002b Biological Molecules

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Introduction to important molecules
which comprise the structure and
function of all living organisms
Biological Compounds
Categories:
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Lipids
Nucleic Acids
• Principle Elements
• Ratio of Various Elements
• Special Functional Groups
Hydroxyl ( -OH )
O
H
Alcohols
Carbonyl (C=O)
C
O
Aldehydes,
Ketones
Carboxyl ( -COOH )
C
Carboxylic acids
O
Amino ( -NH2 )
N
H
Amines
Phosphate ( -H2PO4)
O
P
Sulfhydryl ( -SH)
S
H
Organic phosphates
Thiols
Monomer
• Subunits that serve as building
blocks
• Connected by condensation
reactions (dehydration) Polymers
• Covalent bonding occurs
• Solubility in Water
Monomer
Polymer
Monomers
H
HO
H
HO
H2O
Polymer
C6H12O6 + C6H12O6
C12H22O11 + H2O
H2O
Monomers
H2O
H
HO
C12H22O11 + H2O
C6H12O6 + C6H12O6
Principle Elements: C, H, & O
H:O = 2:1
Many Hydroxyl Groups (-OH)
Monomers: Monosaccharides
Polymers: Polysaccharides
Water Soluble
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•
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•
Energy Metabolism
Structural Components
Cell-to-Cell Contacts and Recognition
Elimination of wastes (fiber)
APT
cell
HelperT cell
Chemical Formulas
C6H12O6
From corn syrup
C6H12O6
Chemical Formulas
C5H10O5
C5H10O4
deoxyribose
Lactose
glucose + galactose
Maltose
Sucrose
glucose + glucose
glucose + fructose
glycogen
Starch vs. Cellulose
Corn starch
Potato starch
Starch vs. Cellulose
We can digest starch (amylose) but not cellulose.
What difference do you see that might be the reason
behind this?
Digest Cellulose
cecum
Trichonympha, protist
found in termites guts
• Principle Elements: C, H, & O
• Some With P & N
• H:O >>> 2:1
• Diverse Group of Biological Molecules
• Water Insoluble
• Energy Storage
• Protection & Cushioning of Body Organs
• Structural Components of Membranes
• Chemical Messengers (hormones)
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•
•
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Triglycerides (neutral fats)
Phospholipids
Sterols
Waxes
Vitamins (D, E, K)
Glycerol
Fatty Acid
• Saturated with H+
• Most animal fats are saturated, ex. butter
• Solid at room temp
Glycerol
Fatty Acids
• Has one or more double bonds between
carbons
• Most vegetable fats
• Liquid at room temp
carbon
hydrogen
phosphorous
oxygen
Hydrophilic
head
Hydrophobic
tails
Nonpolar
hydrophobic
tails (fatty
acids)
exposed to oil
Polar hydrophilic
heads exposed
to water
Bacon grease
cholesterol
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•
•
•
•
Cholesterol: < 175 mg/dl
Triglycerides: 30-175 mg/dl
HDL: >35
LDL: <130
Cholesterol/HDL ratio: <4.5
indicates heart disease
•
•
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Family history of vascular disease
High levels of blood cholesterol
Smoking
Diabetes
Hypertension
Obesity
•
•
•
•
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Eat healthy
Exercise
Lose wt.
Quit smoking
1 glass wine or beer
Medication
Surgery
• Principle Elements: C, H, O, & N
• Monomers: Amino Acids
• Polymers: Polypeptides or Proteins
• Generally Water Soluble
Functional Groups of Amino Acids
• Carboxylic Acid (-COOH)
• Amine (-NH2)
• R-Groups (variable - 20 different kinds)
• Enzymes
• Structural Proteins
• Chemical Messengers (Hormones)
• Contractile
• Antibodies
Amino Acid
carboxyl
amine
Functional R
20 Known Amino Acids
Amino Acid
Protein
Valine Histadine Leucine Threonine Proline
Cystine
Serline
Proline
Glutamic
Acid
Glutamic
Theronine Valine
Acid
hemoglobin
keratin
Protein Structures
Proteins can denature
Heat
Pressure
pH
Protein Bond Types
1.Peptide bond
2.Hydrogen bond
3.Salt (ionic) bond
4.Disulfide bond
Protein Bond Types
AA1
AA2
Peptidebond
bond
Peptide
Dipeptide
Water
Protein Bond Types
Hydrogen bond
Protein Bond Types
Disulfide bond
• Strong, chemical side
bond
• Cannot be broken by
water
• Can be broken by
chemical hair relaxers
• Alters the shape of the
hair
Protein Bond Types
Salt (Ionic) bond
Attraction of unlike
charges
Negative charge in an
amino acid attracts
the positive charge in
another amino acid
grouping
• Catalysts- speed up a reaction
• Not used up by reaction
• Decrease activation energy of a reaction
(activation energy is needed to break chemical bonds)
Enzymatic reactions are affected by:
Temperature
pH
Substrate conc.
Enzyme conc.
Are very specific for their substrate
Substrates:
Bind only to a restricted region of the enzyme
(active site)
Held in place by weak interactions (H-bonds)
Active
site
Enzyme
(sucrase)
Specificity of enzyme:
Lock and key
Substrate
(sucrose)
The Functioning of Enzymes
active
site
Enzyme
Principle Elements: C, H, O, N, & P
Monomers: Nucleotides
Polymers: Nucleic Acids
Generally Water Soluble
Nucleotide Components:
Ribose (5-C) Sugar
Phosphate
Nitrogenous Base
• Genetic Instruction Set (DNA)
• Protein Synthesis (DNA & RNA)
• Energy Metabolism (ATP)
Polymers made up of individual
nucleotides
Nucleotides contain
• Phosphate group
• Five carbon sugar
• Ring shaped nitrogen base
DNA contains information for almost
all cell activities
ATP
Role of ATP in Energy Metabolism
ATP  ADP + Pi + Energy
Role of ATP in Energy
Metabolism
INQUIRY
1. Describe the difference
between saturated and
unsaturated fats.
2. Where are phospholipids
found?
3. Cholesterol is the base
molecule for what type
of lipids?
4. Name a polysaccharide
used to store energy.
5. Name the currency
molecule for all the cells
activities.
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