ftth33

advertisement
Fiber to the Home
Erik Radius, Jan Martijn Metselaar
Colloquium SNE Master
March 3, 2010
Winitu Consulting
Tolnasingel 1
2411 PV Bodegraven
The Netherlands
slide
Agenda
1
Introduction
2
Fiber to the Home – technology
3
Broadband networks – Network Architecture
4
Discussion!
slide 2
Agenda
Who are we?
Winitu Consulting is an experienced consultancy company
providing knowledge of data- and telecommunication, IT and
business process management.
Winitu’s customer potfolio ranges from large
service providers to small enterprises in both
profit and non-profit sectors.
Winitu consultants are experienced in design,
implementation, optimisation and management
of complex networks, IT and processes.
slide 3
Introduction Winitu Consulting
What do we do? – Winitu Portfolio
Strategic / Tactical
Innovation
• Technical business
• New technology
consultancy
Operational Excellence
Development
• Process consultancy
• Hands-on experience
• Problem solving
Auditing
Network design and
Business Modelling
implementation
Project Management
IT design and implementation
Proces design and
Network optimisation
implementation
Network and IT testing
IT and network management
Service and business development
slide 4
Introduction Winitu Consulting
Organisation
WinITu Gold BV
100%
100%
Winitu
Consulting BV
Winitu
Communications
BV
100%
40%
igilde BV
Infodation
About the Winitu Group:
WinITu Gold was founded January 2000
Winitu Communications is a, OPTA registered, (wholesale) unified
communications provider
igilde is a full service IT service provider focused on network technology
Infodation is a software development company using remote sourcing in
Vietnam
slide 5
Introduction Winitu Consulting
Introduction of the speakers of today
Erik Radius
Jan Martijn Metselaar
slide 6
Introduction
Agenda
1
Introduction
2
Fiber to the Home – technology
3
Broadband networks – Network Architecture
4
Discussion!
slide 7
Agenda
FTTH technology: a closer look at optics
Optical fiber is a compact, low-loss carrier for broadband signals
Optical fiber consists of 3 main parts
1: glass core
2: glass cladding
3: plastic buffer coating
slide 8
FTTH technology
Optical fiber inner workings
Optical signal is contained within the fiber
Higher index of refraction in core than in cladding
Total internal reflection at the core/cladding boundary
slide 9
FTTH technology
Multimode versus Singlemode (1)
Multimode
‘Bigger’ core: 50 / 62,5mm
Multiple optical modes
supported/transmitted
Bandwidth*distance
product is limited
Only suitable for shorter
distances (<1km)
slide 10
FTTH technology
Multimode versus Singlemode (2)
Singlemode
Small core: 9mm
1 optical mode is supported/transmitted
Signal may be carried over very large distance
More information online, e.g.
http://www.rp-photonics.com/fibers.html
slide 11
FTTH technology
Transmitter & receiver
Optical fiber is only a passive waveguide
Active components at the end points:
Signal source: laser diode
Receiver: photo diode
(Amplitude)modulation of the data stream
Light signal is the ‘carrier’ wave
Both digital and analog transmission possible
slide 12
FTTH technology
Signal loss in optical fiber is wavelength dependent
slide
13
Power budget
14
source: http://www.thefoa.org/
slide
14
Optical power budget
Fiber link design: what is involved
Fiber type (single mode? multi mode?)
Fiber length (km)
Licht source: output power (dBm)
Detector: receiver sensitivity (dBm)
Elements in the link that cause additional signal loss
Fiber link budget or optical power budget
the amount of light available to make a fiber optic connection
Provides the maximum distance with the available optics
Take a minimum of 3dB margin into account
slide 15
power budget
Optical power budget: case #1
Laser power:
Fiber attenuation:
Fiber length:
Receiver sensitivity:
-7
0,4
20
-29
dBm
dB per kilometer
km
dBm
Splice loss:
0,1
dB (max.)
Connector loss:
0,5
dB (max.)
