BELL RINGER • Discuss with a partner: • What was life like for women and slaves in the various European colonies? SOCIETY AND CULTURE IN PROVINCIAL AMERICA CHAPTER 3 THE COLONIAL POPULATION • By the late 1600s Europeans and Africans dominated the population on the eastern coast • Most Europeans who migrated here were of modest means • Many who came here were indentured servants • What jobs did men do? Women? • Others came here by force • Prisoners—either criminals or those captured in battles • Africans who would become slaves • Indentured servitude decreased in the late 1600s, especially in the South • Low birth rates and more wealth in England meant fewer were willing to come here and those who were worked in the North THE COLONIAL POPULATION • By the end of the 1600s there were 250K non-Natives • ¼ of them were Africans • New England’s population drastically expanded due to natural increase • People were also living longer • This was not the case for the South • 1:4 children died in infancy • Life expectancy was ~40 years old • Widows, widowers, and orphans made up a majority of the population • The population finally began to increase as people became immune to diseases (seasoning) and more women showed up THE COLONIAL POPULATION • Medicine in the colonies was virtually nonexistent • No understanding of communicable disease, infection or sterilization • Most “medicine” consisted of having the patient purge their system • This also included “bleeding” them which meant taking out “bad” blood—usually resulted in death • Medicine finally improved as the Enlightenment brought about better science WOMEN AND FAMILIES IN THE CHESAPEAKE COLONIES • The average age of a bride in the colonies could be anywhere from 16-21 • It was not uncommon for indentured servants to become pregnant before the end of their contract • When this happened they lost the child after weaning, was lashed, charged fines, or had their contracts extended • The child was taken as an indentured servant • If the child’s father was able to buy the woman’s freedom it was likely she was married immediately • Women were likely to have kids every two years • Had average of 8 children, unlikely she’d live to see them mature WOMEN AND FAMILIES IN THE CHESAPEAKE COLONIES • Women generally were scarce allowing them to be choosy when picking a husband • No father or brothers to tell them how to run their lives • They also outlived the man in many cases leaving them to run the family and the household • Usually remarried quickly • Second marriages usually resulted in complex families • Lots of children meaning step-brothers, half-sisters, etc. • Women had to be the peacemakers between the two families • Think “The Brady Bunch” only larger • As families grew more stable there was a rise in the patriarchal system WOMEN AND FAMILIES IN NEW ENGLAND • Since life was more stable in New England women did not have the ability to be choosy when picking a husband • They were still married young and produced a lot of children • Families were more likely to remain in tact (no Greg and Marsha situations) • Much more likely that parents could see grandchildren • “Arranged” marriages were common as were dowries • Fewer pregnancies before marriage • In Puritan homes, the women were expected to be completely subservient to the needs of the husband and household THE BEGINNINGS OF SLAVERY IN BRITISH AMERICA • Demand for African labor increased drastically as indentured servants decreased • African chieftains would capture enemies and sell them to slave marts on the coast of Africa • Europeans when sail to the ports and purchase slaves to take to the New World • The slaves would then be taken through the “middle passage” (journey to America) • Some were treated well but most were crammed onto the ships with the assumption that a percentage would die before their arrival to America WITCH TRIALS DOCUMENT DAY • Read p. 77-84 “The Colonial Economies” • Summarize the section, making sure to talk about the Triangular Trade, technology, and Consumerism and their impact on the colonies • Make sure you use this information when discussing your colony and the colony you’ve used for comparison in your project ASSIGNMENT • Colonial Flyer Assignment BELL RINGER: WHAT DOES THIS REPRESENT? EXPLAIN THE CONDITIONS THESE PEOPLE ENDURED. THE BEGINNINGS OF SLAVERY IN BRITISH AMERICA • Life on the ships were harsh • • • • They could hardly move Given little food or water Women were sexually abused Dead were simply thrown overboard • Arrival in America wasn’t much better • They were thrown onto auction blocks like cattle • They were patched together to cover scars, damages from travels SLAVE AUCTIONS THE BEGINNINGS OF SLAVERY IN BRITISH AMERICA • Most Africans who ended up in America