INTRO & WEEK 1 REVIEW Psych 202; Biopsychology (WTR 2015) PAST APPROACHES TO BIOPSYCHOLOGY • Mind versus brain • • Localization of function • • Dualism - pineal gland theorized to be the connection between soul and brain by Descartes Phrenology, lesion studies Neural communication • Descartes - Nervous activity “flows” through nerves to and from the brain (as a liquid) CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO BIOPSYCHOLOGY • Mind versus brain • • Localization of function • • Workings of the mind represent physical processes in the brain Lesion Studies Neural communication • Ramon y Cajal’s Neural Doctrine: Neurons are the structural and functional units of the nervous system • Neurons are discrete bodies • Neurons contain dendrites, cell bodies, and axons • Neural impulses are directional NEURONS: CLASSIFICATION BY STRUCTURE • When classified by structure, there are three main types of neurons • Unipolar • Bipolar • Multipolar NEURONS: CLASSIFICATION BY STRUCTURE • When classified by structure, there are three main types of neurons • Unipolar: one projection containing the axon and dendrites • Bipolar: two projections, one for the axon and another for the dendritic tree • Multipolar: multiple projections, one axon and many dendritic trees NEURONS: CLASSIFICATION BY STRUCTURE NEURONS: CLASSIFICATION BY FUNCTION • When classified by function, there are also three main types of neurons • Motor (efferent) • Sensory (afferent) • Interneurons NEURONS: CLASSIFICATION BY FUNCTION • When classified by function, there are also three main types of neurons • Motor (efferent): carry info from the CNS to periphery (efferent/exit) • Sensory (afferent): carry info from the periphery to CNS (afferent/arrive) • Interneurons: relay messages between neurons in CNS GLIAL CELLS • Four types • • Macroglia • (1) Oligodendrocytes • (2) Schwann cells • (3) Astrocytes (4) Microglia GLIAL CELLS • Four types • • Macroglia • (1) Oligodendrocytes: extensions rich in myelin create myelin sheaths in the CNS • (2) Schwann cells: similar to function of oligodendrocytes but in the PNS, can guide axonal regeneration • (3) Astrocytes: largest glia, star-shaped, blood brain barrier (4) Microglia: involved in response to injury or disease GLIAL CELLS NEUROANATOMY: LOBES Parietal Frontal Occipital Temporal NEUROANATOMY: BUMPS & DIPS Sulcus Gyrus MATCHING GAME :) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Oligodendrocyte Axon Soma Myelin Microglia Astrocyte Synapse Blood vessel TELL-TALE BRAIN: DISCUSS! • Why is that damaging the right parietal lobe will cause patients to lose awareness of the left half of visual space when actually it is occipital lobe that mainly concerned with visual processing? • If we figure out how to trigger the phase transition towards human-level intelligence in other species (such as dolphins and apes), do you think that we should enlighten other life on earth?