AP CHEMISTRY 2016-2017 SUMMER STUDY PACKET You will be given an exam the second day of school which will cover all of the summer topics that you are responsible for. The exam will include both multiple choice as well as free response questions. Included in this packet are concepts you must know by the end of summer. You are responsible for knowing, understanding, memorizing, etc… all of this information by the second day of school. The work portion of the packet will be collected on the second day of school right before the exam. 1. The Elements Know the name (including proper spelling) and symbol of the elements. 2. Significant Figures (sig figs) Counting Number: Exact Examples: 3 books, 1 doz, 75 pennies Measured Number: Inexact, last number is uncertain Examples: 25.326 g, 17.51 qt, 0.891 km Significant figure rules: 1. Significant figures. a. non-zero numbers b. captured (middle zeroes c. trailing (ending) zeroes with a decimal point 2. Not significant zeroes a. leading (starting) zeroes b. trailing (ending) zeroes without a decimal point 3. Diatomic Elements Br2 I2 N2 Cl2 H2 O2 F2 4. Polyatomic Ions: Know name, symbol, and charge of each polyatomic ion 5. Weak Electrolytes do not form ions in solutions, only strong electrolytes do The weak electrolytes: Insoluble ionic salts, weak acids, weak bases Solubility Rules: ***YOU MUST MEMORIZE THESE OVER SUMMER!!!!!!!!*** You should know not only the rules but how to determine the state of matter of any molecule/compound when dissolved in water! 1. Group I, ammonium, and nitrate salts are all soluble Strong Acids: HCl, HBr, HI, HIO4, H2SO4, HNO3, HClO4, HClO3 Weak Acids: All the rest Strong Bases: IA hydroxides Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2 Weak Bases: All other hydroxides, ammonia, and amines (RNH2, R2NH, and R3N where R is any hydrocarbon group) Why are they bases? NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OHRNH2 + H2O RNH3+ + OHCH3NH2 + H2O CH3NH3+ + OH6. Oxidation States or Numbers According to the Periodic Table (for monatomic ions) 1A/Ag 2A/2B 3A/3B 4A 5A +1 +2 +3 +4,-4 Rules 1. Free elements are always zero. 2. Fluorine is always –1. 6A 7A -3 8A -2 -1 0 3. Monatomic ions equals the charge. 4. Oxygen is usually –2 except in the following. a. Combined only with F oxygen is +2. b. In peroxides oxygen is –1 ( IA M2O2, IIA MO2 ) c. In superoxides ( IA MO2 ) it is –1/2. 5. Hydrogen is usually +1 but is –1 when combined with only metals. 6. The sum of the oxidation numbers of a group of atoms is equal to the charge on that group of ions. 7. Dimensional Analysis (Unit Analysis) Examples: Given 2.70 g/ml Al and 50.0 ml Al calculate the mass of Al. = 2.70gAl x 50.0mlAl = 135gAl ml Al Given 1.28 g of oxygen calculate the mass of water formed. 2H2 +O2 H2O = 1.28g O2 x 1mol O2 x 2mol H2O x 18.0g H2O = 1.44gH2O 1 mol O2 32 g O2 1 mol O2 1 mol H2O 8. Density (mass divided by volume) **know how to find density, or how to find mass, moles, or volume when given Solids and liquids: g/ml or g/cm 3 the density! Gases: g/L Water has a density of 1.00 g/mL 9. SI: System of Measurement Know the units for each of the following quantities Mass volume length temperature quantity of matter electromotive force Know the metric prefixes and abbreviations for 1000000 1000 100 0.001 0.000001 10 heat 0.1 pressure 0.01 0.01 10. Ernest Rutherford, JJ Thomson, James Chadwick, Albert Einstein (photoelectric effect): Be able to explain the discovery of subatomic particles and the atomic nucleus. 11. Isotopes Be able to identify isotopes, determine the number of electrons, protons, and neutrons in an isotope. Be able to calculate the average atomic mass given isotopic data. Example: Isotope % Abundance Isotopic Mass Br-79 50.54% 78.9183 amu Br-81 49.46% 80.9163 amu Ave At. Mass = 0.5054 x 78.9183 + 0.4946 x 80.163 = 79.91 amu 12. The Mole (The SI Unit for quantity of matter) 1 mol = g*AM or g*MM 1 mol = 6.022 x 1023 particles 1 mol of any gas at STP = 22.4 L Particles are atoms, molecules or ions 13. The Periodic Table Know the Periodic Table forwards, backwards, up side up, and up side down Terms Groups Representative elements Alkaline earth metals Noble Gases Transuranic elements Metalloids Families Transition elements Chalcogens Lanthanides Rare Earth Elements Semi-metals Periods Alkali metals Halogens Actinides Metals Nonmetals Periodic Trends Atomic or Covalent Radii Electronegativity Ionization energy Metallicity Electron Affinity Nonmetallicity 14. Inorganic Nomenclature: Be able to name the following: Single charge monatomic cation Monatomic anion Multiple charge binary compound Single charge polyatomic compound Binary acid Organic Nomenclature: 