Islamic republic of Afghanistan Ministry of higher education Kabul polytechnic university Hydraulic department Safety in Construction Projects Summited to: Professor M Nasim Nasimi Summited by: Siddiqullah Salari, M Numan Mowahid Date: 15/12/2018 Learning outcome • Understand the different types of existing hazards on site • Comprehend the diferent types of accident measurement approach • Reflect on the Swedish construction accident records • Appreciate the importance for improving health & safety in construction • Undertake the techniques of improving health & safety in construction • Understand the existing legislative framework • Understand an accident analysis if required. Definitions • Safety is free from risk and danger. • Accidents is defined as an unexpected and desirable event resulting in damage or harm. • Hazards is an unsafe condition or activity, that if left uncontrolled can contribute to an accident. • Risk is the assessment of ’probability of loss’ and ’potential amount of loss’. (concise Oxford Dictionary) Common situation on a construction site • Construction work is dynamic, diverse, and constantly changing in nature. • Constantly changing job site environments and conditions • Multiple contractors and subcontractors • High turnover; unskilled laborers • Constantly changing relationships with other work groups • Diversity of work activities occurring simultaneously • Construction workers are at risk of exposure to various hazards and risks that can result in injury, illness, permanent disability, or even death. Types of hazards • Chemical • Physical • Biological • Ergonomic Chemical Hazards Chemicals can exist in the form of • dusts, fumes, fibers (solids) • liquids, mists • gases, vapors • asbestos Examples of chemical hazards found in construction work: • lead • silica • cadmium • carbon monoxide • • • • • welding fumes spray paints cutting oil mists xylene vapor solvents Physical Hazards Physical hazards are different types of energy which may be hazardous to workers. • Noise • Vibration • Temperature extremes • Radiation Biological Hazards Exposure may occur during demolition, renovation, sewer work, work on air handling systems, or other construction work from contact with contaminated or disease-carrying • • • • • • soil water insects (mosquitoes, ticks) bird, bat droppings animals structures Ergonomic Hazards Ergonomic hazards can cause painful and disabling injuries till example Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) . This following situation may cause these injuries: • heavy, frequent, or awkward lifting • repetitive tasks • awkward grips, postures • using excessive force, overexertion • using wrong tools for the job or using tools improperly • using improperly maintained tools • hand-intensive work Types of accident measurements • • • • • • • Death Fatal injury (broken leg, hips, amputation) Non-fatal injury (finger cut) Occupational accidents (MSD, hearing loss) Absence from work ( >1 day, > 3 days etc) Near misses Rate per 100 000 – number of injuries or causes of ill health per 100 000 employees. • Working days lost – days off work due to workplace injuries & work-related ill health Other health hazards • Living conditions and welfare facilities – Temporary accomodation – Food – Drinking water – Sanitary conveniences – Facility for clothing • Work related mental stresses – Alcoholism and drug addiction Personal protective clothing and eqiupment (PPE) • • • • • • • • • Eye protection Respiratory protection Ear protection Face protection Head protection Hand protection Foot protection Body protection Fall protection Construction accident record for 2005 (Samuelson & Lundholm, 2006) 18 16 Occupational fatality 14 number 12 Occupational fatality /1000 person 10 8 Occupational health fatality 6 4 Occupational health fatality/1000 person 2 0 95 96 97 98 99 0 years 1 2 3 4 5 Causes of construction accidents 2005 Other injuries 2% Body injury due to physical lifting 17% Body injury not due to physical lifting 5% Leackage, flood 1% Fire explosion 2% Landslide, fall,breaking of material 14% Lost control of machine 5% Lost control of vehicle 6% Fall of person not from height 11% Fall from height 11% Other form of loss of control 1% Loss control of tools 15% Loss control of material handling 10% Samuelson & Lundholm, 2006 Existing health & safety legislations in practice ISO EU Sweden UK ISO BS8800 Framework Directive Council Directive 89/391/EEC The Work The Health and Environment Safety at Work Act Act 1974 (1997:1160) The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994 Malaysia The Health and Safety at Work Act 1994 Reasons and benefits to improve health and safety in construction • Responsibility; • Economic reasons; • Impact of safety on overall performance; • Contractor’s performance; • Control of accident causes. Responsibility • Safety is everyone’s responsibility. • It is a moral and legal obligation of employers to provide a safe working place and of employees to work safely. • Employer’s duty of care to employees as covering the following areas: – safe system of work; – a safe place of work; – plant and machinery that is safe to use; – competent supervision and/or suitable training; and – care in the selection of fellow employees. Costs of accidents – direct costs and indirect costs Direct costs The direct costs are insurance. These include medical costs and others workers’ compensation insurance benefits as well as liability and property-damage insurance. Indirect costs Below are the lists of indirect costs: Transportation costs – include the cost of emergency transportation, together with the cost of other personnel that were necessary to get to the injured worker to proper medical facilities Wages paid to injured worker for time not worked – include all the time in which the worker was not actually doing his or her job and for the wages paid. Cost incurred because of delays which resulted from accident – other crews affected or delayed; equipment idled; duration of project lengthened; plus all wages, rental fees and indirect supervision costs that occurred as a result of the accident. Costs of overtime necessitated by accidents – overtime occurred because of the accidents Loss of efficiency of crew – decrease of crew efficiency due to low morale or reshuffling that might occur to replace an injured worker. Cost to break in and/or teach replacement worker – hiring new worker would include training and orientation Costs for clean-up, repair or replacement and stand-by costs – normally accidents involves spillage, cave-ins vehicle damage, material wastage or site clean-up Costs for safety and clerical personnel as a result of the accident – typing, investigating, forwarding forms, time with press, etc. OSHA and civil fines – paying fines. Cost of legal assistance – engaging a lawyer to settle the accident claims. Other costs – any other cost that were incurred because of the accidents. The average ratio of indirect costs to direct costs is 4:1. Impact of overall performance • • • • • Time Budget Accident statistics Absentism Low morale Contractor’s performance • Studies have proved that there is an adverse effect on a contractor’s reputation and unfavourable image for the client when the project suffers high accident rates. How to improve health and safety on construction sites? • Reactive measures – Accident recording & reporting – Accident investigations • Proactive measures – – – – – H & s safety policy H & s safety programme/plan H & s safety induction/training Tool-box talk Others Example of an accident analysis Accident: The unsafe act: The unsafe condition: The correction: Questions: – – – – – – Falling off a stepladder Climbing a defective ladder A defective ladder Replace the ladder Why was the defective ladder not found during normal inspection? Why did the supervisor allow its use? Didn’t the injured employee know it should not be used? Was the employee properly trained? Was the employee reminded not to use the ladder? Did the supervisor examine the job first? Improvements: – – – – An improved inspection procedure Improved training A better definition of responsibilities Pre-job planning by supervisors References • • • • • • Grifitth A & Howarth T. 2000. Construction health & safety management. Pearson Education Limited. Samuelson B & Lundholm L. 2006. Arbetsskador I byggverksamhet 2005. Byggindustrins Kunju Ahmad. 2000. Developing a safety performance measurement tool (SPMT) for construction sites. Loughborough University thesis. UK. Heberle D. 1998. Construction safety manual. McGraw Hill. USA. Davies V.J. Tomasin K. 1990. Construction safety handbook. Thomas Telford, London. Brown. 1996. Total integration of safety professional into project management. Proceedings. of the 1st International Conference of CIB, Libson, W99. pp 137144.