# of connectors:
2
# of splices:
4
Calculate Link budget: laser power – receiver sensitivity
Calculate Margin: laser power – receiver sensitivity – [link losses]
slide 16
power budget
Optical power budget: case #2
Laser power:
Fiber attenuation:
Fiber length:
Receiver sensitivity:
+1
dBm
0,25 dB per kilometer
40
-12
km
dBm
Splice loss:
0,1
dB (max.)
Connector loss:
0,5
dB (max.)
# of connectors:
4
# of splices:
8
Calculate Link Budget: laser power – receiver sensitivity
Calculate Margin: laser power – receiver sensitivity – [link losses]
slide 17
power budget
Pros and cons of optical fiber
Question for you all... Give me
3 advantages of optical fiber over metallic wiring
... and ...
3 disadvantages
slide 18
FTTH technology
Fiber networks
Transport networks layers
Core (+ international) network
Metro(politan) network
Access network
Access network for telecom/cableTV partial fiber
Telecom
Optical fiber up to central office
Copper connection into the home
Cable TV
Optical fiber up to street cabinet
coax connection into the home
slide 19
FTTH technology
International networks (submarine cable systems)
slide
20
National networks
source: GIGAport website
slide
21
City networks (metro rings)
source GIGAport website
slide
22
Fiber penetration in the access network
Fiber….
to the Node
Central office, >300m
to the Curb/Cabinet
Straatkast, <300m
to the Building/Basement
Multi-storey buildings
to the Home
into the ‘meterkast’
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/32/FTTX.png
slide 23
FTTH technology
FTTH cabling concept
Access network branches off multiple times between
central office and the home
Installed: underground or above ground (!)
slide 24
FTTH technology
Fiber installation above ground: example
FTTH in Romenia (Bucharest)
slide 25
FTTH technology
Underground installation
Several underground deployment methods available
1: modular tubes; insert fiber as needed (blown fiber)
2: fiber inside rugged cable (buried fiber)
Blown fiber explained in more depth
slide 26
FTTH technology
Miniduct system for access network
1, 7, 12, 24 thin tubes in a rugged outdoor cable
Branching off one or
multiple tubes is
relatively simple
slide 27
FTTH technologie
Fiber in mini duct
Install thin cable into duct using airflow
slide 28
FTTH technologie
Fiber connection in the home
Example optical fiber
network terminal
Services for end user:
Internet
(Analogue) television
Phone
Most often installed in the
utility cabinet (‘meterkast’)
slide 29
Fiber connection in the home
Fiber, the movie
FTTH installation in a Dutch neighborhood
Blown fiber concept using branching off
of individual tubes for house connections
In the home: miniduct in the utility cabinet
Installation of network terminal
Testing & activation
slide 30
FTTH technologie
Watch the movie
… movie link is on your desktop somewhere
slide 31
Fiber architectures (1): Point-to-point
point-to-point
1 on 1 fiber connection between Central office and Home
POP
slide 32
FTTH technology
Fiber architectures (2): PON
point-to-multipoint (PON: passive optical network)
optical splitter in the link, to send same signal to
multiple end points
POP
slide 33
FTTH technology
PON: shared medium
slide
34
Point-to-point versus PON
PON popular with telcos
USA
Japan
Australia
‘closed business/network model’
Point-to-point mostly popular in Europe
Scandinavia
Netherlands, France, etc
‘open network model’
slide 35
FTTH technology
Bidirectional data transmission popular in FTTH
Single fiber bidirectional for data
Different signal wavelengths for up vs down
1500nm downlink
1310nm uplink
Reason?
Less fiber needed in the field
fiber management is expensive
Space in the Central Office is scarce
slide 36
FTTH technology
POP fiber management
slide 37
FTTH technologie
Transport of services
3 services in the access network
Internet
Voice/telephony
Television
Various ways to realise this... e.g.
Internet: via data fiber (IP)
Voice: via data fiber (VoIP)
Television: via CATV fiber (overlay network) or via IP
slide 38
FTTH technology
Agenda
1
Introduction
2
Fiber to the Home – technology
3
Broadband networks – Network Architecture
4
Discussion!
slide 39
Agenda
Quizzz
Dual play, Triple play, Multi play
IP all the way!
