums, historical
monuments, architecture, etc .;
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• Settlement of peri-urban areas for weekend tourism. They must benefit from
numerous and diverse food structures in terms of profile, price and comfort.
Accommodation facilities should be simple and accessible.
• Signaling of the main tourist attractions, food structures, leisure and relaxation
areas, fishing and hunting areas.
- Ob.Sp.5.2. Creating table-serving structures in relation to destination capacity at the
destination level;
- Ob.Sp.5.3. Developing the provision of vocational training courses for employees and
employers in tourism, continuing training through qualification of human resources
engaged in tourism and related fields.
Strategic Objective 6 - Improving access routes and connecting routes between
protected natural environments:
- Ob.Sp.6.1. Improving access routes to protected natural areas and cultural and
historical objectives on the eco-tourism route;
- Ob.Sp.6.2. Repair roads connecting the tourist destinations on the eco-tourism route.
Strategic Objective 7 - Development of tools to maintain local specificity:
- Ob.Sp.7.1. Ensure compliance with national regulations on the maintenance of
traditional elements at urban level and the implementation of local regulations to
maintain the specific architecture of the destination or region on the eco-touristic route;
- Ob.Sp.7.2. Organize a timetable at local and regional level covering the cultural
activities and events taking place at each destination on the eco-tourism route, as well
as the operating schedule of the visiting cultural units (eg museums, galleries, business
centers, etc.).
Priority IV. Promotion
Strategic Objective 8 - Monitoring the tourist flow and assessing the tourists'
experience:
- Ob.Sp.8.1. Estimate and monitor the tourist flow across each destination on the ecotour route as well as on the whole route by developing specific tools;
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- Ob.Sp.8.2. Assessing the satisfaction of tourists at each destination on the eco-tour
route as well as on the whole route by developing specific tools;
- Ob.Sp.8.3. Carrying out market research at national and international level accessible
to all parties involved.
Strategic Objective 9 - Developing a common marketing strategy for the two
neighboring countries:
- Ob.Sp.9.1. Creating a common tourist brand for the two countries involved;
- Ob.Sp.9.2. Creation of local tourist brands;
- Ob.Sp.9.3. Carrying out promotion campaigns at local, regional, national and
international level, respecting the principles of responsible marketing;
- Ob.Sp.9.4. Creating integrated tourists' offers made in accordance with ecotourism
principles;
- Ob.Sp.9.5. Creating integrated thematic programs for children, elderly and / or
disabled people;
- Ob.Sp.9.6. To capitalize and promote local natural and cultural potential by:
• Improvement of cross-border cooperation in the field of tourism and related
fields, creation of bilingual tourist guides (Romanian-Bulgarian) covering the tourist
attractions located near the borders of the two countries, tourism activities in these
areas, including leisure ones;
• Providing informative and promotional materials covering the area's touristic
objectives, opportunities for leisure, relaxation, leisure areas, behavioral rules
(especially in protected natural areas);
• Promotion by posters and leaflets in the national and international hotel
network;
• Realization of reportage with the target areas and promotion in specialized
mass media (magazines and radio / TV broadcasting of tourism promotion);
• Making documentary films presenting species and attractions in the area;
• Participation in local, regional, national and even international tourism fairs;
• Promotion of forms of tourism that can be carried out throughout the calendar
year, which do not present the phenomenon of increased seasonality (cultural tourism,
business tourism, religious tourism);
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• Port arrangement for receiving tourists from cruise ships;
• Promoting the various recreational activities that can be carried out on the
Danube;
• Creation of tourist information points and centers located in areas with high
tourist traffic;
• Development of thematic touristic circuits (Danube, fishing, hunting, traditions
and culture, protected areas, islands, dams, local architecture, religion);
• Creating a local Danube brand that reflects the history of the region;
• Improving the management of tourist objectives and areas;
• Using the virtual environment, online and social media applications: twitter,
facebook, google ads, blogs, etc.
Priority V. Education, Vocational Training and Awareness
Strategic Objective 10 - Raising the level of education and awareness of
environmental protection, nature conservation and cultural and historical values
among all actors involved, from visitors and the local community to local
authorities and public institutions:
- Ob.Sp.10.1. Raising awareness of environmental protection, nature conservation and
cultural and historical values, through public information actions;
- Ob.Sp.10.2. Periodic greening in areas where this need is identified;
- Ob.Sp.10.3. Increasing the level of education and awareness of environmental
protection, preservation of nature and cultural and historical values among pupils, by
making camps in the destinations on the route;
- Ob.Sp.10.4. Raising awareness of environmental protection, nature conservation and
cultural and historical values among all actors involved, from visitors and the local
community to local authorities and public institutions, through the creation of artistic
programs.
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Strategic Objective 11 - Increasing the level of training of staff working in the
structures operating on the eco-tourism route:
- Ob.Sp.11.1. Increasing the level of professional training by providing professional
training and / or training courses for staff in the establishments of tourists' reception and
meals;
- Ob.Sp.11.2. Increasing the level of professional training by providing vocational
training and / or training courses for personnel within the protected natural areas;
- Ob.Sp.11.3. Increasing the level of professional training by providing vocational
training and / or training courses for the personnel in the structures that are active in the
field of tourism.
Strategic Objective 12 - Raising the efficiency and organization level within
structures operating on the eco-tourism route:
- Ob.Sp.12.1. Increasing efficiency and organization by providing management courses
dedicated to administrators of protected natural areas, tourists, meals, public institutions
and all involved entities, where applicable;
- Ob.Sp.12.2. Creating a database common to all stakeholders, including examples of
good practice in managing protected natural areas, tourism reception facilities, tableserving facilities, public institutions, etc.