15. Hydrated Compounds The “ * “ means attached waters Example: CuSO4 * 5 H20 Organic Nomenclature: Multiple charge monatomic cation Single charge binary compound Nonmetal-nonmetal binary compound Multiple charge polyatomic compound Polyatomic ion acid copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate Name methane ethane propane Formula CH4 C2H6 C3H8 butane pentane hexane heptane octane nonane decane ….ene …yne C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22 CnH2n CnH2n-2 16. Chemical Equations Given a complete word equation be able to write the balanced chemical equation. KNOW HOW TO WRITE NET IONIC EQUATIONS! Example: nitrogen gas plus hydrogen gas yields ammonia gas. N2 +3H2 2NH3 17. Calculate percent yield and percent error % error = I valueacc - valueexpI valueacc x 100% 18. Stoichiometry Be able to do Stoichiometry, including gas stoichiometry. Example: Given 1.28 g of oxygen calculate the mass of water formed. 2H2 + O2 H2O ? gH2O = 1.28g O2 x 1mol O2 x 2mol H2O x 18.0g H2O = 1.44gH2O 1 mol O2 32 g O2 1 mol O2 1 mol H2O ? g oxygen atoms formed = 1.28g O2 x 1mol O2 x 2mol H2O x 1mol 0 x 16.0g O = 1.27g O 1 mol O2 32 g O2 1 mol O2 1moleH2O 1 molO You will be required to do extensive stoichiometry during the course of the year. Be sure to complete the “Stoichiometry” unit on NMSI. 19. Calculating Empirical and Molecular Formulas know how to calculate both when given masses, moles, or percentages of constituent atoms. AP CHEMISTRY- WORK PORTION (To be turned in) Name: ____________________________ Here are your summer assignments for the 2016-2017 school year. Staple the notes in chapter order behind this packet. (Note: All chapter notes should be detailed; this means more than just writing definitions to bold words. You are responsible for all of the information in Chapters 1, 2, and 3. Notes should be organized with all subheadings labeled and underlined) Chapter 1 Notes Chapter 2 Notes Chapter 3 Notes Work portion of packet #1-20 4 packets printed/filled out from NMSI Website INSTRUCTIONS: This portion will be due on the second day of school right before the exam for summer material. This packet is an INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT and should not be completed collaboratively with other students. All work should be your own. Show all work necessary. Answers without work will not receive credit. LATE WORK IS NOT ACCEPTED UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES! (This includes if you signed up for the class late.) The work packet (including chapter notes) is still due the second day of class and you are still responsible for knowing, understanding, memorizing all information included in this summer study packet and will still be required to take the exam). This is “all or nothing”; packets must be 100% complete or the score is an automatic “zero”. 1. Write the measurement of each of the nails with the correct amount of sig figs; be sure to include units. Ruler A: _____________ Ruler B: _____________ Grad. Cylinder:_____________ Buret: _____________ 2. Label each of the following as either a physical process (P) or a chemical process (C). ___a. corrosion of aluminum metal. ___b. Melting of ice. ___c. Pulverizing an aspirin. ___d. Digesting a candy bar. ___g. Burning of paper. ___e. Explosion of nitroglycerin. ___h. Forming of frost on a cold night. ___f. Milk turning sour. 3. An extensive property is one that depends on the amount of the sample. Which of the following Properties are extensive? (circle your choice(s)) a. volume b. density c. temperature d. energy e. melting point. 4. Give the number of sig figs in each of the following numbers a. 123 ___ d. 10,000 ___ g. 23,000. ___ b. 0.078 ___ e. 1,000,000,000.0 ___ h. 34,000 ___ c. 89007 ___ f. 0.009 ___ i. 1.0 x 10-8 ___ 5. Do the following calculations giving the answer in the appropriate number of sig figs. a. 1.23 + 75 f. 2340 - 100 d. 234/0.298 b. 1.89 - .20 g. 12.45 x 3 e. 0.887 + 0.3 c. 45.6 x 8.2 h. 25,600/ 3.0 6. Do the following calculations giving the answer in the appropriate number of sig figs a. 45.0 x 9.0 + 89.22 / 75 c. 0.8897 x 2.15 + 0.002 / 0.1 b. (2.88 + 0.5) x (23,000 - 0.11) d. (8 + 9) / (34.0 ––20.) 