came from the West Indies—not Africa • The Caribbean used slave labor much more the America did (at first) • By 1700 that was changing rapidly • The South would have 250K by 1760; the North had 16K; the Middle Colonies were at 29K • Why were there such drastic differences between the regions? • Through the 1600s many Africans were treated similar to indentured servants, some were freed after a period of time and some were even given land • The weirdest part—some even owned slaves themselves THE BEGINNINGS OF SLAVERY IN BRITISH AMERICA • In the 1700s attitudes changed towards Africans • There was not contract requiring them to be set free • White assumptions of superiority began arising • This related to the idea that white people were superior to the Natives and therefore it was only natural that they were superior to Africans too (egotistical much?) • Any African ancestry was enough to enforce slave codes upon a person • • • • Slaves could not assemble without a white person present Could not own property Couldn’t testify against a white person Wasn’t allowed to learn how to read (exception for the Bible) CHANGING SOURCES OF EUROPEAN IMMIGRATION • The British stopped moving to America during the 1600s—so who was moving here? • The German, Swiss, Irish, Welsh, Scottish, Scandinavian, and French • The French Huguenots (Calvinists) moved to escape the Catholics who were forcing them out of France • They established Fort Caroline (near St. Augustine) but the Spanish defeated them too • Germans moved mostly to PA and NC • Scots-Irish moved to NJ and PA BECOMING AFRICAN AMERICAN • “Country-born” slaves were called “creoles” • Africans built the South through the labor • Using their native experience, slaves worked as field hands • Labor became specialized in the 18th c. • They were provided clothing (not great for winter), often very colorful—shoes were not • Food was sufficient enough for rapid reproduction • Some worked beside their owners, others worked in large groups BECOMING AFRICAN AMERICAN • Despite slave codes, slaves often lived on plantation in nuclear families • If on small farm, they would marry someone down the road and visit in evenings and on Sundays with permission • Marriage usually occurred after the woman got pregnant • Naming often combined Anglo and African cultures and tied usually to kin • Children were taught to call all adults “auntie” or “uncle” and all age mates “brother” or “sister” BECOMING AFRICAN AMERICAN • Most African Americans were not introduced to Christianity until the Great Awakening (1760) • Death and burial was one of their most important traditions • They would place shells of pottery on the gravesite • While burying the person, they would perform the ring shout BECOMING AFRICAN AMERICAN • Slaves easily mastered music as a form of bonding • They recreated African instruments such as the banjo and European instruments such as the violin and guitar • Drums were outlawed so they “pat juba” (slap thighs) • The most important cultural development was language • They spoke Gullah or Geeche (some spoke this until the 20th c.) BECOMING AFRICAN AMERICAN • Africans became Americanized, but Southerners became Africanized • They often used the same conjures as slaves to cure illness • Food such as BBQ, black-eyed peas (ewww), fried chicken, greens, hot spices, and LA Cajun was adopted by the Southerners • Architecture, decoration, and weaving practices were commonly shared • Slaves were used as wetnurses and therefore the children often picked up on African words like goober, yam, banjo, okay, and tote BECOMING AFRICAN AMERICAN • Violence was omnipresent amongst the slave colonies • Usually punishment came in form of extra work solitary confinement, or humiliation • Lashes, stabbing, burning, maiming, mutilating, raping, or castrating came as other forms of punishment • Slaves would often “resist” work by taking too long, hurting equipment or animals, or “accidently” breaking stuff BECOMING AFRICAN AMERICAN • Running away was also a common option • More common for males in their 20s • They would runaway to FL which would become known as a maroon colony (runaways were called maroons) • The runaways and the Creek Indians of FL came together to form the Seminoles • Runaways in the Northern colonies were much less common • Revolt was the most direct form of resistance BELL RINGER • Using the following prompt write a one sentence thesis that addresses ALL PARTS of the prompt DIRECTLY • Compare the ways in which religion shaped the development of colonial society in TWO of the following regions: New England Chesapeake Middle Atlantic • Be prepared to read out loud if called upon PURITANS • Puritans were not so pure • Sex in marriage was celebrated • “Snuggling” was allowed before