Priority VI. Local economic development
Strategic Objective 13 - Expanding local tourist offerings around protected
natural areas on the ecotourism route:
- Ob.Sp.13.1. Providing advice or access to advice on starting a business in sustainable
tourism;
- Ob.Sp.13.2. Encourage the establishment of small traditional local businesses,
especially in rural areas and especially in the tourism sector - leisure services,
accommodation units, table-service units, by providing financing;
- Ob.Sp.13.3. Develop tools to facilitate current or future small business access to
databases with available funding and applicable legislation.
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3.5. Plan to achieve the established priorities, through the route "Natural
protected patrimony within the cross-border area Romania-Bulgaria"
3.5.1 Key Elements of the "Natural Heritage Protected within the RomaniaBulgaria Cross-Border Area"
Following the results of the previous preliminary studies, the natural heritage
objectives of the Romania - Bulgaria cross - border region have been identified,
information on their natural value, legal and administrative aspects of management,
tourism potential, transport, and functional connectivity.
3.5.1.1. Evaluating and selecting the priority objectives to be integrated into the
cross-border route
As a result of this analysis and in the implementation of the established study
methodology and evaluation criteria, the objective analysis and evaluation was carried
out with a view to selecting the objectives to be included in the cross-border route.
The process followed in the following logical sequence:
• Drawing up a detailed list of all protected natural heritage objectives located in
the Romania-Bulgaria cross-border region, including the development of tabular
databases;
• Review of applicable national and European legislation, administrative
affiliation, status and management of natural objectives;
• Collecting and analyzing information on their nature and tourist value through
documentary research and visits to the objectives;
• Detailed description and analysis of ecosystems, habitats, plant and animal
species protected, and development of assessment methodology and criteria based on
best European best practices identified;
• Evaluating objectives through a system of objective criteria, in terms of their
conservation value, legal status of protection, representation and conservation, access,
tourism potential and attractiveness;
• Spatial evaluation of the objectives and development of the working versions of
the proposed options for the selection of the priority objectives, as well as opportunities
for their spatial connection in the form of routes;
• Consultation with stakeholders on the proposed methodology, the evaluation
criteria, the list of priority objectives and the variants of routes (roundtables);
• Completion of the objective assessment and coordinated arrangement of a list
of priority natural objectives for the Bulgarian and Romanian parts.
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3.5.1.2. Determination of the main axis of the ecotourism route
In order to define the "Protected Natural Heritage" route, first of all, the
determination of the main axis of the route, linking the objectives that are part of the
protected natural heritage and identified in the preliminary study as having the highest
potential in tourism development in kind. Initially the variant was identified as the main
axis of the route being the Danube river as the main thematic element and as a
transport link element. After analyzing the natural value of objectives in the cross-border
region, the accest of transport and the tourism potential, the team established the
following:
• The Bulgaria - Romania cross-border region includes the entire territory of the
administrative regions adjacent to the neighboring country. In Bulgaria, there are 8
administrative regions, and in Romania, 7 administrative regions. These include many
protected areas, not all of which are located along the Danube River.
• Bridging the Danube River would leave many of the potentially high areas
outside it, such as natural parks.
• Most visitors interested in in-house tourism travel individually, using the road
network, having a preference for main roads, for long-distance trips (according to
stakeholder information). For this reason, the main axis of the route, in its base part,
also follows these main roads.
• Between Romania and Bulgaria there are a limited number of border crossing
facilities - two bridges across the Danube River, three ferryboats and two land crossing
points. The optimal cross-border route must take advantage of these possibilities to a
large extent.
Based on the above-mentioned main theses, variants of the main axis of the
route were developed.
3.5.1.3. Determination of the main elements of the ecotourism route
The ecotourism route must be concentrated around the main natural heritage
objectives, which have the strongest tourist attractiveness.
• The first step in determining ecotourism routes is to locate each protected
natural area on the map. This step was done using the Natura 2000 Network Viewer
(EEA, 2012) and the GIS software. Therefore, access points to protected natural areas
have been determined to be included in Google Maps or GIS software and to create a
route linking these areas through the best routes.
• Following the analysis of resources and possibilities, the following mandatory
elements of an optimal route were identified:
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• Inclusion of sections of the Danube River as the main attraction with their
specific ecosystems (rivers, riparian marshes and spillways, island ecosystems) and
their biodiversity;
• The mandatory inclusion of national and natural parks, as protected protected
areas with complex value, with specialized administration and with major investments in
the exposition and promotion of the natural heritage;
• Inclusion of a diversity of objectives from protected natural areas, protected
areas, which present the natural diversity of the cross-border region. This includes the
presentation of different types of ecosystems - mountain, forest, wetland, freshwater,
marine ecosystems and others.
• Complementarity between natural and cultural tourism objectives;
• Accessibility elements: the road network, border crossing points, Danube
bridges and ferryboats.
3.5.2. Determining the secondary elements of the ecotourism route
Considering that the main route can not cover all the objectives of interest,
analysis included various secondary objectives, located close to the main ones and
activities that make up a richer offer of ecotourism. Both the Bulgarian and
Romanian side of the route formed deviations and side links (alternatives) along
route.
the
the
the
the
3.5.3. Determination of the lateral area of the ecotourism route
The ecotourism route is a linear structure with a certain area of integration and
some influences. As a lateral area of this route are considered the entire areas of the
territories and protected areas included.
