AP Summer Packet 2016

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AP CHEMISTRY 2016-2017
SUMMER STUDY PACKET
You will be given an exam the second day of school which will cover all of the summer
topics that you are responsible for. The exam will include both multiple choice as well as
free response questions. Included in this packet are concepts you must know by the end of
summer. You are responsible for knowing, understanding, memorizing, etc… all of this
information by the second day of school. The work portion of the packet will be collected
on the second day of school right before the exam.
1. The Elements
Know the name (including proper spelling) and symbol of the elements.
2. Significant Figures (sig figs)
Counting Number:
Exact
Examples:
3 books, 1 doz, 75 pennies
Measured Number:
Inexact, last number is uncertain
Examples:
25.326 g, 17.51 qt, 0.891 km
Significant figure rules:
1. Significant figures.
a. non-zero numbers
b. captured (middle zeroes
c. trailing (ending) zeroes with a decimal point
2. Not significant zeroes
a. leading (starting) zeroes b. trailing (ending) zeroes without a decimal point
3. Diatomic Elements Br2 I2 N2 Cl2 H2 O2 F2
4. Polyatomic Ions: Know name, symbol, and charge of each polyatomic ion
5. Weak Electrolytes do not form ions in solutions, only strong electrolytes do
The weak electrolytes: Insoluble ionic salts, weak acids, weak bases
Solubility Rules: ***YOU MUST MEMORIZE THESE OVER SUMMER!!!!!!!!*** You should know not only the
rules but how to determine the state of matter of any molecule/compound when dissolved in water!
1. Group I, ammonium, and nitrate salts are all soluble
Strong Acids: HCl, HBr, HI, HIO4, H2SO4, HNO3, HClO4, HClO3
Weak Acids: All the rest
Strong Bases: IA hydroxides Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2
Weak Bases: All other hydroxides, ammonia, and amines (RNH2, R2NH, and R3N where R is any hydrocarbon group)
Why are they bases?
NH3
+ H2O NH4+ + OHRNH2 + H2O  RNH3+ + OHCH3NH2 + H2O  CH3NH3+ + OH6. Oxidation States or Numbers
According to the Periodic Table (for monatomic ions)
1A/Ag
2A/2B 3A/3B 4A
5A
+1
+2
+3
+4,-4
Rules
1. Free elements are always zero.
2. Fluorine is always –1.
6A
7A
-3
8A
-2
-1
0
3. Monatomic ions equals the charge.
4. Oxygen is usually –2 except in the following.
a. Combined only with F oxygen is +2.
b. In peroxides oxygen is –1 ( IA M2O2, IIA MO2 )
c. In superoxides ( IA MO2 ) it is –1/2.
5. Hydrogen is usually +1 but is –1 when combined with only metals.
6. The sum of the oxidation numbers of a group of atoms is equal to the charge on that
group of ions.
7. Dimensional Analysis (Unit Analysis)
Examples:
Given 2.70 g/ml Al and 50.0 ml Al calculate the mass of Al.
=
2.70gAl x 50.0mlAl = 135gAl
ml Al
Given 1.28 g of oxygen calculate the mass of water formed.
2H2 +O2  H2O
=
1.28g O2 x 1mol O2 x 2mol H2O x 18.0g H2O = 1.44gH2O
1 mol O2
32 g O2 1 mol O2
1 mol H2O
8. Density (mass divided by volume) **know how to find density, or how to find mass, moles, or volume when given
Solids and liquids: g/ml or g/cm
3
the density!
Gases: g/L
Water has a density of 1.00 g/mL
9. SI: System of Measurement
Know the units for each of the following quantities
Mass
volume
length
temperature
quantity of matter
electromotive force
Know the metric prefixes and abbreviations for
1000000
1000
100
0.001
0.000001
10
heat
0.1
pressure
0.01
0.01
10. Ernest Rutherford, JJ Thomson, James Chadwick, Albert Einstein (photoelectric effect):
Be able to explain the discovery of subatomic particles and the atomic nucleus.
