1914-1918: The Great War Causes of the War 1. The Alliance System Triple Entente: Great Britain Triple Alliance: Germany Austria-Hungary France Russia Italy Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers: Great Britain Germany France AustriaHungary Russia Ottoman Empire Italy The Major Players: 1914-17 Allied Powers: Central Powers: Nicholas II [Rus] Wilhelm II [Ger] George V [Br] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Enver Pasha [Turkey] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Franz Josef [A-H] Europe in 1914 2. Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s. 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1914 94 130 154 268 289 398 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures France 10% Britain 13% Russia 39% Germany 73% 3. Economic & Imperial Rivalries 4. Aggressive Nationalism The “Spark” Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family The Assassination: Sarajevo The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip Who’s To Blame? The Schlieffen Plan Plan for attacking France in the west and then rushing to attack Russia in the east Mobilization Home by Christmas! No major war in 50 years! Nationalism! Recruitment Posters A German Boy Pretends to Be a Soldier Financing the War For Recruitment Munitions Workers Working in the Fields A Woman Ambulance Driver Red Cross Nurses Women in the Army Auxiliary Posters: Wartime Propaganda Australian Poster American Poster Financing the War German Poster Think of Your Children! The Western Front: A “War of Attrition” A Multi-Front War The Western Front Trench Warfare Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land” War Is HELL !! Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun America Joins the Allies Terms to Know: Unrestricted Submarine Warfare-In January 1917 Germany announced that it would sink, without warning, any ship in the waters around Britain. Total War-War in which the countries devote all resources and workers to the war effort. The Sinking of the Lusitania May 7, 1915-(1,198 dead; 128 Americans) The Zimmerman Telegram February 1917 Americans in the Trenches The War of the Industrial Revolution: New Technology French Renault Tank British Tank at Ypres U-Boats Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917 The Zeppelin Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers Poison Gas Machine Gun 1918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died 11 a.m., November 11, 1918 The Armistice is Signed! World War I Casualties 10,000,000 9,000,000 8,000,000 7,000,000 6,000,000 5,000,000 4,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 0 Russia Germany Austria-Hungary France Great Britain Italy Turkey US Terms to know: Treaty of Versailles-Treaty forced on Germany, exactly 5 years after Franz Ferdinand was assassinated. It severely punished Germany with large fines, severe restrictions on its military, and the humiliating “War Guilt” clause. League of Nations-League proposed by President Woodrow Wilson and set up to be an international association whose goal would be to keep peace among nations.