2013 Final Exam Test Review with answers (1)

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Final Exam Test Review with answers
Fall 2013
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The final exam will cover the following units:
o Unit 1: Scientific method, measurements, characteristics of life, levels of
organization, biomolecules. (Chapters 1 and 2)
o Unit II: Cells (types, structures, functions) (Chapter 7)
o Unit III: Cell membrane and cell transport (Chapter 7)
o Unit IV: Cellular energy (photosynthesis and cellular respiration) (Chapters 8 &
9)
o Unit V: DNA (structure and replication) (Chapter 12-1 & 12-2), Cell cycle and
mitosis (Chapter 10-2) and Meiosis (Chapter 11-4)
Use your notes, assignments, textbook and the website to answer the following
questions.
This test review, if turned in complete on the day of the final exam, is worth
up to 10 bonus points on the final exam. It must be in your handwriting in
order to earn the bonus points. An incomplete test review can earn partial
bonus points.
 Unit I: Scientific method, measurements, characteristics of life,
levels of organization, biomolecules. (Chapters 1 and 2)
1)
What is a hypothesis? How can you find out if it is correct?
An educated guess. You test a hypothesis by designing an experiment
2)
When setting up an experiment, what are the independent variable, dependent
variable, and control of the experiment?
 Independent variable: the thing you change, what you are testing, If…..,
cause.
 Dependent variable: the thing that changes because of the ID. Then……, effect
 Control: The set up that is not changed, used to compare results.
3)
In the metric system, what are the units of measurement for length (list in
order of smallest to largest..hint: there are 8).
Micrometer, millimeter, centimeter, decimeter, meter, dekameter, hectometer,
kilometer.
4)
What is the volume (in mL) of liquid in this cylinder?
38mL
5)
Using the metric ruler, how long is the threaded part of the bolt? (use the
metric staircase)
a. 29 mm
b. 2.9 cm
c. 0.029 m
d. 29000 μm
6)
What is homeostasis? Explain how the human body maintains homeostasis
(one example). Maintaining a stable internal balance. Body temperature, water
balance.
7)
What is similar to a cell but is not considered a living thing because it can’t
reproduce without a host? virus
8)
What are the 8 characteristics of life? Describe each and give an example of
each.
 Universal genetic code: DNA
 Made of Cells: unicellular or multicellular
 Grows (get bigger) and develops (individual changes over time)
 Reproduction (as a species): asexual or sexual
 Sense (pick up signals) and respond (to signals)
 Maintain homeostasis: maintain internal balance
 Metabolism: take in nutrients, release energy, use energy, produce waste.
 Evolution: population changes over time.
9)
What are the levels of organization in a living thing? (list smallest to largest)
Atommoleculeorganellecelltissueorganorgan systemorganism
10) What is a tissue? A group of same cells working together to do the same job
11) What two inorganic compounds do plants use to make glucose, an organic
molecule? Water and carbon dioxide
12) What is a macromolecule?
What is it built of?
A large molecule or a polymer built from smaller subunits called monomers.
13) Fill in the chart for each macromolecule:
Protein
Lipid
Monomer
Amino acid
Fatty acid &
glycerol
Main function
Catalyst,
Long term
contractile,
energy
channel/carrier storage
Examples
Enzymes,
muscles,
protein
channels
Carbohydrate
monosaccharide
Quick energy
Fats, oils,
Sugars and
phospholipids starches
Nucleic
acid
Nucleotide
Genetic
information
DNA, RNA
14) Which group of biomolecule includes glycogen and cellulose?
starches
15) Draw the basic shape of a molecule for a carbohydrate, a protein, a lipid, and a
nucleic acid
16) What determines the function of a protein? What determines the shape of a
protein? Shape determines function. Order of amino acids determines shape.
DNA determines order of Amino acids.
17) Give an example of a polysaccharide cellulose, glycogen, starch
18) What type of biomolecule is an enzyme? Protein (biological catalyst)
19) Label the following diagram: Fill in the boxes with the missing words.
substrate
enzyme
20)
products
Enzyme/substrate
complex
enzyme
Why does the body need enzymes?
To speed up chemical reactions…building and digestion
21) Draw a graph that shows how temperature and an enzyme’s rate of reaction
are related?
 Unit II: Cells (types, structures, functions) (Chapter 7)
22) What are the three parts of the cell theory?
 All living things are made of cells
 Cells come from preexisting cells
 Cells are the basic structure and function of living things
23) What tool allowed scientists to come up with the cell theory?