3.5.4. Choosing the optimal cross-border route
The optimal cross-border route option, which is a collective presentation of the
common map:
1. The optimized option for the Bulgarian side, after consultation with stakeholders;
2. The main route of the Romanian part;
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The cross-border route links the priority objectives for ecotourism throughout the
area of cross-border collaboration, largely following secondary and secondary roads.
In Bulgaria, the route starts from Dunav Most II in the city of Vidin, passes the
E79 main road to the village of Dunavtsi, where it deviates through the Vidinski Park. By
deviation to the orcs. Gramada, the route returns along the E79 main road to the village
of Dunavtsi, where it deviates westwards to the Magura Cave and continues towards
Belogradchik and Belogradchishki skali - Venetsa. After Belogradchik, the route passes
through the sea-protected area West Stara Planina - Predbalkan, on a scenic route with
possible exits to Chuprene and Chiprovtsi. Following the city of Montana, the route
takes again on the main road E79 towards Vratsa and through the passes to Vrachanski
Balkan Natural Park. From Vratsa, the route makes a lateral deviation to the Bozhiyat
bridge - Ponora and continues eastwards to the vast, Karlukovski karst area. After the
town of Cherven Bryag, the route reaches the main road E83 and takes it to the town of
Pleven. There are several possible exits to Studenets, the main being in the village of
Sadovets. After the town of Pleven, it passes through the Vit River and reaches the
town of Gulyantsi. Here, the main route diverges eastwards through the objectives of
Nikopol Plateau, Persina Nature Park and Vardim Island. From Gulyantsi to the west, a
lateral circle begins through the Karaboaz, Ostrovska step - Ostrovsko blato, Kozlodui,
Zlatiyata, Tsibar and Orsoya - Archar, which makes it possible to close the regional
cycle. To the east, the main route departs from the Danube River after the Vardim
objective, at Studena reka, to reach the Rusenski Lom Natural Park. After the city of
Ruse, it adheres closely along the Danube River to the city of Silistra, including many of
the most important wetlands of the Danube. In Dobrogea, the route leaves the Danube
River area and heads south-east through Suha Reka, the Batova River Valley to reach
the Black Sea shores of the Zlatni Piasatsi Natural Park (Golden Sands). In its last
section, the route follows the Black Sea coast, including all the coastal areas of
conservation importance, north of Varna. He leaves the territory of Bulgaria through the
Durankulak border crossing.
In Romania, starting from the west and going east, the beginning of the route is
the Calafat-Vidin border crossing point, from where you can enter the protected area
Ciuperceni-Desa on DN55A. The connection to the Danube - Gârla Mare-Maglavit is
made by E79 and then by DN56A. Then follow either DN56S to reach Blahniţa or
continue on DN56A to reach Vânju Mare and then the route can go back to Danube:
Gârla Mare - Maglavit, to continue to Blahniţa or to be able to makes a direct connection
through the DJ606. To the Iron Gates Natural Park is DN56A, then to E70, passing
through Drobeta-Turnu Severin and going to Şviniţa. Then the Mehedinti Plateau
Geological Park is melted following DN67 from Drobeta-Turnu Severin and then DJ670
passing through Isverna, Ponoarele and Baia de Aramă. From Baia de Aramă continue
to Domogled National Park - Cerna Valley following DN67D through Obârşia - Cloşani
and Godeanu. From Baia de Arama continue on DJ671B and on DN67A to Strehaia,
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then enter E70 and go along the Jiu River Curtain, pass through Filiaşi and reach
Craiova. From Craiova, it enters DN65 and continues to Bals, in the northern part of the
Olteţ River Valley. From the Olteţ River Valley to the Radomir Forest you can reach
either by returning from Bals to Craiova and following DN6 to Radomir Forest, passing
through Grozăveşti and Dragicheni, either going on DN64 and passing through Caracal.
From Radomir Forest you can enter the Jiu River Journey again, going from Caracal to
Leu on DN6 and then on DJ604 and DJ551A to Bratovoieşti. From there it goes along
the Jiu River to the Bechet, where it can pass to Bulgaria in Oryahovo. From Bechet,
the road continues towards the mouth of the Olt River, when it flows into the Danube,
going on DN54A to Corabia and on DN54 to Turnu Magurele, where the connection with
Bulgaria can be re-established. From Turnu Magurele you can reach the Comana
Natural Park, either DN52 to Alexandria and from there DN6 to Stalpu, from there on
DJ411 to Comana, either along the Danube on DN51A to Zimnicea, then on DN5C to
Giurgiu, where the connection to Bulgaria can be made in Ruse. From Giurgiu the road
continues on DN5 to Uzunu from where it goes on DJ603 to Comana. From Comana to
Lacul (Iezerul) Calarasi can be reached by going to Călăraşi on A2 and then on DN3 or
on DJ412 to Prundu, entering DN41 to Oltenita and continuing to Călăraşi on DN31 or
DN3. From Calarasi you can continue on DN3V along the Borcea Canal and up to
Borcea, or you can cross the Danube through the Calarasi - Silistra border crossing.
Silistra can then enter the country through DN3 and reach the Danube Canaries, the
Forest and the Valley.
