SIMINAR REPORT ON ELECTRONIC PAPER BY IGBO VIVAN CHETACHI 16010711083 DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY GATEWAY POLYTECHNIC SAAPADE OGUN STATE IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT FOR THE DIPLOMA REQUIREMENT OF THE AWARD OF NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN SCIENCE LABORATORY TECHNOLOGY SUPERVISOR: MR AWOFODU Table of content • • • • • • • • • • • Introduction What is E-paper ? Construction of E-paper Working Properties Comparision of E-paper & LCD Advantages Dis-advantages Apllication Future Scope Conclusion INTRODUCTION • The first E-Paper is developed in 1974’s by Nicholas K Sheridon at Xerox’s Palo Alto Research Centre. • E-Paper is also called Electronic Paper or Electronic ink Display. • It is a display unit. • E-Paper is flexible. • E-paper have a wide viewing angle. • A digital pen is also used to create handwritten document. WHAT IS E-PAPER • E-Paper is an electronic ink display unit. It reflect light like ordinary paper. • It is capable of holding text and images. • It is flexible while using plastic materials and electronics. • It is more comfortable to read than conventional display. • A wider viewing angle. • It can read directly from sunlight without fading images. • Light weight and durable. • Low power consumption. Construction of E-PAPER • It has two different parts. ◦ Front plane. ◦ Back plane. • The front plane consist of E-ink. • The back plane consist of electronic circuits. • To form an E-ink electronic display the ink is printed onto a plastic film that is laminated to a layer of circuitry. Back plane layout Rubber stamp plastic circuitry for electronic paper GYRICON The first Gyricon E-ink developed in 1974s by “Nick Sheridon” at Xerox. It based on a thin sheet of flexible plastic containing a layer of tiny plastic beads each encapsulated in oil and it rotate freely. Each hemisphere of a bead has different colour and different electric charge. Electric field is applied the beads are rotate, create two coloured pattern. LIMITATION This method have some limitations. 1. Low brightness and resolution. 2. Lack of color. Other form of E-ink with improve propertys compared to Gyricon is Electrophorestic Electrophoretic • Electrophoretic front plane consist of millions of micro capsules. • Each approximately 100 microns in dia. • Each micro capsule is filled with a clear fluid containing positively charged white particle and black particle. • The disadvantage of this technology is it take time for the particle to move from one side to another. Electro wetting It is used to display coloured images. How electronic ink works • Basically, this form of e-paper is created by sandwiching millions of tiny plastic wells between two sheets of flexible plastic. • Each well contains both white and black particles, suspended within a clear fluid. • The key to this technology is that the white and black particles have opposite charges, so when an electric voltage is applied to individual wells through circuitry embedded underneath – the black and white particles can be separated to opposite sides. • In this way, the face-up side of each well can be set to appear either as black or white as seen through the top layer of clear plastic. • Each well functions as a separate pixel on the E ink display.. • The disadvantage of this technology is it take time for the particle to move from one side to another. • Drawing a new text or image is too slow and create a flicker. Properties • Ultra-thin and flexible energy cell. • Eliminates the cost of the battery, weight and volume of the battery holder. • Can be made into almost any shape. • Can be integrated on almost any surface. Low cost and simple to produce, using printing process. • Environmentally friendly, non-caustic, no possibility of explosion, burns, or overheating. COMPARISON BETWEEN E-PAPER & LCD ADVANTAGES • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Paper-like Readability. Ultra-Low Power Consumption. Clarity. Reduced Eyestrain. Mobile Display Solution. Hypertext. Multimedia Information. Include Graphics. Inexpensive. DISADVANTAGES Very low switching speed Electrochemical complexity Slow response to change Too slow for video Problems in extremes temperatures,humidity APPLICATION • • • • Electronic Book. Electronic Newspaper. Mobile display. Computer monitor. FUTURE OF E-PAPER • The E-Paper is a Flexible display. • It is easy to use. • E-Paper can communicate Satellite or other computers easily. Detach Printer Hand Wand CONCLUSION • Researches found that in just few years this technology can replace paper in many situations, leading us to think of a truly paperless world.