Microscope
24) While using a microscope, you are asked for the total magnification of a
specimen. How do you find the total magnification?
Multiply the magnification of the eye piece and the magnification of the
objective lense.
25)
Label the parts of the microscope:
A. Eyepiece
B. Fine adjustment
focus
C. Arm
D. Objective lenses
26) When preparing a wet mount of a specimen, why are stains like methylene blue
used? Staining a cell makes structures more visible
27)
Which direction would you move this slide to center the cell in the field of view?
Up and to the right
28)
What is the diameter of this cell in mm? In μm?
0.5 mm
500 μm
29) What is an organelle? What is the purpose of organelles?
A cellular structure that functions like an organ to maintain homeostasis.
30) Compare and contrast prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.
Prokaryotic: no nucleus, very small, small ribosomes, evolved 3.5 bya, bacteria.
Eukaryotic: nucleus, small, large ribosomes, evolved 2.5 bya. Plants, animals,
fungi, and Protista.
31) Draw and label a bacteria, an animal and a plant cell
32) What
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
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
four structures do all cells contain?
Cell membrane
Genetic material (DNA)
Cytoplasm
Ribosomes
33) What are the function of:
a. Ribosomes: build proteins using instructions from DNA
b. Nucleus: holds DNA, control center of cell
c. Chloroplasts: converts solar energy into chemical energy in sugar
d. Cell membrane: regulates what enters and leaves, support
e. Cell wall: support and protection
f. Mitochondria: converts chemical energy in food into ATP
g. Cytoplasm: allows movement inside cell, support of organelles
h. DNA: genetic information
34)
What determines the function of a cell?
The shape (DNA determines type of cell)
35)
What are some differences between plant and animal cells?
 Plants have cell wall, chloroplasts, and large central vacuole
 Animals have centrioles, lysosomes, and small vacuoles
36)
What are the cell walls of plants made of?
Cellulose (polysaccharide – carbohydrate
37) What is cell differentiation? Do different cells in an organism contain the same
genetic information or different information?
As a multicellular organism develops, different genes will turn on or off to build
specialized cells to perform different jobs. All cells in an organism contain the
same DNA.
38)
Which organelle is comparable to the human excretory system?
Cell membrane
39) Which organelle would you expect to find a lot of in cells that need a lot of
energy? Mitochondria
 Unit III: Cell membrane and cell transport (Chapter 7)
40)
Draw the fluid mosaic model of a cell membrane and label the two main parts.
41)
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
What are the functions of the cell membrane (List 3)?
Regulate what enters and leaves
Structure/support
Cell recognition
42)
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What are two other names for the cell membrane?
Plasma membrane
Phospholipid bilayer
44)
What
a.
b.
c.
are the three characteristics of diffusion?
No energy required
Molecules move from high to low
Molecules move with the concentration gradient
45) Name 3 molecules/substances that are able to pass through a cell membrane
through the process of simple diffusion without having to be digested.
Water, carbon dioxide and oxygen
44) What is osmosis?
The diffusion of water
45) Draw an arrow for each diagram that represents the net movement of water
into or out of a cell through the process of osmosis.
Cell: 85% H2O
Solution:
90% H2O
Cell: 40% protein
Solution:
60% H2O
Cell: 15% sugar
Solution:
80% H2O
Cell: 90% H2O
Solution:
10% starch
46) Draw an arrow to indicate the movement of molecules through the process of
diffusion. Also indicate how many molecules will move to reach equilibrium.
2
1
47)
What is a hypertonic solution?
Solution that has a higher concentration of “stuff”
48)
What is a hypotonic solution?
Solution that has a lower concentration of “stuff”
49)
What is an isotonic solution?
Solution that has an equal concentration of “stuff”
50)
Describe the movement of water into or out of a cell, when there is a/an:
a. Greater concentration of salt inside the cell? Water moves into cell
b. Greater concentration of salt outside the cell? Water moves out of cell
c. Equal concentration of salt inside and outside the cell? Water moves in and
out of cell at equal rate.
51)
What will happen to a plant cell when placed in:
a. Salt water? Central vacuole will shrink
b. Distilled water? Central vacuole will swell up
c. Tap water? Central vacuole will stay the same size
52)
Which organelle in a plant is most affected by the process of osmosis?
Central vacuole
53)
Why do plant cells not burst when placed in a hypotonic solution?