Canaraua Fetii - Iortmac and Dumbrăveni - Urluia River Valley - Vederoasa Lake
passing through Adamclisi, then by Murfatlar Fountain. From Murfatlar, go on the
DN22C, DJ228, DJ222 DN2A to the Gorges of Dobrogea. Murfatlar can also enter the
Danube Canaries via Cernavoda again on the A2 and then continue on DJ223, DJ224,
DJ225 and DJ226. From the Gorges of Dobrogea you can go to the Danube Delta (the
part located in Constanta County) on the DJ222 to the Garden, DJ226B, DJ226A and
DJ226 to Istria and Sinoe. From Istria, go to Lake Taşaul - Corbu on DJ226 passing
through Corbu. Then the road passes through Năvodari, Mamaia - Sat, it enters E87
and continues along the shore of Lake Siutghiol. Further on, passing through
Constanta, it reaches DN39 and DN39A at the Marine Dune from Agigea. Continues to
Eforie Nord on DN39 and passes by Lake Techirghiol, and then to Mangalia, the road
passes along the Black Sea coast and along the natural marine areas: the sea area of
Cape Tuzla, Costinesti - 23 August, Cape Aurora, and the submarine sulphurous
springs from Mangalia. Between Mangalia and Vama Veche - 2 May, the road goes to
Hagieni Forest - Cot Valley, passing through Albeşti and Cotul Văii. Then you return
back to DN39 again and continue on the road to Vama Veche - 2 May, where the
transfer to Bulgaria via the Vama Veche - Durankulak border crossing point.
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Map 8. Map of the common cross-border eco-tourism route
The border points that will connect the two routes proposed by both sides of the
border have been established in such a way as to benefit to a large extent from the
transport connectivity between the two countries. These border crossings from west to
east are as follows:
- Calafat (Dolj) Vidin
- Bechet (Dolj) - Oryahovo
- Turnu Magurele (Teleorman) - Nikopole
- Giurgiu (Giurgiu) - Rousse
- Calarasi (Calarasi) - Silistra
- Vama Veche (Constanţa) - Durankulak.
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The main objectives of the protected natural patrimony on the Bulgarian
side, included in the route:
Detailed descriptions have been generated for the following areas identified for
in-kind tourism and designated for inclusion on the cross-border "Protected Natural
Heritage" cross-border route after coordinating their choice with stakeholders:
1. Vidin Park
2. The Magura cave
3. The rocks of Belogradchik - Venetsa
4. Old Western Plain and Predbalkan
5. The Vrachanski Balkan Natural Park
6. Karlukovo Carst
7. Bridge of God - Ponora
8. Archar - Orsoya
9. Tsibar Swamp - Tsibar Island - Zlatiyata
10. Kozloduy
11. Mustin Island - Stepa Island
12. Studenets
13. The Vit
14. Karaboaz
15. Persina Nature Park - Nikopol Plateau
16. Vardim Island
17. Studena River - Heleşteiele Hadzhi Dimitrovo
18. The Yantra River
19. The heights of Tarnovo (Mount Tarnovo)
20. Rusenski Lom Natural Park - Lomovete - Orlova Chuka
21. Kalimok - Brashlen - Boblata
22. Pozharevo - Garvan
23. Ludogorie - Srebarna
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24. The Suha River
25. Valley of Batova River
26. Zlatni Pyasatsi Natural Park
27. Botanical Garden Balchik
28. The Kaliakra Complex
29. Lake Shabla - Ezerets
30. Lake Durankulak.
IV. IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING SYSTEM
The implementation system of JOINT STRATEGY ON THE DEVELOPMENT,
VALUATION AND INNOVATION OF A TOURISM IN THE PROJECT „Development
and promotion of an integrated cultural heritage tourism product: Route “Natural
protected heritage within the cross-border region Romania-Bulgaria”, involves the
organization and conduct of articulated, coherent and correlated actions on all proposed
plans that are consistent with achieving the vision of the related Strategy.
This system extends the Strategy's formulation phase and adds to its complexity
due to the implementation process involving the efforts of implementing entities, local
partners and the ability of the business environment in tourism to receive the messages
sent, the willingness to change their attitude and contribute by concrete action or
support to the move towards a heritage-friendly tourism, as it is its raw material and the
sine qua non condition of its existence. It also implies a correlation between the actions
of the stakeholders of the Strategy, ie stakeholders and other institutional or nongovernmental actors, to coordinate the material, human and financial resources
between them, in order to achieve a synergy that maximizes the impact on the local
level. All of these factors are decisive in the success or failure of Strategy
implementation.
The Strategy is thus proposed that its main implementation measures can be
easily integrated into the work of the implementing entities, require minimum resources,
and their achievement adds value to them. Relation, initiation and animation of a
partnership to implement the Strategy will be achieved through the involvement of
Chambers of Commerce and Industry, as well as business associations, in various local
and cross-border actions, in local development committees, etc. through which, on the
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one hand, they contribute to development efforts, and on the other hand, they have
cooperative relations that can be useful and relevant to this Strategy.
5.1. Strategy implementation process
Implementation of the Strategy must be approached as a process and involves
several phases:
5.1.1. Phase of initiation and realization of institutional and organizational
partnerships at local, regional, national and international level and preparation of
the implementation of the Strategy:
- Analyzing the implementation framework by mobilizing partners and
stakeholders, agreeing how to work, and, if agreed at this stage, signing a partnership
agreement to implement the Strategy, assuming roles, obligations and rights, deadlines,
etc. Promoting the partnership agreement as the basis for implementing the Strategy;
- Identifying and contacting local, regional, national authorities, organizations,
local and regional economic actors in order to develop partnerships;
- Carrying out local and regional partnerships to ensure the transport of tourists
both between the destinations included on the eco-touristic route and from the localities
of access to the natural, cultural and historical tourist attractions;
- Local and regional partnerships to ensure accommodation and meals for
tourists arriving in the destinations included on the ecotourism route;
- Creating partnerships to ensure the visibility of the natural, cultural and
historical tourist attractions included in the route, both in public spaces in access and
receiving and serving facilities, and in the online environment, on presentation websites
or operators leisure services;
- Analysis of priority projects, start-up criteria and, consequently, start-up order,
stakeholder analysis, project managers, necessary resources.