11. Isotopes
Be able to identify isotopes, determine the number of electrons, protons, and neutrons in an isotope. Be able to
calculate the average atomic mass given isotopic data.
Example:
Isotope
% Abundance Isotopic Mass
Br-79
50.54%
78.9183 amu
Br-81
49.46%
80.9163 amu
Ave At. Mass = 0.5054 x 78.9183 + 0.4946 x 80.163 = 79.91 amu
12. The Mole (The SI Unit for quantity of matter)
1 mol = g*AM or g*MM
1 mol = 6.022 x 1023 particles
1 mol of any gas at STP = 22.4 L
Particles are atoms, molecules or ions
13. The Periodic Table
Know the Periodic Table forwards, backwards, up side up, and up side down
Terms
Groups
Representative elements
Alkaline earth metals
Noble Gases
Transuranic elements
Metalloids
Families
Transition elements
Chalcogens
Lanthanides
Rare Earth Elements
Semi-metals
Periods
Alkali metals
Halogens
Actinides
Metals
Nonmetals
Periodic Trends
Atomic or Covalent Radii
Electronegativity
Ionization energy
Metallicity
Electron Affinity
Nonmetallicity
14. Inorganic Nomenclature:
Be able to name the following:
Single charge monatomic cation
Monatomic anion
Multiple charge binary compound
Single charge polyatomic compound
Binary acid
Organic Nomenclature:
15. Hydrated Compounds
The “ * “ means attached waters
Example:
CuSO4 * 5 H20
Organic Nomenclature:
Multiple charge monatomic cation
Single charge binary compound
Nonmetal-nonmetal binary compound
Multiple charge polyatomic compound
Polyatomic ion acid
copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate
Name
methane
ethane
propane
Formula
CH4
C2H6
C3H8
butane
pentane
hexane
heptane
octane
nonane
decane
….ene
…yne
C4H10
C5H12
C6H14
C7H16
C8H18
C9H20
C10H22
CnH2n
CnH2n-2
16. Chemical Equations
Given a complete word equation be able to write the balanced chemical equation. KNOW HOW TO WRITE NET
IONIC EQUATIONS!
Example: nitrogen gas plus hydrogen gas yields ammonia gas.
N2 +3H2  2NH3
17. Calculate percent yield and percent error
% error
= I valueacc - valueexpI
valueacc
x 100%
18. Stoichiometry
Be able to do Stoichiometry, including gas stoichiometry.
Example: Given 1.28 g of oxygen calculate the mass of water formed.
2H2 + O2  H2O
? gH2O =
1.28g O2 x 1mol O2 x 2mol H2O x 18.0g H2O = 1.44gH2O
1 mol O2
32 g O2
1 mol O2
1 mol H2O
? g oxygen atoms formed = 1.28g O2 x 1mol O2 x 2mol H2O x 1mol 0
x 16.0g O = 1.27g O
1 mol O2
32 g O2
1 mol O2
1moleH2O
1 molO
You will be required to do extensive stoichiometry during the course of the year. Be sure to complete the
“Stoichiometry” unit on NMSI.
19. Calculating Empirical and Molecular Formulas know how to calculate both when given masses, moles, or
percentages of constituent atoms.
