Dome International Schools AY. 2018 – 2019 First Semester SCIENCE 4 Chapter 1 Review CHAPTER 1 : Cells and Kingdoms. LESSON 3: The Plant Kingdom. How can we classify the plants by structures? a- one group has roots, stems, and leaves. b- The other group has no roots, stems, and leaves. All plants need space, air, water and sunlight. plants are also divided into: 1- seed plants 2-seedless plants SEED contains an undeveloped plants, stored food, and a protective covering. SEEDLESS plants, such as ferns produce spores. Spore is a single cell that can develop into a new plant exactly like the plant that produces it. What are roots? Root: is a part of the plant that absorbs water and minerals, stores food, and anchors the plant. PARTS of a ROOT Root hair: is a threadlike projection from a plant root. A typical root of a vascular plant is made of three different layers and a root cap. It is used to store food and nutrients. *TYPES of ROOTS: Fibrous roots: are thin, branching roots. They do not grow deep into the ground but they often cover a very wide area. TAPROOTS: have single, main stalk like root hat grows deep into the ground. *How do plants get water and food? -plants take in water throughout their roots. Plants make their own food using carbon dioxide and the energy from the sunlight. What are stems? Stems: is the support structure of the plant. 1. It moves food, water, and nutrients throughout the plant. 2. It also hold the plant upright so it does not fall over. * There are two types of stems : 1- Woody stems: Most plants and shrubs 2- Non-woody stems: smaller plants have non-woody stems that are green, soft, and bendable. What are leaves? Leaves are important in the process of making food called PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Stomata: is a tiny pores on the underside of the leaves where air enters and moves out of the plants. What is TRANSPIRATION? – It is the loss of water through a plant’s leaves. *How are PHOTSYNTHESIS and RESPIRATION related? – The sugars produced during the photosynthesis are used by most of the organisms for energy. The energy is released when cells use oxygen to break down sugars in the process of CELLULAR RESPIRATION. It occurs in the mitochondria. *How do CHLOROPLASTs make food for plants? - Chloroplasts take in energy from the sunlight and combine water and carbon dioxide to make plant sugars.