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5.2. Phase of operationalization of the Strategy:
- Development of work plans for the implementation of priority actions at the pace
established by the annual and multi-annual action plan and on the basis of detailed
information on each project / action, including the assessment of the necessary
resources;
- Develop cross-border and / or local cross-border priority projects, provide the
necessary resources and mobilize and support third parties in developing their own
projects;
- Monitoring the tourist flow at the level of each destination on the ecotourism
route, as well as at the level of the whole route, by developing specific instruments;
- Evaluation of the satisfaction of tourists at the level of each destination on the
ecotourism route, as well as at the level of the entire route, by developing specific
instruments;
- Carrying out market research at national and international level, accessible to
all stakeholders;
- Implementation of projects, appreciation of results and impact at local and
supra-local level;
- Data collection and centralization of information on progress in implementing
the Strategy, analysis of the pace and effects of Strategy implementation. The
conclusions of this action will indicate the extent to which the input data of the Strategy
have changed if the tourism business has made notable progress, if new opportunities
and threats emerged that should be taken into account, and in these cases they will is
the basis for revising the Strategy;
- Revising the Strategy, if applicable;
- Communication and publicity on strategy and progress in implementing the
Strategy.
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5.3. The phase of providing the necessary resources for the management of the
Strategy and the implementation of the development projects or actions:
- Coordination of the implementation of the projects or actions proposed through
the Strategy with the annual, current actions of the implementation, correlation and
overlapping entities in order to reduce the necessary resources. The aim of this
coordination is to avoid redundant use of resources, double funding and ensure an
optimal correlation between all the initiatives and obligations of implementing entities;
- Correlation of the component of promoting concepts, relationships and
collaborations between the cultural or natural heritage actors with the local or crossborder component of the implementation entities;
- Developing the institutional capacity of the partnership to implement multiannual strategies, plans and programs - training, endowment, management systems.
The sources for the implementation of projects or actions may be: (1) national
and local non-reimbursable public funds for information and awareness-raising projects,
partnership building and the promotion of innovative initiatives in the patrimony
approach; (2) non-reimbursable European funds for medium-term projects of a
minimum duration of two years for the promotion and testing of the sustainable use of
the heritage; (3) private funds at the level of internal and external investors.
5.4. The process of monitoring the implementation of the Strategy in Romania
and Bulgaria will be developed on two levels, which contribute to the
achievement of the vision:
5.4.1. The local and cross-border strategic plan determined by the state and evolution
of the relationship between business and heritage, its conceptions and actions in
relation to heritage and collaboration with the other actors, etc., respectively the
strategic elements that have been taken into account in the formulation of the Strategy
and which will be pursued, as milestones, during the implementation, in order to
maintain the relevant Strategy.
5.4.2. Strategy Plan in Romania and Bulgaria by monitoring the implementation of
priority development projects and actions.
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In order to streamline and achieve the purpose of the monitoring activity, it is
proposed to carry out the following activities:
 Regular analysis of the progress made in achieving the objectives and results
of the Strategy and in the state and evolution of the business environment. Periodicity
will be established through the multi-annual action plan.
 Collecting data and information on patrimonial business activities within the
framework of actions, projects, relationships dealing with the theme of sustainable asset
recovery, stakeholder reports, stakeholder relations or other relevant actors.
Comparison with the initial strategic state taken into account when developing the
Strategy.
 Formulating proposals for revising the Strategy, such as replacing projects in
the list of priorities, modifying project activities, changing partnerships, etc.
 Drawing up conclusions and remedies, where and when.
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V. ANNEXES
APPENDIX no. 1.
INTERESTED PARTIES
1.1.
The role and the place of the stakeholders in determining the route "Natural
protected patrimony on the territory of the cross-border region RomaniaBulgaria"
The interested people are those whose interests should be found in the
elaboration of the common natural tourism product: Route "Protected natural patrimony
on the territory of the cross-border region Romania-Bulgaria".
The analysis of stakeholders is a vital tool for identifying those individuals, groups
and organizations that have significant interests in the sustainable use of protected
natural heritage for tourism purposes. The clear understanding of the potential role and
contribution of the various participants is a basic condition for the viability of the new
tourism product. A precondition for success was the consultation with stakeholders
during roundtables (both on the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria and on the territory
of Romania). This has resulted in greater transparency, an important principle of good
management of the document process. By ensuring that interested persons can
express their views on integrated tourism route variants in the Romania-Bulgaria crossborder region, the decision-making process was better grounded, more accurate and
responsible.
Figure 1. Identified stakeholders
The representatives of the local administration (the municipality) - 52%, followed
by representatives of the non-governmental sector (NGOs) - 26% and representatives
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of the ecological / protected territories - 13%. A relatively small representation was
represented by representatives of the tourism industry - 5%.
Among the representatives at the round tables, the number of people involved as
amateurs in the tourism sector predominates - 70%. This good result gives us reason to
believe that the goals / routes are appreciated from the point of view of personal
perception and experience as well as the knowledge of individual components of the
natural environment. 41% of the participants are professionally involved in tourism.
Starting from the specific profile of ecotourism, including trips to relatively unspoiled
natural areas, with the specific purpose of research, delight and pleasure to be in the
middle of nature, as well as significant differences with so-called "mass" tourism, one
can draw the conclusion of a high degree of objectivity of the obtained results.
