Grade 8 Technology Terminology Term 3 Pivot: a turn or balance on a central point. Fulcrum: the point where a lever is supported when it lifts something. Effort: the force applied to a lever in order to move a load. Spur gear: a wheel with teeth that meshes with another gear to change speed or direction. Idler gear: the gear between the driver gear and the driven gear which makes them turn in the same direction. Bevel gear: a gear that can change rotational direction through 90o. Newton: a unit of force, 10N = 1kg. Application: the practical purpose of a machine. Propel: to move something forward. Radioactive: something that contains a form of energy known as radiation that can harm living things. Borehole: a deep hole made in the ground to get water out. Catchment area: an area that a river gets water from. Contaminated: when something like water has had a harmful substance added to it. Reprocessing: to treat a waste substance to that it can be used again. Shaft: a passage underground which allows miners to go in and out. Galleries: underground tunnels. Smelt: to melt rock in order to remove the metal in it. Slag: the waste material which remains after metal has been taken out of the rock. Procurement: to get something. Barriers: rules that limit what people can do. Equity: when all people are treated equally. Spectrum: a wide range of something. Discriminatory: unfair. Repealed: when a law is officially ended.