sbi 3u review-macronutrients-solutions

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SBI 3U REVIEW-MACRONUTRIENTS SOLUTIONS
1. Define: monomer and polymer.
monomer is a single subunit that is repeated to make up a polymer
polymer is a sequence of repeated subunits (monomers), larger
2. Identify 4 macromolecules and their food sources.
carbohydrates: rice, pasta, bread, cereal
lipids: fats, oils, butter, margarine
proteins: meat, dairy, beans, legumes, nuts
nucleic acids: do not need to consume, body can make
3. Identify the building blocks of the 4 macromolecules
carbs: monosaccharides
lipids: triglycerides
proteins: amino acids
nucleic acids: nucleotides
4. Define: dehydration synthesis. Know how to draw a diagram
forming molecules as a result of dehydration synthesis.
removal of water to combine monomers into polymers
5. List the functions of carbohydrates.
energy, short-term and can be converted into complex
carbohydrates as longer-term energy, cellulose assists with
digestion
6. Give examples of monosaccharides
glucose, galactose, fructose
7. Memorize the chemical structure and formula of glucose
know C6H12O6 and it has straight chain and ring structure
8. Give examples of disaccharides
sucrose, lactose, maltose
9. Give examples of polysaccharides
starch, cellulose, chitin, glycogen
10. Compare and contrast polysaccharides in structure and function
glycogen is more branched than starch, stored in animal cells for
energy
starch is less branched and stored in chloroplasts of plant cells
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cellulose is a straight chain that has bonds our bodies cannot break
down
List the functions of lipids
insulation, long-term energy storage, cell
communication/regulation
Identify the 3 major classes of lipids
triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids
Differentiate between saturated and unsaturated fats. Give
examples.
saturated fats have single bonds and are straight chains, solid
(butter, lard)
unsaturated fats have double bonds and are bent chains, liquid
(oils)
Define: hydrogenation
addition of H to unsaturated fats to make them solid
Identify the composition of triglycerides, phospholipids
triglycerides: 1 glycerol + 3 fatty acid chains
phospholipids: 1 glycerol + 2 fatty acid chains + phosphate group
Describe the structure of phospholipids
see above, has polar end (phosphate) and non polar end (fatty acid
chains)
What is a steroid? Give examples.
used in cell communication for regulation of daily functions, ex:
hormones (testosterone, estrogen)
List the functions of proteins
structure, enzymes, energy storage, cell transport
Memorize the basic structure of an amino acid
central C bonded to: H, COOH, NH2 and R group
Define: essential amino acids, protein denaturation and
coagulation
essential amino acids are not synthesized by the body and must be
consumed
protein denaturation is when bonds in a protein permanently break,
causing its function to change
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coagulation is when denatured proteins reform their bonds (usually
into a solid state)
List the functions of nucleic acids.
form structure of DNA, RNA and ATP
Name the 2 molecules of nucleic acids
DNA, RNA
Differentiate DNA and RNA
DNA: double helix, has genetic code, stays in nucleus
RNA: single helix, copies DNA, messenger, leaves nucleus
Describe the composition of DNA and RNA.
both have nucleotides, DNA is double helix and has Thymine, RNA is
single helix and has Uracil
Define: nucleotide
monomer of nucleic acid, consists of sugar, phosphate and N base
List the 4 nitrogenous bases in DNA and RNA
DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine
RNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Uracil
Explain the relationship between monomers and polymers, using
polysaccharides as an example.
monomers make up polymers, a polysaccharide is a polymer of
monosaccharides by linking several monosaccharides together to
form the polysaccharide chain
Why can’t cellulose be used by humans as an energy source?
Explain.
has bonds that we cannot break in their chains
Why is fibre (i.e., cellulose) considered to be an important part of a
healthy diet?
aids in elimination of waste by attracting mucus and water to feces
How does the structure of an unsaturated fatty acid differ from the
structure of a saturated fatty acid? Give an example of a food that
contains each.
unsaturated fats have double bonds, making bent chain (ex oils)
saturated fats have single bonds, making straight chain (ex butter)
Explain why some fatty acids are solid at room temperature while
others are liquid.
saturated fats are straight (see above, forming solids)
unsaturated fats are bent (see above, forming liquids)
32. What property do all lipids share? How does this make them ideal
for building cell membranes?
nonpolar, phospholipids have a polar end as well, this allows
nonpolar ends to assemble to form the inner layer of the
membrane, and polar ends face out to water
33. What effect does hydrogenation have on fatty acids?
makes unsaturated fats solid
34. Lipids have a variety of functions in cells. Describe them.
long-term energy storage, insulation, cell communication, cell
membrane structure
35. Use a diagram to show how a bond is formed between two amino
acids.
water is remove from carboxyl end of one amino acid and amine
end of another to allow them to bond
36. Some features of amino acids are common while others are not.
Explain
all amino acids have central C, H, amine and carboxyl, they each
have a different R group (20 different groups)
37. Name three functions of proteins in a living organism.
structure, transport, enzymes, and cell communication/regulation
38. Which of these things is not like the others?
a) fiber (b) sugar (c) starch (d) cellulose (e) fat
fat is not like the others, the others are carbs
39. Which elements are found in proteins but in neither carbohydrates
nor lipids?
N
40. Name the basic building blocks for:
a) Protein b) Triglyceride c) carbohydrate d) Nucleic acids
protein: amino acids
triglyceride: glycerol + fatty acid chains
carbohydrate: monosaccharides
nucleic acids: nucleotides
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