Stakeholders' views and comments have had a great influence in determining the
criteria, objectives and route variants.
According to stakeholders, there are good examples that have been or are being
carried out at the moment in the cross-border region, both in Bulgaria and Romania, or
joint projects between the two states that link the concrete objectives of the natural
heritage, mainly developed at municipal level.
1.2. Interested parties:
1. Governmental Institutions (Ministry of Economy, Commerce and Business
Environment Relations + National Authority for Tourism, Ministry of Environment, Water
and Forests, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Ministry of Regional
Development and Public Administration, Ministry of European Funds, M Culture, M. of
National Education and Scientific Research, M. Transport)
2. Local Public Administrations (Local Councils, County Councils)
3. Administrations of protected natural areas (eg National Forest Administration Romsilva, Environmental Agencies, private administrators or NGOs, etc.)
4. Ecotourism, tourism, ecological profile associations (eg Ecotourism Association of
Romania, Association of Natural Protected Areas Administration, etc.)
5. Private economic agents (tourist accommodation establishments, food, transport
operators, recreational facilities, tour operators, travel agencies, etc.)
6. NGOs (local, regional, national)
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7. The local community
8.Finans (financial institutions, NGOs, private banks, sponsors, donors, etc.)
9. Educational and research units (Universities, Research Institute, etc.)
10. Tourists.
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APPENDIX no. 2
ANALYSIS OF THE VALUE OF SITES FROM PROTECTED NATURAL PATRIMONY
OF THE TRANSFRONTAL REGION, AS POSSIBLE ATTRACTION FOR TOURISM
1.1.
Objectives of the protected natural heritage in the Bulgarian part
The detailed list of all the protected natural patrimony objectives in the Bulgarian
part of the Bulgaria - Romania cross-border area includes all the protected territories
declared according to the Law for the protection of the territory and the Natura 2000
protected areas according to the ZBR Law, adopted by Government Decision. The law
includes the name of the protected area, the reference documents (the number of the
order of declaration, the MO), their location and the competent body, as well as any
other information about them, prepared by studying accessible public information. This
is organized according to the category of protected territories included in this analysis.
For the analysis, different information was used on the regime of protection and
management of objectives, natural value and the potential to be tourist attraction,
location and interconnectivity with other tourist attractions.
Regarding the status of protection, the regime and the competent administrative
bodies, the information published by official sources - Natura 2000 National Information
System (MOSV, 2015) and the Register of Protected Areas in Bulgaria (IAOS, 2013)
with the available updates was used as a priority. This has ensured the
representativeness of the data and the degree of comparison by category of
information.
Information on the value of natural protection, including the subject of protection,
the importance of protecting species, habitats and ecosystems, as well as biological
representativeness and conservation of the object, have been extracted from the Natura
2000 standard forms published by MOSV, park administrations, the Bulgarian Academy
of Sciences and the NPO, based on a standard approved by the European
Commission.
The potential for tourist attraction and current tourist use has been extracted from
publications, documents and data provided by stakeholders.
Site analysis and interconnectivity with other tourist objectives was performed in
Geographic Information System environment. For the purpose of the analysis, the
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conditional grouping of the overlapping objectives was performed in order to avoid the
"deformation" of the evaluation.
The targeted territory and, in particular, the Bulgarian sector of the Romania Bulgaria cross - border region enters 202 protected territories, declared within the
meaning of Art. 5 of the Protected Territories Act. They belong to the following
categories: natural parks, reserves, reserved reserves, protected areas, natural sites.
Natural Parks: Natural Parks declared as territories that include different
ecosystems with a diversity of plant and animal species and their habitats, with
characteristic landscapes and a certain specificity and sites of nature they do not know
(Article 29, paragraph 1 of the Unprotected Territories Act - Balkans from Vratsa,
Persina, Rusenski Lom and Golden Sands).
Reserves: There are seven reservations in the Bulgarian sector of the crossborder region. These have been declared to preserve natural ecosystem models that
include remarkable forest ecosystems with fantastic flora and fauna and a unique karst
complex with picturesque landscapes, Vratsa karst).
Reserved reservations: Reserved reserves are 6 in number and include
ecosystems with rare and / or endangered plant and animal species and their habitats.
Natural Objectives: Most often declared rocky formations, caves, landscapes
and habitat with plant species have been declared for conservation. Their number is
122.
Protected Areas: Protected Areas that are part of the protected territories in the
declared sector of the Bulgarian part of the Romania - Bulgaria cross - border area are
63 in number.
Natura 2000 protected areas: The Bulgarian sector of the Romania-Bulgaria
Cross-Border Region comprises wholly or partially 39 protected areas declared for the
conservation of wild birds and their habitats (SPAs) and 83 protected areas declared for
the conservation of natural species and habitats under the Directive Habitats (SCI).
For the purposes of the analysis, 324 territories with different status and different
categories of protection were determined, compiled into 98 sites, eliminating their
overlapping and solving problems related to the application of the benchmarks.
The characteristics of all protected natural areas located on the Bulgarian side of
the cross-border region and the significant results obtained from the assessment of their
natural and tourist value were taken into account.
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1.2. Protected natural heritage objectives in the Romanian sector
The first stage of the research consisted of the inventory of the natural sites
located in the Romanian part of the Romania-Bulgaria border region. This inventory
implied the identification of all protected natural areas by consulting the lists of the
Environmental Protection Agencies in the counties in the area of interest Mehedinţi,
Dolj, Olt, Teleorman, Giurgiu, Călăraşi and Constanţa. The identified sites were
localized with the help of specialized maps available online.
