Chapter-03

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1. The substance that fills the cell from plasma membrane to the nuclear membrane is
called the ____________.
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2. A long, whiplike projection from the cell used in locomotion is a(n) ______________.
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4
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3. Small hairlike projections from the cell are called ___________.
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4. The organelle that contains digestive enzymes is the ____________.
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5. The large organelle that is the control center of the cell is the ___________.
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6. In the pairing of bases in DNA, adenine pairs with __________.
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12
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7. The substance that makes up the genes is ________________.
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8. In the pairing of bases in RNA, adenine pairs with ___________.
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9. The type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome is __________.
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10. The process of synthesizing proteins based on an mRNA template is called
____________.
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11. The period between one cell division and the next is called ________.
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12. The process by which specialized cells engulf large particles is _____________.
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13. The diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane is ______________.
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14. Passage of a solution through a membrane under mechanical force is called
___________.
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15. A solution that has a lower concentration than the fluid within the cell is termed
___________.
16. A cell placed in a _______________ solution will swell.
17. The percentage salt in a normal saline solution is _____________.
18. A change in the genetic material of a cell is called a(n) ______________.
19. A personal characteristic or lifestyle habit that increases one's chances of getting cancer
is called a(n) ______________.
20. A prefix meaning same is ________.
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21. The metric unit used for microscopic measurement is the
A) me
ter
B) mi
cro
me
ter
C) ce
nti
me
ter
D) kil
om
ete
r
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22. The microscope with the highest magnification is the
A) sca
nni
ng
ele
ctr
on
mi
cro
sco
pe
B) tra
ns
mi
ssi
on
ele
ctr
on
mi
cro
sco
pe
C) co
mp
ou
nd
lig
ht
mi
cro
sco
pe
D) si
mp
le
lig
ht
mi
cro
sco
pe
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23. The plasma membrane is best described as
A) sol
id
B) per
me
abl
e
C) sel
ect
ive
ly
per
me
abl
e
D) hy
pot
oni
c
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24. The major lipids in the plasma membrane are
A) pro
tei
ns
an
d
ph
os
ph
oli
pid
s
B) car
bo
hy
dra
tes
an
d
pro
tei
ns
C) ph
os
ph
oli
pid
s
an
d
ch
ole
ste
rol
D) cal
ciu
m
sal
ts
an
d
ph
os
ph
oli
pid
31
s
25. Which of the following membrane proteins changes shape to move substances across
the plasma membrane?
A) ch
an
nel
B) rec
ept
or
C) en
zy
me
D) tra
ns
por
ter
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26. Which of the following membrane proteins attaches cells to other cells?
A) ch
an
nel
B) lin
ker
C) cel
l
ide
ntit
y
ma
rke
r
D) tra
ns
por
ter
32
27. The small body in the nucleus that assembles ribosomes is called the
A) nu
cle
olu
s
B) mit
oc
ho
ndr
ion
C) ce
ntr
iol
e
D) en
do
pla
sm
ic
reti
cul
um
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28. An organelle that produces energy for the cell is called a(n)
A) rib
os
om
e
B) mit
oc
ho
ndr
ion
C) Go
lgi
ap
par
atu
s
D) nu
cle
olu
s
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29. Small bodies involved in the manufacture of proteins are
A) rib
os
om
es
B) nu
cle
oli
C) mit
oc
ho
ndr
ia
D) ce
ntr
iol
es
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30. If a cell lacked centrioles, it would not be able to
A) sy
nth
esi
ze
pro
tei
ns
B) sy
nth
esi
ze
R
N
A
C) div
ide
D) sec
ret
e
pro
tei
ns
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31. A particular cell type specializes in breaking down harmful by-products of metabolism.
This cell type would contain very high levels of
A) lys
os
om
es
B) en
do
pla
sm
ic
reti
cul
um
C) ce
ntr
iol
es
D) per
oxi
so
me
s
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32. Two cells vary in the amount of energy they require. One cell, a muscle cell, must
generate large supplies of ATP. The other cell, a skin cell, requires very little ATP. Based
solely on information provided in this question, these two cells would differ in the
abundance of
A) mit
oc
ho
ndr
ia
B) lys
os
om
es
C) ves
icl
es
D) Go
lgi
ap
par
atu
s
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33. A nucleotide contains a nitrogen base, a sugar unit, and a
A) ph
os
ph
ate
uni
t
B) gly
cer
ol
C) fatt
y
aci
d
D) pro
tei
n
uni
t
36
34. The RNA found in ribosomes is called
A) rR
N
A
B) m
R
N
A
C) tR
N
A
D) sR
N
A
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35. Ribosomes participate in the process of
A) D
N
A
sy
nth
esi
s
B) tra
nsc
rip
tio
n
C) tra
nsl
ati
on
D) mu
tati
on
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36. Transcription is the synthesis of
A) R
N
A
B) pro
tei
n
C) lipi
ds
D) car
bo
hy
dra
tes
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37. The correct order of the stages in mitosis is
A) an
ap
has
e,
tel
op
has
e,
me
tap
has
e,
pro
ph
ase
B) pro
ph
ase
,
me
tap
has
e,
an
ap
has
e,
tel
op
has
e
C) pro
ph
ase
,
an
ap
has
e,
tel
op
has
e,
me
tap
39
has
e
D) tel
op
has
e,
an
ap
has
e,
pro
ph
ase
,
me
tap
has
e
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38. The phase of mitosis when the chromosomes pull apart is
A) int
erp
has
e
B) tel
op
has
e
C) an
ap
has
e
D) me
tap
has
e
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39. The phase of mitosis during which the chromosomes condense is
A) an
ap
has
e
B) pro
ph
ase
C) me
tap
has
e
D) int
erp
has
e
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40. Droplets of fluid are taken in by the cell using the process of
A) dif
fus
ion
B) pin
oc
yto
sis
C) ex
oc
yto
sis
D) act
ive
tra
ns
por
t
41
41. What effect does diffusion usually have on the concentration gradient?
A) inc
rea
se
B) de
cre
ase
C) no
ch
an
ge
D) No
ne
of
the
ans
we
rs
are
cor
rec
t.