marriage, as long as the lower half of the body was bundled in an apron • Women were subordinate to men • They could not make contracts, own property, hold office, or vote • Women averaged 8 children in their lifetimes • There was suspicion about those who did not have children or widows who were financially independent PURITANS • There were occasional suspicions of witchcraft, most of which were quickly dismissed • • • • In Salem, a series of accusations led to the conviction and execution of over 20 men and women before the governor stopped the inquisition Outlet of social tension toward outsiders Most of the accused were widows who lived alone on the rich side of town The trials exposed the Puritan views about the proper place of women in society PURITANS • The Puritan leaders did not allow religious dissention • Thomas Hooker left Massachusetts and founded the city of Hartford after a disagreement over the authority of Puritan leaders • Roger Williams, a Salem clergyman who supported religious tolerance, separation of church and state, and fair acquisition of Indian lands, was banished. • Williams purchased Narragansett land and founded the town of Providence • Anne Hutchison was banished from the community after openly criticizing religious leaders and claiming to have received a revelation from God • She and her followers moved to Williams’ colony and established their own community ENLIGHTENMENT • The Universe was governed by natural laws • Locke said the government existed to provide happiness and security for individuals; people had inalienable rights to life, liberty and property • Enlightenment writers emphasized rationality, harmony, and order • Very different from the folk views of unexplainable acts of God, and the inevitability of human failure and disorder • Universities such as Harvard (1636), William and Mary (1693), and Yale (1701) were modeled after Oxford and Cambridge in England • They were to train ministers originally, but evolved into including programs like mathematics and philosophy ENLIGHTENMENT • Literacy rates among adults were among the best in the world, especially in New England • 85% males, 50% females • The Bible was the best seller, followed by Sovereignty and Goodness of God, a captivity narrative (type of novel, unique to America, about being taken hostage by natives) • The almanac was another popular read • Benjamin Franklin’s Poor Richard’s Almanac was the first to bring the ideas of Enlightenment to the common man • “The culture of minds by the finer arts and sciences was necessarily postponed to times of more wealth and leisure. …these times are come.” DECLINE IN RELIGIOUS DEVOTION • When Puritanism became an established church in the late 1600s they believed that all townspeople should be members • The Half-Way Covenant allowed for members’ children to be “half-way” members, restricted only from communion • The issue of church and state would also weaken commitment of church members • Calvinism will be challenged (predestination) • God allowed for salvation through good works and faith (Arminianism) • People were rational beings able to shape their own destiny, God was loving rather than punishing • These “liberal” ideas appealed to some, unnerved many THE GREAT AWAKENING • A renewal in religious fervor • Led by Rev. John Edwards who sought to bring the youth (discontent about being poor and unable to marry due to money issues) back to the church • He lead “fire and passion” sermons that had people exclaiming “What shall I do to be saved—Oh, I am going to Hell!—Oh what shall I do for Christ?” • Revivals soon broke out throughout New England • People abandoned “cold” ministers for impassioned ones, even Ben Franklin was impressed by Rev. George Whitefield’s oratory THE GREAT AWAKENING • Historians view this “Great Awakening” of religious interest as part two of the Protestant Reformation • The condemned the laxity, decadence, of the church; called for purity and piety • People feeling social and financial pressure found comfort in this calling • William Tennent and his son, Gilbert, were two influential leaders • Started “Log College” which became College of New Jersey (later Princeton University) • He traveled with Whitefield and preached “The Dangers of an Unconverted Ministry” • Splits over old vs. new separated entire churches HOMEWORK • “Geography was the primary factor in shaping the development of the British colonies in North America.” Assess the validity of this statement for the 1600s. • You will be allowed to take this essay home. Please remember that when we start timed essays you will only have 35 minutes to write this. I recommend that you keep a timer while you are writing and make a note on the paper where you were at at the 35 minute mark.