AP CHEMISTRY- WORK PORTION (To be turned in)
Name: ____________________________
Here are your summer assignments for the 2016-2017 school year. Staple the notes in chapter order behind this packet. (Note:
All chapter notes should be detailed; this means more than just writing definitions to bold words. You are responsible for all of
the information in Chapters 1, 2, and 3. Notes should be organized with all subheadings labeled and underlined)





Chapter 1 Notes
Chapter 2 Notes
Chapter 3 Notes
Work portion of packet #1-20
4 packets printed/filled out from NMSI Website
INSTRUCTIONS: This portion will be due on the second day of school right before the exam for summer material. This
packet is an INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT and should not be completed collaboratively with other students. All work
should be your own. Show all work necessary. Answers without work will not receive credit. LATE WORK IS NOT
ACCEPTED UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES! (This includes if you signed up for the class late.) The work packet
(including chapter notes) is still due the second day of class and you are still responsible for knowing,
understanding, memorizing all information included in this summer study packet and will still be required to take
the exam). This is “all or nothing”; packets must be 100% complete or the score is an automatic “zero”.
1. Write the measurement of each of the nails with the correct amount of sig figs; be sure to include units.
Ruler A: _____________ Ruler B: _____________ Grad. Cylinder:_____________ Buret: _____________
2. Label each of the following as either a physical process (P) or a chemical process (C).
___a. corrosion of aluminum
metal.
___b. Melting of ice.
___c. Pulverizing an aspirin.
___d. Digesting a candy bar.
___g. Burning of paper.
___e. Explosion of nitroglycerin.
___h. Forming of frost on a cold
night.
___f. Milk turning sour.
3. An extensive property is one that depends on the amount of the sample. Which of the following Properties are
extensive? (circle your choice(s))
a. volume
b. density
c. temperature
d. energy
e. melting point.
4. Give the number of sig figs in each of the following numbers
a. 123 ___
d. 10,000 ___
g. 23,000. ___
b. 0.078 ___
e. 1,000,000,000.0 ___
h. 34,000 ___
c. 89007 ___
f. 0.009 ___
i. 1.0 x 10-8 ___
5. Do the following calculations giving the answer in the appropriate number of sig figs.
a. 1.23 + 75
f. 2340 - 100
d. 234/0.298
b. 1.89 - .20
g. 12.45 x 3
e. 0.887 + 0.3
c. 45.6 x 8.2
h. 25,600/ 3.0
6. Do the following calculations giving the answer in the appropriate number of sig figs
a. 45.0 x 9.0 + 89.22 / 75
c. 0.8897 x 2.15 + 0.002 / 0.1
b. (2.88 + 0.5) x (23,000 - 0.11)
d. (8 + 9) / (34.0 ––20.)
7. Write the formula for the following salts, acids, or bases and identify them as soluble or insoluble salts and weak
or strong acids or bases. *NOTE: You are expected to memorize the chemical formulas/charges of polyatomic ions.
a. silver chloride ___________
g. hydrobromic acid _________
m. acetic acid _________
b. ammonia ___________
h. sodium nitrate _________
n. methyl amine _________
c. potassium sulfide _________
i. mercury(I) chloride ________
o. aluminum sulfate _________
d. lithium hydroxide _________
j. diethyl amine _________
p. iron(II) phosphate ________
e. perchloric acid _________
k. hydrofluoric acid _________
q. nitric acid _________
f. sodium hydroxide_________
l. barium sulfate _________
r. magnesium sulfate
heptahydrate ______________
8. Determine the oxidation state of each element in each of the following
a. P4
P=__
f. MgH2
Mg=__ H=__
8+
b. Os
Os=__
i. H2O
H=__ O=__
c. OF2
O=__ F=__
j. Cl2
Cl=__
d. CH3OH C=__ H=__ O=__
k. N3N=__
e. H2O2
H=__ O=__
l. CaO2
Ca=__ O=__
m. HClO
H=__ Cl=__ O=__
n. Na2O2 Na=__ O=__
o. AlH3
Al=__ H=__
p. H2S
H=__ S=__
9. Do the following density conversions.
Densities: (g/ml) Fe 7.87
Au 19.3
a. A rock has a mass of 45.9 g and a volume of 12.0 ml. Determine its density.
P 1.82
Ti 4.54
b. Calculate the mass of 45.0 ml of iron.
c. Calculate the volume 250. g of gold.
d. A rectangular piece of metal has dimensions 6.0 cm, 7.0 cm and 8.0 cm. Its mass is 900.0 g. Calculate the
metals density.