Following the inventory, a table has been produced that contains the following
information: the internal numbering code of the protected natural areas, the area code
as given by the National Environmental Protection Agency, the name of the protected
area, the area adjacent to the area, the area of the areas included for each locality , the
total area of the area, custodians and contact details of the custodian.
The methodology for the selection of protected natural areas in Romania, which
should be included in Romania-Bulgaria cross-border ecotourism routes for a protected
natural heritage route, has been defined in agreement with the Bulgarian partner team.
Based on the inventory obtained during the project documentation phase, a list of
all the protected natural areas within the 7 counties that are the target of the present
study: Mehedinţi, Dolj, Olt, Teleorman, Giurgiu, Călăraşi and Constanţa - counties
located at the border with Bulgaria. This list encompasses a total of 189 protected
natural areas, of which 79 areas are considered to be the main ones and 110 are
secondary sites included in the main areas.
The characteristics of all protected natural areas located on the Romanian side of
the cross-border region and the significant results obtained from the assessment of their
environmental and tourism value were taken into account.
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1.3. Assessment of tourism potential in the Bulgarian part
1.3.1. Data collection
Additional information was gathered on the assessment of the value of nature
protection and the tourist potential of protected natural patrimony sites in the crossborder region.
This information has been gathered from national sources as a priority, with
source and data quality checking. In cases where official published information is
missing, other published information from different sources (for example, eco trails,
velotrasee, etc.)
In addition to the published information, visits and interviews were conducted
with representatives of park departments, mayors, RIOSV and NPOs, in which
information on various aspects of the tourist exposure of natural sites was made
available. For this purpose, the Beneficiary has provided the Executor with a support
address.
The description of the context was made on the basis of the structure elaborated
in the Methodology for Preparing the Preliminary Study. Data collected on-site was
included as "site visit cards". Consequently, the information contained in these
documents was entered into the site database.
Interviews were conducted with the main stakeholders, responsible or attracted
in the management of protected areas and protected areas on the Bulgarian side.
1.3.2. Data analysis
Each site has been described both with its peculiarities and the natural
environment in which the site falls. When there are cultural-historical objectives nearby,
the possible interconnection with the subject of the study has been documented. The
existence and status of tourism infrastructure has been described both to and around
the objectives.
In the implementation process, 130 objectives of the protected natural heritage
were originally described. As a result, some of the objectives, small and partially
overlapping or located nearby, were connected to obtain equivalent sites for multicriteria analysis. This has resulted in a database of approximately 98 unique records,
most of which include multiple spatial protection categories under national nature
conservation legislation.
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Some important aspects of interviews with stakeholders are described below:
"The most important factor that acted negatively on Lake Srebarna and the
surrounding lands was the construction of dykes in the 40's of the 20th century, which
led to the interruption of access to Danube water to the lake, and thus to the total
destruction of the hydroregime natural. This problem was partly solved in several
stages, in the 1970s and 1990s, based on projects drafted by the Bulgarian Academy of
Sciences. Other problems include poaching, burning cane floating islands, and
household waste pollution. This example is also significant for many other wetlands,
riparian of the Danube.
As far as tourism is concerned, it is still lacking attractive and competent
interpretation on the ground.
Ecotourism is one of the most important economic utilities in the conservation of
wetlands. These benefits have been defined in the last years as "ecosystem services",
and at present the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences is carrying out several projects of
qualitative and quantitative equivalence. The results will be available from 2017." - a
representative of the Institute for the Study of Biodiversity and Ecosystems, the
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
"The premise of ecotourism development in the Kalimok Brashlen protected area
is that the area is one of the few remaining wet Danubian areas and is home to a unique
biodiversity. The area is set to be an attractive place to develop ecotourism and
ecological education. The existence of rare species of winter birds offers the possibility
of developing ecotourism during the cold season.
The tourist access is made by several trails marked on the Bulgarian bank of the
Danube, and these are described in the informative materials of the protected area." Representative of MIRG Tutrakan - Glavinitsa - Slivo Pole.
"The management of the natural parks is carried out by the specialized
administration of the Natural Parks and they are directly subordinated to the Forest
Executing Agency attached to the MZH.
Due to the rich biodiversity, the Natural Park is extremely well-known among
specialized tourist groups and individual tourists with nature-related interests. The park
also includes tourist attractions, including the ancient Dumum Castle, the old fortress on
the Danube. This territory is representative for the observation of forests near the
Danube and specific wetlands for all its lower course, 20th century.
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As a limiting factor it can be indicated that access to the island and the restored
wetlands is not free. It is done through the permission of the Parks Directorate and the
prison management located there. Difficult access to the Danube islands, which we see
as tourism stops, on the other hand, was the reason to protect them from the
unregulated intervention of the human factor." - Representative of Persina PP.
1.4. Assessment of the Romanian touristic potential
1.4.1. Data collection
The Romanian part of the preliminary study includes a quantitative analysis of
tourism potential: infrastructure, access, accommodation and existing tourist offer,
potential attractions and tourist attractions.
To this end, the following tools have been developed:
- 4 semi-structured interview guides with representatives of the main entities relevant to
the study: custodians of protected natural areas, representatives of local authorities in
access areas in protected areas, representatives of tourism establishments (hostels,
hotels) and serving and self-service in the area;
- 1 spot observation guide for field operators;
- 2 questionnaires dedicated to custodians / administrators of protected natural areas
and owners of tourist accommodation facilities with accommodation functionality;
- 1 instruction manual for field operators (common to both components of research:
qualitative and quantitative).