But what does the end-user care?
slide 40
Broadband services
Current broadband services over FTTH networks
Internet access
Unicast IP
(Duh…)
Television
IP unicast for video-on-demand
IP multicast for broadcast television (the ‘default’
package of 50 channels)
Telephony
SIP signaling, RTP for transport
slide 41
Broadband services
Current broadband services over FTTH networks
Nice those triple play services, but how do
you get the content to the subscribers?
Smart network architecture…
slide 42
Broadband services
Network Architecture – Layered model
Access
Lots of individual connections
Focus on physical aggregation of lines
Security
Distribution
Connection towards access layer
Focus on logical aggregation of connections
Route summarization
Core
Connection towards the distribution layer
Focus on traffic volume
No identification of individual connections
slide 43
Broadband services
Network Architecture – Layered model
Service
provider 1
Service
provider 2
Core network
core
metro
access
slide
44
Discussie / Quizzz
The how and why of current broadband
networks
Protocols?
Speeds?
Possibilities?
Restrictions?
slide 45
Broadband services
Network Architecture – Ethernet as uniform transport protocol
Leased line
ATM
Frame Relay
X.25
Ethernet
PPP
Ethernet
Packet over Sonet (POS)
SONET
SDH
STM-1, 4, 16
slide 46
Broadband services
Network structure – Domain separation
Access
Distribution / Core
Core
ISP 1
NT
backbone
WWW
ISP 2
ISP 3
subscriber
domain
•
Operator
domain
PSTN/ISDN
service provider
domain
“Wholesale” model: operator delivers network facilities to different
content and service providers.
slide
47
Network Architecture – Access: connection model
How is the connection between subscriber and network
realized?
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
Ethernet Bridging “DHCP model”
IP over PPP over Ethernet
IP over Ethernet
PPP session from the modem
IP address assigment through
into the distribution layer
IP address assignment in PPP
session setup via RADIUS
‘connection oriented’
Multiple PPP sessions for QoS
DHCP
‘connection less’
QoS via Ethernet Class of
service
guarantees
slide 48
Broadband services
Network Architecture – Core: MPLS VPN
Ethernet Bridging
NT
MPLS VPN
VPN ISP
SP 11
VPN
Distributie / Core
apparatuur
VPN ISP
SP 22
backbone
ISP 1
ISP 2
ISP 3
VPN ISP
SP 33
City PoP
subscriber
domain
Operator
domain
service provider
domain
slide
49
Network Architecture – Core Network
MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching)
Support for VPNs
Traffic Engineering (used for fast reroute and ip multicast
traffic)
Ethernet transport over MPLS
IP Routing
IGP
For distributing ‘next-hop’ routing information
OSPF or IS-IS
M-BGP
For distributing IPv4 prefixes
slide 50
Broadband services
Network Architecture – MPLS primer: labels
IP packet
L1
IP packet
L2
IP packet
L3
IP packet
IP packet
•
•
•
•
•
Label Switched Router (LSR) MPLS enabled router
Forwarding based on Labels, forwarding control separated from
forwarding plane
Labels are distributed via Label Distributie Protocol (LDP)
LDP hello packets are UDP and transported via broadcast of multicast
Multiple labels (stack) per packet possible (note that MTU must be large
enough!)
slide
51
Network Architecture – MPLS primer: forwarding
Routing information exchange
Control plane inside a node
with other routers
IP routing protocols
IP routing table
Label information Base
(LIB)
MPLS IP routing control
Label binding exchange with
different routers
Data plane inside a node
Forwarding Information
Base (FIB)
Label Forwarding
information Base (LFIB)
slide
52
Complexity
Network Architecture – Increasing complexity
Triple play
Dual play
Single play
Multiplay
slide 53
Broadband services
Quizzz
What about Quality of Service?
What about Security?
slide 54
Broadband services
Network Architecture – Quality of Service
Core network
QoS only relevant if congestion can occur
Used to be irrelevant in broadband networks as bandwidth was
plenty. FTTH and Docsis3 has changed this.
QoS policy of most providers was: “upgrade capacity”.
Currently large providers are running into technological limits:
10GE is not fast enough and 100GE is not yet there!