The cell wall holds the cell together even when it swells up and pushes against
the inside of the cell wall
54) By which process do plants (their roots) absorb nutrients/minerals from the
surrounding soil? Active transport
55) Which organelle is responsible for water balance, gas exchange and excretion in
a single celled organism? Cell membrane
56)
57)
What are the 3 characteristics of active transport?
a. Requires energy (ATP)
b. Molecules move from low to high
c. Molecules move against the concentration gradient
What is ATP?
Adenosine triphosphate  cellular energy  full cell battery
58) Draw an arrow to indicate the movement of molecules through the process of
active transport.
69)
How are gases transported across a cell membrane? (i.e. which process)
Diffusion (passive transport)
70) Indicate if the following molecules must be digested before they are able to
diffuse into a cell or if they are small enough to simply diffuse through a
membrane?
a. Water: small enough
b. Protein: must be digested
c. Fat: must be digested
d. Starch: must be digested
e. Oxygen: small enough
f. Carbon dioxide: small enough
71)
Which organelle maintains homeostasis in cells?
Cell membrane

Unit IV: Cellular energy (photosynthesis and cellular respiration) (Chapters
8 & 9)
72)
What is metabolism (metabolic activity)?
All of the chemical processes in a living thing: taking in nutrients, digestion,
releasing energy, using energy, producing wastes.
73)
What is the main nutrient used in metabolism?
Carbohydrates (glucose)
74) What is an autotroph? What type of organism uses autotrophic nutrition for
survival?
An organism that can make its own food (organic molecules) from inorganic
molecules. Some Bacteria, plants, some Protista (algae)
75) What is a heterotroph? What type of organism uses heterotrophic nutrition for
survival? An organism that cannot make its own food (organic molecules) from
inorganic molecules…it must eat something made by autotrophs. Animals, fungi,
some bacteria, some protistas.
76)
Write the chemical equation for Photosynthesis:
6CO2 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 + 6O2
a. What are the reactants?
CO2 (Carbon dioxide) and H2O (water)
b. What are the products?
C6H12O6 (glucose) and O2 (Oxygen)
c. Which of the molecules used or produced during photosynthesis are
organic molecules?
C6H12O6 (glucose)
d. Which of the molecules used or produced during photosynthesis are
inorganic molecules?
CO2 (Carbon dioxide) , H2O (water), and O2
77) Within which organelle does photosynthesis take place?
Chloroplast
78) Which types of organisms perform photosynthesis?
Plants, algae, photosynthetic Protista, photosynthetic bacteria
79) Draw this organelle and label the light reaction and the Calvin cycle (dark
reaction).
a. Show what molecules enter and exit each phase.
80) How does the amount of sunlight affect the rate of photosynthesis?
a. Increased light: Rate will increase until maxed out. More glucose. More
oxygen
b. Decreased light: Rate will decrease, less glucose, less oxygen
c. No light: Rate decrease, eventually stop.
81) How does temperature affect the rate of photosynthesis?
Temperature affects enzymes, too hot or too coldrate slows/stops.
82) What are xylem and phloem tissue in a plant? What can they be compared to
in a human?
 Xylem carries water from roots up to rest of plant.
 Phloem carries sugars from leaves throughout plant.
 Compared to vascular tissue (veins and arteries) in humans.
83) What are the functions of stomata? Draw one and label the stomata and the
guard cells.
Stomata are responsible for gas exchange and for regulation of water loss.
84) What is glucose?
A sugar (simple carbohydrate) made by plants. C6H12O6
85) Where in a glucose molecule is energy stored?
In the chemical bonds between the atoms.
86) Where does this energy come from (originally)?
The sun
87) Fill in the missing parts of the following flowchart:
Energy
Is used during
Is produced during
Cellular
respiration
Photosynthesis
Includes
and
Water
Involves
Carbon
dioxide
Leads to the
synthesis of
photolsysis
Includes
and
anaerobic
aerobic
Which is used
as fuel in
Glucose
Releases
Which is required for
Oxygen
88) What process converts radiant energy into a form that can be stored and later
used by cells? Photosynthesis
89) What process releases the chemical energy stored in food and converts it into a
form that is usable by the cell? Cellular respiration
90) Write the chemical formula for cellular respiration.
C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O
a. What are the reactants?
C6H12O6 (glucose) and O2 (Oxygen)
b. What are the products?
CO2 (Carbon dioxide) and H2O (water)
c. Which are considered organic molecules?
C6H12O6 (glucose)
d. Which are considered inorganic molecules?
CO2 (Carbon dioxide) , H2O (water), and O2 (Oxygen)
91) Which organelle is involved in cellular respiration? Draw it.