10. Describe the experimental basis for each of the following. Include the names of the scientist(s) and the
experiment(s) they did.
a) …believing that the nucleus occupies a very small fraction of the volume of the atom.
b)…believing that protons are positively charged
c)…believing that electrons are negatively charged
d)…believing the nucleus contains neutrons
11. Given the data below determine the average atomic mass.
Isotope
% Abundance Isotopic Mass
a. Sb-121
57.25%
120.9038 amu
Sb-123
42.75%
122.0041 amu
b. Ag-107
Ag-109
51.82%
48.18%
106.90509 amu
108.9047 amu
12. Write the complete balanced equation for the following.
a. magnesium + oxygen ----> magnesium oxide
b. iron + sulfur ----> iron(III) sulfide
c. sulfur dioxide + water ----> sulfurous acid
d. dinitrogen pentoxide + water ----> nitric acid
e. potassium oxide + water ----> potassium hydroxide
f. ammonia + phosphoric acid ----> ammonium phosphate
g. sodium chloride ----> sodium + chlorine
h. strontium bromide ----> strontium + bromine
i. copper(II) bromate ----> copper(II) bromide + oxygen
j. sulfuric acid ----> sulfur trioxide plus water
k. ethanol (C2H5OH) + oxygen ----> carbon dioxide + water
13. In an experiment, a student gently heated a hydrated copper compound to remove the water of hydration. The
following data were recorded:
1. Mass of crucible, cover, and contents before heating 23.54 g.
2. mass of empty crucible and cover 18.82 g.
3. mass of crucible, cover, and contents after heating to constant mass 20.94 g.
Calculate the experimental percent of water in the compound.
14. Nitrogen has two isotopes, N-14 and N-15, with atomic masses of 14.00031 amu and 15.001 amu, respectively.
What is the percent abundance of N-15?
15. What is an activity series of metal? How does it help us in studying properties of elements?
16. When benzene (C6H6) reacts with bromine (Br2) bromobenzene (C6H5Br) is obtained:
C6H6 + Br2 --------> C6H5Br + HBr
a. What is the theoretical yield of bromobenzene in this reaction when 30.0g of benzene
reacts with 65.0 g of bromine?
b. If the actual yield of bromobenzene was 56.7 g what was the percentage yield?
17. A drum use to transport crude oil has a volume of 162 L. How many water molecules, as steam, are required to
fill the drum at 1.00 atm and 100oC? What volume of liquid water (density of water is 1.0 g/cm3) is required to
produce that amount of steam?
18. 4NH3(g) + 7O2(g)  4NO2(g) + 6H2O(l) According to the above reaction, what volume of NO2(g) is produced
from the combustion of 100 g of NH3(g), assuming the reaction takes place at standard temperature and pressure?
a) Solve using dimensional analysis
b) Solve using ideal gas law
19. How many liters of hydrogen gas can be collected at 250. K and 85.0 kPa if 20.0 g of zinc metal react with 182
grams of hydrochloric acid according the following equation: Zn(s) + 2Hcl(aq)  ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)
20. A 2.25 g sample of scandium metal is reacted with excess hydrochloric acid to produce 0.1502 g hydrogen gas.
What is the formula of the scandium chloride produced in the reaction?
Go to the following website:
Password: _____________________
https://apchemistrynmsi.wikispaces.com/AP+Chemistry+Class+Lecture+Notes+AND+instructional+videos
Watch each companion video and write down EVERYTHING that the instructor writes down. If she underlines
something, you should also.
Print out the following packets (4 total):
(1) 01 Chemical Foundations.pdf
(2) 02 Atoms Molecules Ions.pdf
(3) 03 Stoichiometry with answers.pdf
(4) STOICHIOMETRY WORKSHEET.pdf
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