Cost for service providers is increasing rapidly
Traffic is becoming more symmetrical
slide 55
Broadband services
Network Architecture – Quality of Service
Access networks
Multi-play services all use the same connection
Voice traffic needs to be protected
Video needs to get enough bandwidth (otherwise you’ll see
blocks)
Video and voice need protection from general internet
traffic(especially P2P and news traffic)
slide 56
Broadband services
Network Architecture – Quality of Service
QoS enforcement
QoS parameters
downstream traffic
On incoming traffic
NT
backbone
ISP 2
QoS transparent
QoS parameters upstream
traffic
•
IP QoS: precedence bits, diffserv
•
Ethernet QoS: Class of Service (priority bit in vlan header)
•
MPLS QoS: Exp. bits
slide
57
Network Architecture – Security
slide 58
Security
Network Architecture – Security
Network
Access to network elements
Access to network management systems
Protocols
“Security by obscurity”
Control plane protection
Services platform
Policy: every service is responsible for it’s own platform
Where possible network security can provide additional protection
Separate users
Spoofing filters
User isolation
Protocol filters (note that new OS like Windows Vista and 7 bring new
challenges, like IPv6 default enabled).
slide 59
Security
Network Architecture – Security Attack Vectors
ARP flood attack, plus spoofing
DHCP flood attack
MAC flood attack, plus spoofing
IGMP flood attack
IPv4 broadcast flood attacks
IPv4 unicast flood attack
TTL=1 attack
IP options attack
IPv6 MLD
… some others.
Focused on the control plane of the routers and switches in
the network. Most are denial of service attacks, but some can
be used for a ‘man-in-the-middle’ attack.
slide 60
Security
Network Architecture – Security
(DHCP) Spoofing filters
Arp filtering
Security by obscurity
(that which is not reachable is secure)
NT
backbone
ISP 2
Reverse path check
NT configuration
Security  force configuration
Private vlan’s
vlan filtering
from a central server
slide
61
Network Architecture – FTTH networks Security toolbox
DHCP snooping
Dynamic Arp Inspection
PFC based special case
VACL Layer-2 filtering:
Hardware limiters
-Allow ethertypes 0x800 and 0x806
Private VLAN
-Broadcast ARP filtering
-Multicast filtering
-Broadcast redirection
NT
Multicast route limit
Control plane policing
uRPF
STP filtering
Ethertype filtering:
Ip local proxy-arp
ARP rate-limiting
- 0x800 0x806 (IP & ARP)
PIM neighbor filtering
DHCP rate-limiting
IGMP group filtering
IGMP group limiting
UUFB
UMFB
Port-security
IPSG
Storm-control
slide
62
Quizzz
Network management?
Why does that seem to be so difficult
for most Service Providers?
slide 63
Broadband services
Network IT - Network Management tools
MRTG
NAGIOS
HP Openview
slide 64
Broadband services
Network IT - Provisioning
We like “zero touch” , “flow through”
provisioning. Service providers would like to
focus on “exception management” only…
Bullshit or …?
slide 65
Broadband services
Network IT – Provisioning
The success of network provisioning and
order management is correct and complete
information:
Orders
Connections
Automation is the key, every manual action
increases the chance of mistakes
slide 66
Broadband services
Network and IT – Systems
Exploitanten
Customer
Services
Service Providers
Beschikbaarheid
Incident
Locatie,
apparatuur &
verbindingen
Na-aansluiting
Back-office
Order systeem
Bouw
&
Field Operations
Incident
Management
Systeem
Communicatie bus
Uitbreidingen
Network
Inventory
Looking glass
Master
Provisioning System
BECS
BECS
Provisioning
Packetfront
Packetfront
FTTH Netwerk
FTTH Netwerk
Packetfront
Packetfront
FTTH Netwerk
FTTH Netwerk
Leverancier XYZ
Leverancier XYZ
FTTH Netwerk
FTTH Netwerk
slide
67
Agenda
1
Introduction
2
Fiber to the Home – technology
3
Broadband networks – Network Architecture
4
Discussion!
slide 68
Agenda
That’s all for now!
Questions?
Don’t hesitate to send us an email:
erik @ winitu.com
janmartijn @ winitu.com
slide 69
questions
Download
Related flashcards
Create Flashcards