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42. Which of the following processes requires ATP?
A) os
mo
sis
B) dif
fus
ion
C) act
ive
tra
ns
por
t
D) fac
ilit
ate
d
dif
fus
ion
42
43. Which of the following processes moves a substance that can freely pass through the
plasma membrane?
A) si
mp
le
dif
fus
ion
B) fac
ilit
ate
d
dif
fus
ion
C) act
ive
tra
ns
por
t
D) ph
ag
oc
yto
sis
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44. Cells shrink when they are placed in solutions that are
A) iso
ton
ic
B) hy
per
ton
ic
C) hy
pot
oni
c
D) os
mo
tic
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45. Which of the following cell populations would be considered a cancer?
A) a
cel
l
po
pul
ati
on
tha
t
rep
rod
uc
es
ex
ces
siv
ely
but
do
es
not
mi
gra
te
B) a
cel
l
po
pul
ati
on
tha
t
rep
rod
uc
es
ex
ces
siv
ely
an
d
mi
gra
44
Page
tes
C) an
y
cel
l
po
pul
ati
on
tha
t
div
ide
s
in
an
ad
ult
D) All
of
the
ans
we
rs
are
cor
rec
t.
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46. Which of the following is a risk factor for cancer?
A) eat
ing
a
hig
h
fat
die
t
B) fre
qu
ent
ex
erc
ise
C) eat
ing
fru
its
an
d
ve
get
abl
es
D) we
ari
ng
su
nsc
ree
n
46
47. The prefix pino– means
A) to
eat
B) to
dri
nk
C) ver
y
sm
all
D) wit
hin
48. Based on your knowledge of word parts, what is the most likely definition of the word
endosome?
A) a
bo
dy
wit
ho
ut
B) a
col
ore
d
bo
dy
C) a
bo
dy
wit
hin
D) a
sm
all
bo
dy
49. Name and briefly explain four different functions of membrane proteins.
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50. List two functions of carbohydrates in the plasma membrane.
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51. List two organelles involved in the process of translation, and briefly explain their
contributions.
52. Many proteins are secreted from the cell following the process of translation. List two
organelles involved in protein secretion, and briefly explain their contributions.
53. Compare and contrast simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion. List one similarity and
one difference.
54. Your lab partner is an exchange student from Pluto. You are investigating cell transport
methods, so you decide to use one of your partner's cells. Surprisingly, you notice that
her cell contains some of the same substances as our cells. You quantify the
concentration of these substances, and determine that the cell contains 5% glucose and
0.3% potassium. The cell is placed in a solution containing 20% glucose and 0.1%
potassium. The plasma membrane of this cell is is similar to ours. It is permeable to
potassium but not to glucose. That is, only potassium can cross the plasma membrane
without using transporters. Use this information to answer the following questions
a.
Will potassium move into the cell or out of the cell? Which transport mechanism will be
involved?
b.
Carrier proteins are present in the membrane that can transport glucose. If glucose
moves down its concentration gradient, will glucose move into the cell or out of the
cell? Which transport mechanism will be involved?
c.
You place the cell in a new solution to study the process of osmosis. You know that
sodium does not move across the alien cell membrane. You also know that the
concentration of the intracellular fluid is equivalent to 5% sodium. The new solution
contains 1% sodium. Is the 1% sodium solution hypertonic, isotonic, or hypotonic?
d.
Will water flow into the cell or out of the cell?
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e.
What will be the effect of the water movement on the cell?
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Answer Key
Page
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
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cytoplasm
flagellum
cilia or microvilli
lysosome
nucleus
thymine
DNA
uracil
tRNA
translation
interphase
phagocytosis
osmosis
filtration
hypotonic
hypotonic
0 .9%
mutation
risk factor
iso–
B
B
C
C
D
B
A
B
A
C
D
A
A
A
C
A
B
C
B
B
B
C
A
B
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
B
A
B
C
Any four of the following. Channels permit the passage of specific substances (usually
ions) through the plasma membrane. Transporters shuttle substances across the
membrane by facilitated diffusion or active transport. Receptors are sites of attachment
for chemicals. Enzymes participate in chemical reactions. Linkers attach cells to other
cells and provide stability to the membrane. Cell identity markers identify one's own
cells to prevent the immune system from attacking them.
cell-to-cell attachment, cell recognition
The nucleolus assembles the ribosomes that are necessary for translation. The ribosomes
assemble the amino acids into a protein chain. The rough endoplasmic reticulum serves
as a site of attachment for the ribosomes.
The rough endoplasmic reticulum modifies the proteins. The Golgi apparatus is
involved in sorting, modifying, and packaging proteins. Vesicles transport the proteins
to the plasma membrane and release them from the cell.
Both simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion move a substance down its concentration
gradient. Facilitated diffusion uses transporters, simple diffusion does not. Facilitated
diffusion moves substances at a faster rate than simple diffusion.
a.
Potassium will move out of the cell by simple diffusion.
b.
Glucose will move into the cell by facilitated diffusion.
c.
he solution is hypotonic.
d.
Water will flow into the cell.
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e.
The cell will expand and probably lyse.
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