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SIGMUND FREUD
3. Superego – Moral Principles
Biography
Anxiety
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May 6, 1856 – born in Freiberg Town,
Moravia (now Czech Republic)
Eldest of eight children
Married, with 3 girls and 3 boys
1881 – He graduated from Medical
Faculty, University of Vienna
1896 – SIGMUND FREUD WAS
OFFICIALLY RECOGNIZED
1900 – HE RELEASED
‘INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS’
SEPTEMBER 23, 1939 –FREUD
PASSED AWAY IN HAMPSTEAD
HOUSE
Died of cancer of jaw & mouth lifelong
cigar chain-smoker
LEVEL OF MENTAL LIFE
1. UNCONSCIOUS
• Contains all the feeling, urges or instinct that
are beyond our awareness but it affect our
expression, feeling, action (E.g. Slip of tongue,
dreams, wishes)
2. PRECONSCIOUS
• Facts stored in a part of the brain, which are
not conscious but are available for possible
use in the future (e.g. A person will never think
of her home address at that moment but when
her friend asks for it, she can easily recall it)
3. CONSCIOUS
• Only level of mental life that are directly
available to us
• The awareness of our own mental process
(Thoughts/feeling)
STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY
Consist of three parts:
1. Id – Pleasure principle
2. Ego – Reality Principles
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It arises out of a conflict among the
id, the ego and the superego.
Reality Anxiety – fear of danger from the
external world, real, objective sources of
danger in the environment –
Neurotic Anxiety – fear that the Id impulses
will overwhelm the ego and cause the person
to do something that will be punished.
Moral Anxiety – Fear of one’s own
conscience, Fear the that person will do
something contrary to the desires of the
Superego.
Defense Mechanism
invented by the Ego in an attempt to resolve
the conflict between Id and Superego – so that
personality can operate in a healthy manner
a. Repression — pushes threatening
thoughts back into the unconscious.
b. Denial – denying the existence of some
external threat or traumatic event that
has occurred.
c. Reaction Formation – It is the
replacement in consciousness of an
anxiety producing impulse or feeling by
its opposite.
d. Projection —an individual puts the
blame of his own failure upon others
and some unfavorable factors of his
environment.
e. Regression —involves retreating to an
earlier, less frustrating period of life and
displaying the childish and dependent
behaviors characteristic of that more
secure time
f. Rationalization —tries to justify his
failure by giving some excuses.
g. Displacement — An individual does
something as a substitute for something
else.
h. Sublimation —unacceptable desires
are redirected into socially accepted
channels.
PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES
1. Oral Stage (Birth to 18 months)
Childhood experiences of being bullied and
fainting spells.
In 1900, graduated in the University of
Basel and obtained M.D. then two years
later from the University of Zurich.
Pleasure centers on the mouth
Oral incorporative behavior (taking in)
Oral aggressive or oral sadistic behavior
(biting or spitting out)
2. Anal Stage (18 months until 3 years)
Pleasure focuses on bowel movement
(withholding/eliminating feces)
Worked as staff at Burgholzli Asylum under
the guidance of Eugene Bleuler, a
pioneering psychologist.
Observations led the way to develop the
term "complex" to describe the conditions.
3. Phallic Stage (3 years to 6 years)
Married Emma Rauschenbach in 1903. Had
five children and remained together until
Emma's death in 1955.
Pleasure zone is the sex organ/genitals
Died on June 6, 1961 in Zurich.
4. Latency Stage (6 years to 11 years, until
puberty)
Nothing occurred since the child is focused on
peer activities and personal mastery of learning
and physical skills
5. Genital Stage (12 years onwards)
Sexual interest in opposite sex increase
CARL GUSTAV JUNG
Biography
Born in July 26, 1875 in Switzerland, to a
pastor and a daughter of a theologian.
Eldest sibling only lived for three days while
the youngest child, a girl, was born 9 years
after.
Mother Emilie was institutionalized due to a
mental illness.
Family was influenced by both spirituality
and mystic beliefs.
Psyche - fuels the work of the personality
PSYCHIC ENERGIES:
Principle of Opposites - every wish or feeling
has its opposite. This opposition or antithesis—
this conflict between polarities—is the primary
motivator of behavior and generator of energy.
Principle of Equivalence - energy expended
in bringing about some condition is not lost but
rather is shifted to another part of the
personality. Thus, if the psychic value in a
particular area weakens or disappears, that
energy is transferred elsewhere in the psyche.
equivalence implies that the new area to
which energy has shifted must have an equal
psychic value; that is, it should be equally
desirable, compelling, or fascinating
Principle of Entropy - psychic energy and
proposed that there is a tendency toward a
balance or equilibrium in the personality. If two
desires or beliefs differ greatly in intensity or
psychic value, energy will flow from the more
strongly held to the weaker.
SYSTEMS OF PERSONALITY (LEVELS OF
PSYCHE)
‘Libido’ is a general psychic energy which may
flow in channels serving a range of instincts.
Ego - the center of consciousness, the part of
the psyche concerned with perceiving, thinking,
feeling, and remembering. It is our awareness
of ourselves and is responsible for carrying out
the normal activities of waking life
Conscious
Conscious images are those sensed by the
ego. It is the perception of and reaction to our
environment is determined by the opposing
mental attitudes of extraversion and
introversion.
Introverted feeling: Reserved,
undemonstrative, yet capable of deep emotion
Introverted sensing: Outwardly detached,
expressing themselves in aesthetic pursuits
Introverted intuiting: Concerned with the
unconscious more than everyday reality
Personal Unconscious
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It is a reservoir of material that was once
conscious but has been forgotten or
suppressed because it was trivial or
disturbing.
Complex - is a core or pattern of emotions,
memories, perceptions, and wishes organized
around a common theme.
Collective Unconscious
Psychological Functions
These functions refer to different and opposing
ways of perceiving or apprehending both the
external real world and our subjective inner
world.
Four functions of the psyche:
- sensing,
- intuiting,
- thinking, and
- feeling
Psychological types - based on the
interactions of the two attitudes and four
functions.
Extraverted thinking: Logical, objective,
dogmatic
Extraverted feeling: Emotional, sensitive,
sociable; more typical of women than men
Extraverted sensing: Outgoing, pleasureseeking, adaptable
Extraverted intuiting: Creative, able to
motivate others and to seize opportunities
Introverted thinking: More interested in ideas
than in people
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