BIOGAS Biogas •Biogas is a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide. •The properties of biogas are similar to the ones of natural gas. •Biogas is the common name for the mixture of gases released from anaerobic digestion. 50 to 75 % •Typically biogas is composed of: Methane (CH4) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Hydrogen (H) Nitrogen (N2) Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) 25 to 50 % 5 to 10 % 1 to 2 % Traces •Methane is the valuable part of the biogas. Biogas that contains about 60 to 70 % of CH4 has a calorific value of about 6 kWh/m3 what corresponds to about half an L of diesel oil. I) 2 Possible Benefits for Users: – Social: • Improved sanitation: reduction of pathogens, worm eggs and flies • Reduction of workload: less firewood collection, better cooking performance • Improved indoor air quality: less smoke and harmful particle emission of biogas stove compared to wood or dung fuels; – Environmental • Production of green energy • Reduction of greenhouse gas emission • Organic fertilizer production – Economical: • Better Health more work capacity • Fertilizer, better crop yields, better Health • Fuel substitution 3 History of Biogas 1808 – Sir Humphrey Davy found that methane was present in the gases that is formed by the Anaerobic Digestion of manure 1895 – Biogas is used to light up the streets in Exeter, England 1884 – Louis Pasteur student, Ulysse Gayon, performed the anaerobic fermentation of manure and water at 35ºC and obtained 100 liters of Biogas per cubic meter of Manure. 1957 – A British Inventor, Bates, modifies his car to run on Biogas produced from pig manure. 2005 – The Biogas Support program in Nepal wins the Ashden Reward for installing over 150,000 Biogas Plants in rural areas. And a Biogas powered train starts it's service in Sweden Anaerobic Digestion Degradation of organic material by bacteria. In the absence of air (anaerobic). Four stages: –Hydrolisis • Cleavage of a chemical compound through the reaction with water. • Insoluble complex molecules are bracken down to short sugars, fatty acids and amino acids. –Fermentation (Acidogenesis) • Products from hydrolysis are transformed into organic acids, alcohols, carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen (H) and ammonia (NH3). –Acetogenesis • Organic acids and alcohols are converted into hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and acetic acid (CH3COOH). Therefore, oxygen is consumed and anaerobic conditions are created –Methanogenesis • Methanogenic bacteria (methanogenesis), transform the acetic acid, carbon dioxide and hydrogen into biogas. 5 Anaerobic Digestion D. SPUHLER (2010) 6 Anaerobic Digestion 7 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION • Types of Biogas Plants – There are various types of biogas plants available in the world and they are classified mainly based on feeding method and construction. – Based on the feed method, three different forms can be distinguished: Batch plants, Continuous plants, Semi-batch plants. – Based on the construction, two main types of simple biogas plants can be distinguished: Fixed-dome plants, Floating-drum plants. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION • Types of Biogas Plants – Batch type digesters. In batch type plants, materials fed into the digester at a time and sealed only allowing the gas to exit and then emptied completely after a fixed retention time. Each design and each fermentation material is suitable for batch filling, but batch plants require high labor input. The major disadvantage of this type is unsteady gas-output. 3 1 2 1 - Digester. 2 - Gasholder. 3 - Gas pipe. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION • Types of Biogas Plants – Continuous type digesters. Once the process started, regular quantity of waste are fed and regular quantity of material discharged, continuously. They empty automatically through the overflow whenever new material is filled in. Therefore, the substrate must be fluid and homogeneous. This technology is suitable for both medium and large scale waste treatment and large scale biogas production. Advantages of this type are constant and higher gas production ANAEROBIC DIGESTION • Types of Biogas Plants – Semi-batch type digesters. If the two materials which have completely different digestion rates (such as straw and dung) are to be digested together, a biogas plant can be operated on a semibatch basis. The slowly digested straw-type material is fed in about twice a year as a batch load. The dung is added and removed regularly. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION • Types of Biogas Plants – Fixed Dome type digesters. A fixed-dome plant comprises of a closed, dome-shaped digester with an immovable, rigid gas-holder and a displacement pit. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION • Types of Biogas Plants – Fixed Dome type digesters. The gas is stored in the upper part of the digester. When gas production commences, the slurry is displaced into the displacement tank. Gas pressure increases with the volume of gas stored, i.e. with the height difference between the two slurry levels. If there is little gas in the gasholder, the gas pressure is low. The digesters of fixed-dome plants are usually masonry structures, structures of cement and ferro-cement exist. Main parameters for the choice of material are technical suitability (stability, gas- and liquid tightness), cost-effectiveness, availability in the region and transport costs and availability of local skills for working with the particular building material. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION • Types of Biogas Plants – Floating drum type digesters. Major difference between fixed dome and floating drum type plant is, a floating-drum plant consists of a floating gas-holder, or drum. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION • Types of Biogas Plants – Floating drum type digesters. This floats either directly in the fermenting slurry or in a separate water jacket. The drum in which the biogas collects has an internal and/or external guide frame that provides stability and keeps the drum upright. If biogas is produced, the drum moves up, if gas is consumed, the gasholder sinks back. Floating-drum plants are used mainly in continuous feed mode of operation. They are used most frequently by small- to middle-sized farms (digester size: 5-15m3) or in institutions and larger agro-industrial estates (digester size: 20-100m3) ANAEROBIC DIGESTION • Types of Biogas Plants – Advantages of fixed dome type. Produce just as much gas as floating-drum plants, if they are gas-tight. Low cost operation Simple design Long life of the plant (20 years or more) – Disadvantages of fixed dome type. Utilization of the gas is less effective as the gas pressure fluctuates substantially. Labor-intensive design Not easy to build. Difficult to achieve gas tightness. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION • Types of Biogas Plants – Advantages of floating drum type. Simple operation Provide gas at a constant pressure Stored gas-volume is immediately recognizable by the position of the – Disadvantages of floating drum type. The steel drum is relatively expensive and maintenanceintensive. Removing rust and painting has to be carried out regularly. The life-time of the drum is short (up to 15 years; in tropical coastal regions about five years).