7. Write the formula for the following salts, acids, or bases and identify them as soluble or insoluble salts and weak or strong acids or bases. *NOTE: You are expected to memorize the chemical formulas/charges of polyatomic ions. a. silver chloride ___________ g. hydrobromic acid _________ m. acetic acid _________ b. ammonia ___________ h. sodium nitrate _________ n. methyl amine _________ c. potassium sulfide _________ i. mercury(I) chloride ________ o. aluminum sulfate _________ d. lithium hydroxide _________ j. diethyl amine _________ p. iron(II) phosphate ________ e. perchloric acid _________ k. hydrofluoric acid _________ q. nitric acid _________ f. sodium hydroxide_________ l. barium sulfate _________ r. magnesium sulfate heptahydrate ______________ 8. Determine the oxidation state of each element in each of the following a. P4 P=__ f. MgH2 Mg=__ H=__ 8+ b. Os Os=__ i. H2O H=__ O=__ c. OF2 O=__ F=__ j. Cl2 Cl=__ d. CH3OH C=__ H=__ O=__ k. N3N=__ e. H2O2 H=__ O=__ l. CaO2 Ca=__ O=__ m. HClO H=__ Cl=__ O=__ n. Na2O2 Na=__ O=__ o. AlH3 Al=__ H=__ p. H2S H=__ S=__ 9. Do the following density conversions. Densities: (g/ml) Fe 7.87 Au 19.3 a. A rock has a mass of 45.9 g and a volume of 12.0 ml. Determine its density. P 1.82 Ti 4.54 b. Calculate the mass of 45.0 ml of iron. c. Calculate the volume 250. g of gold. d. A rectangular piece of metal has dimensions 6.0 cm, 7.0 cm and 8.0 cm. Its mass is 900.0 g. Calculate the metals density. 10. Describe the experimental basis for each of the following. Include the names of the scientist(s) and the experiment(s) they did. a) …believing that the nucleus occupies a very small fraction of the volume of the atom. b)…believing that protons are positively charged c)…believing that electrons are negatively charged d)…believing the nucleus contains neutrons 11. Given the data below determine the average atomic mass. Isotope % Abundance Isotopic Mass a. Sb-121 57.25% 120.9038 amu Sb-123 42.75% 122.0041 amu b. Ag-107 Ag-109 51.82% 48.18% 106.90509 amu 108.9047 amu 12. Write the complete balanced equation for the following. a. magnesium + oxygen ----> magnesium oxide b. iron + sulfur ----> iron(III) sulfide c. sulfur dioxide + water ----> sulfurous acid d. dinitrogen pentoxide + water ----> nitric acid e. potassium oxide + water ----> potassium hydroxide f. ammonia + phosphoric acid ----> ammonium phosphate g. sodium chloride ----> sodium + chlorine h. strontium bromide ----> strontium + bromine i. copper(II) bromate ----> copper(II) bromide + oxygen j. sulfuric acid ----> sulfur trioxide plus water k. ethanol (C2H5OH) + oxygen ----> carbon dioxide + water 13. In an experiment, a student gently heated a hydrated copper compound to remove the water of hydration. The following data were recorded: 1. Mass of crucible, cover, and contents before heating 23.54 g. 2. mass of empty crucible and cover 18.82 g. 3. mass of crucible, cover, and contents after heating to constant mass 20.94 g. Calculate the experimental percent of water in the compound. 14. Nitrogen has two isotopes, N-14 and N-15, with atomic masses of 14.00031 amu and 15.001 amu, respectively. What is the percent abundance of N-15? 15. What is an activity series of metal? How does it help us in studying properties of elements? 16. When benzene (C6H6) reacts with bromine (Br2) bromobenzene (C6H5Br) is obtained: C6H6 + Br2 --------> C6H5Br + HBr a. What is the theoretical yield of bromobenzene in this reaction when 30.0g of benzene reacts with 65.0 g of bromine? b. If the actual yield of bromobenzene was 56.7 g what was the percentage yield? 17. A drum use to transport crude oil has a volume of 162 L. How many water molecules, as steam, are required to fill the drum at 1.00 atm and 100oC? What volume of liquid water (density of water is 1.0 g/cm3) is required to produce that amount of steam? 18. 4NH3(g) + 7O2(g) 4NO2(g) + 6H2O(l) According to the above reaction, what volume of NO2(g) is produced from the combustion of 100 g of NH3(g), assuming the reaction takes place at standard temperature and pressure? a) Solve using dimensional analysis b) Solve using ideal gas law 19. How many liters of hydrogen gas can be collected at 250. K and 85.0 kPa if 20.0 g of zinc metal react with 182 grams of hydrochloric acid according the following equation: Zn(s) + 2Hcl(aq) ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g) 20. A 2.25 g sample of scandium metal is reacted with excess hydrochloric acid to produce 0.1502 g hydrogen gas. What is the formula of the scandium chloride produced in the reaction? Go to the following website: Password: _____________________ https://apchemistrynmsi.wikispaces.com/AP+Chemistry+Class+Lecture+Notes+AND+instructional+videos Watch each companion video and write down EVERYTHING that the instructor writes down. If she underlines something, you should also. Print out the following packets (4 total): (1) 01 Chemical Foundations.pdf (2) 02 Atoms Molecules Ions.pdf (3) 03 Stoichiometry with answers.pdf (4) STOICHIOMETRY WORKSHEET.pdf These are the packets to print. The next section you scroll to looks like this. This is where you find the companion videos.