Mitochondria
92) Which types of organisms perform cellular respiration?
All organisms
93) What is aerobic respiration?
Cellular respiration with oxygen
94) What is anaerobic respiration?
Cellular respiration without oxygen
95) What is fermentation?
Anaerobic respiration.
96) What are the two types of fermentation? What are the products of each? Give
examples of each type.
a. Alcoholic fermentation: makes ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. Yeast
making bread, wine, or beer.
b. Lactic acid fermentation: makes lactic acid. Humans when exercising
without oxygen, causes sore muscles. Bacteria making yogurt.
97) What is produced during glycolysis?
Glucose is split into 2 pyruvic acid molecules (some CO2 and ATP is also made)
98) Describe what happens to oxygen and carbon dioxide levels during:
a. Cellular respiration: oxygen drops, carbon dioxide rises
b. Photosynthesis: carbon dioxide drops, oxygen rises.

Unit V: DNA (structure and replication) (Chapter 12-1 & 12-2), Cell cycle
and mitosis (Chapter 10-2) and Meiosis (Chapter 11-4)
99)
What is DNA? What type of biomolecule is DNA?
Deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is a nucleic acid
100) What are the building blocks (monomers/subunits) of DNA? Draw and label the
three parts. Nucleotides
101) What is the overall shape of DNA? Draw it.
Double helix (twisted ladder)
102) What is the function of DNA? Which part of the DNA molecule carries out this
function? Genetic information…blueprint to build cells/organisms. The order of
the nitrogenous bases determines the traits that will be built.
103) What is the sugar found in DNA? Deoxyribose
104) What are the 4 nitrogenous bases? How do they pair together?
Adenine pairs with thymine. Guanine pairs with cytosine
105) If a DNA template has the following bases: ATTCGCAATGC
What would the complementary strand be?
TAAGCGTTACG
106) What is DNA replication? Describe the steps involved.
The process by which a DNA molecule copies itself so that it can give a copy to
each new cell made.
o Step 1: DNA unzips so that nitrogen bases are exposed
o Step 2: new nucleotides are added based on base pairing rule
o Step 3: two new strands are zipped up…new nucleotides are “fixed” in
place.
107) What is a gene? A segment of DNA that codes for a particular proteintrait
108) What are the phase of the cell cycle? Describe the events that take place
during each phase. Draw a cell in each phase.
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

Interphase: G1: cell growth, S: DNA replication, G2: cell growth
Mitosis: nuclear division
o Prophase: nuclear membrane disappears, centrioles separate and move to
opposite poles, spindle fibers form, chromatin condenses into chromosomes.
o Metaphase: chromosomes (sister chromatids) are lined up (single file) along
middle of cell by spindles.
o Anaphase: centromeres split and sister chromatids are separated so that
each chromosome can begin to move to opposite poles
o Telophase: chromosomes reach poles and uncoil back into chromatin,
nuclear envelope reappears, spindle fibers break down.
Cytokinesis: division of cytoplasm
o occurs at same time as telophase
o Animal: cell membrane pinches in until two cells are formed
o Plant: cell plate formed until 2 cells are formed.
109) What is the purpose of mitosis? (list 3)
 Growth
 Tissue repair
 Cell replacement
110) What is the result of mitosis? (# of cells and # of chromosomes compared to
parent cell.) 1 diploid parent cell results in 2 diploid daughter cells…genetically
identical to parent.
111) Is mitosis considered sexual or asexual reproduction?
Asexual…only one parent is involved.
112) During mitosis, what are separated? (be specific)
Sister chromatids
113) What is cancer?
Uncontrolled cell growth that produces abnormal cells
114) What are gametes? How are they produced?
Sex cells (sperm and egg) produced by meiosis
115) What process occurs when two gametes fuse together to create a zygote?
Fertilization results in a zygote
116) What is the result of meiosis? (# of cells and # of chromosomes compared to
parent cell).
1 diploid parent cell results in 4 haploid daughter cells (genetically different
from each other and from parent.
117) Is meiosis considered asexual or sexual reproduction?
Sexual because it produces gametes that will be later used to produce
offspring.
118) During meiosis, what are separated? (be specific)
Homologous chromosomes separate during meiosis I
119) A parent cell has 24 chromosomes. How many chromosomes does a daughter
cell have after:
a. Mitosis:
b. Meiosis:
24
12
Is this cell haploid or diploid? Diploid
Is this cell haploid or diploid? Haploid
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