The field collection stage started with field training by permanent research team
members, both face-to-face training, training at the contractor's office, and by telephone
or online (by email, instant messaging and / or video call) in case of need.
In order to minimize operator errors, all field operators had an on-site instruction
manual containing detailed instructions and explanations on the main ethical and
methodological aspects of data collection, such as: informing the participants and
obtaining the participation agreement, the way of interviewing and how to collect the
data through observation and so on.
The study participants were contacted by phone to inform and obtain the
participation agreement and establish meetings between them and the field operators.
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Also, applying the snowballing sampling principle, operators were instructed to ask
interviewees to identify other potential participants in the relevant study.
220 interviews with custodians of natural sites located in the Romanian part of
the Romania - Bulgaria border region were carried out, with representatives of the local
administrative authorities of the access localities in the sites (mayors / representatives
of the city administration / environmental, tourism or communication of city halls) and
representatives of tour operators in access sites (owners / managers / administrators of
boarding houses, hotels and / or restaurants).
1.4.2. Data analysis
The following are the main issues that emerged from the analysis of interviews,
both general issues, captured in a significant number of interviews, as well as
peculiarities in the analyzed regions.
Thus, the general aspects that emerged from the analysis of the interviews are:
- the confusing and random sentiment attributed by the local authorities to the notions of
"tourism" and "tourist" respectively, and we will present in the following the way in which
this places its mark on the tourist development of the area;
- poor collaboration between local authorities and administrations of protected natural
areas.
As we have seen from the content analysis of the interviews with representatives
of local authorities (city and communal city halls), the meaning they attribute to tourism
activities and, implicitly, the quality of tourists is a confusing one. Throughout the
research, I have noted the appointment of many categories of activities as "tourist", from
fishing, hunting, participation to some local events to cycling or visiting places of
worship. Thus, in order to capture as accurately as possible the extent to which these
activities listed by representatives of local authorities can indeed represent tourist or
domestic activities, we analyzed the profile of the tourist as it was from the rest of the
data provided by the interview. The quality of "tourist" was therefore randomly attributed
to various categories of people, such as:
- seasonal workers coming from other localities;
- migrants returning for variable periods in the destination country (a few weeks,
a few months or more)
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- persons who transit the city without stopping and / or visiting any local tourist
destination;
- persons in pilgrimage to worship camps in the locality or in the vicinity, which
may or may not be overnight in the locality;
- people from other localities who spend a varying time in the area, such as
fishing, hunting, ATV off-road rides, motorcycles and / or bicycles, sailing boats;
- persons participating in local events (eg Peony's Day), including those
originating in the locality;
- persons performing various curative activities (balneary type).
Referring to the way the World Tourism Organization defines the concept of
"tourist", that is, the person who engages in voyages or stays "in places outside his or
her residential environment for a period of more than 24 hours or at least one night , no
more than one year, for leisure, for business or for other reasons, ie for purposes other
than performing a paid activity in the place visited" (Popa Nadia, p. 1), we see that a
large part of people assimilated to tourists (or visitors) are excluded from this category.
We can speak at most about temporary visitors or "hikers" in the case of those whose
stay is less than 24 hours but who still carry out on-site activities such as fishing, walks
with various means of transport, certain types of sports etc., and completely excludes
people who live in the locality and participate in various activities, seasonal workers and
migrants who, although spend varying periods of time in other localities / countries,
remain resident in the locality and do not invest in tourist units / accommodation or
meals, tourist circuits and so on) 5.
We consider it important to clarify the tourism activities and the quality and the
role of the tourist in the local economy and the medium and long term development of
the locality, as it is possible to design and launch initiatives with a real impact on the
community. For example, fieldwork included localities with local objectives of national
interest - namely places of worship, which attract a significant number of temporary
visitors. Despite reporting thousands of people (from 4-5,000 to 10,000 pilgrims around
5
It is worth mentioning that in the literature, the status of the "temporary migrant" temporarily returning to the
country of origin, usually for relaxation / rest, generates, at present, an epistemological uncertainty, not being about
a "tourist" in the classical sense (because its mobility, economic and so on behavior does not meet the standard
criteria of tourist activities - the person does not use the services of the tour operators, does not accommodate in a
tourist unit, visits little or no objectives but it is difficult to qualify as a "returning migrant" (because the stay should
usually take place over short periods of time, on holiday / leave, often without the intention to return definitively or
temporarily to the locality / country of origin) . For the sake of simplicity, we have referred to the tourism activity
from the point of view of "moving to a place other than the residence".
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the great religious holidays) visiting the village, there is no accommodation unit, and
infrastructure investments and the promotion of the rest of the tourist attractions in the
area, including the protected natural area, are expected. Similarly, field research reveals
a number of places offering fish tourism, where the lack of accommodation units,
promotional actions and tourism development plans make the exploitation of natural
resources, especially protected natural areas in the vicinity, remain low.
Poor collaboration between local authorities and administrations of protected
natural areas seems to be a common denominator of many of the localities surveyed.
Almost without exception, representatives of local authorities considered collaboration
with custodians / administrations of protected natural areas to be justifiable at most if
they are seeking help or assistance in solving one-off problems. Collaboration to
develop joint plans to promote the area and objectives - including the protected natural
area, seems to be little to be taken into account by authorities, who are questioned
about local resources that can be capitalized to attract more tourists, rarely mention the
natural resources that are the nearby reserves.
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