AP Psychology - Unit Six Practice Test WITH ANSWERS (1)

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AP Psychology
Unit Six - Learning
Name: _____________________________ Period: _____
1. Watching the night sky for shooting stars is likely to be reinforced on a ________
schedule.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
fixed-interval
fixed-ratio
variable-interval
variable-ratio
partial-delayed
2. The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
involves
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
latent learning.
extrinsic motivation.
partial reinforcement.
delayed reinforcers.
classical conditioning.
3. Because Saleem was spanked on several occasions for biting electric cords, he no longer
does so. Saleem's behavior change best illustrates the value of
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
negative reinforcement.
classical conditioning.
conditioned reinforcers.
operant conditioning.
observational learning.
4. Some of Pavlov's dogs learned to salivate to the sound of one particular tone and not to
other tones. This illustrates the process of
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
shaping.
latent learning.
secondary reinforcement.
discrimination.
extinction.
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5. Mirror neurons provide a biological basis for
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
the law of effect.
spontaneous recovery.
observational learning.
extrinsic motivation.
insight learning.
6. Any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response is called
a(n)
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
conditioned stimulus.
unconditioned stimulus.
positive reinforcer.
negative reinforcer.
positive punishment.
7. Researchers condition a flatworm to contract its body to a light by repeatedly pairing the
light with electric shock. The stage in which the flatworm's contraction response to light
is established and gradually strengthened is called
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
shaping.
acquisition.
generalization.
spontaneous recovery.
latent learning.
8. Luana edits manuscripts for a publisher and is paid $25 for every three pages she edits.
Luana is reinforced on a ________ schedule.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
fixed-interval
fixed-ratio
variable-interval
variable-ratio
partial-interval
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9. Innately satisfying stimuli that fulfill biological needs are called ________ reinforcers.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
fixed
primary
positive
continuous
unconditioned
10. Ivan Pavlov's experiments
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
illustrated how the law of effect can be applied to conditioning.
revealed how biological predispositions affect learning.
showed that cognition is important to learning.
demonstrated how learning can be studied objectively.
exhibited the central principles of operant conditioning.
11. Children learn to fear spiders more easily than they learn to fear flowers. This best
illustrates the impact of ________ on learning.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
spontaneous recovery
conditioned reinforcers
shaping
cognitive processes
biological predispositions
12. Alexis is addicted to drugs. The room in which she usually takes them is likely to
become a(n) ________ for drug cravings.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
primary reinforcer
operant chamber
US
CS
CR
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13. In Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, infants develop a fear of books after books are
repeatedly presented with a loud noise. In this fictional example, the loud noise is a(n)
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
unconditioned stimulus.
unconditioned response.
conditioned stimulus.
conditioned response.
preconditioned stimulus.
14. Christian and Maggie are concerned with teaching their children to act prosocially.
Social learning psychologists would advise them to
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
read self-help books to their children.
begin prosocial modeling after the children turn 8 years old.
make sure their own actions and words are consistent.
keep their children isolated from antisocial models.
avoid reinforcing their children for tasks they already enjoy doing.
15. According to the text, learning involves
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
the ability to think abstractly.
a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience.
the development of prosocial behavior.
a reduction in extrinsic motivation.
acquiring knowledge that can be recalled explicitly or implicitly.
16. A fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only
after a(n)
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
unpredictable time period has elapsed.
specified time period has elapsed.
specified number of responses has been made.
unpredictable number of responses has been made.
the desired behavior is performed a set number of times.
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17. Which of the following is true of negative reinforcement and punishment?
A) Negative reinforcers increase the rate of operant responding; punishments decrease
the rate of operant responding.
B) Negative reinforcers decrease the rate of operant responding; punishments increase
the rate of operant responding.
C) Negative reinforcers decrease the rate of operant responding; punishments decrease
the rate of operant responding.
D) Negative reinforcers have no effect on the rate of operant responding; punishments
decrease the rate of operant responding.
E) Negative reinforcers decrease the rate of operant responding; punishments have no
effect on the rate of operant responding.
18. The researcher most closely associated with the study of classical conditioning is
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
Edward Thorndike.
Edward Deci.
B. F. Skinner.
Albert Bandura.
Ivan Pavlov.
19. A variable-ratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only
after
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
a specified time period has elapsed.
an unpredictable time period has elapsed.
a specified number of responses have been made.
an unpredictable number of responses have been made.
the desired behavior is performed during a predetermined time interval.
20. Dogs strapped into a harness and given repeated and unavoidable shocks
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
experienced extinction.
underwent spontaneous recovery.
developed learned helplessness.
experienced a discriminative stimulus.
developed a conditioned reinforcer.
Page 5
21. Toddlers taught to fear moving cars may also begin to fear moving trucks and
motorcycles. This best illustrates
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
generalization.
secondary reinforcement.
shaping.
intermittent reinforcement.
spontaneous recovery.
22. In a series of experiments, men found women more attractive and sexually desirable
when their photos were framed in
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
black.
yellow.
violet.
red.
white.
23. In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the US was
A) a tone.
B) salivation to the sound of a tone.
C) the presentation of food in the dog's mouth.
D) salivation to the food in the mouth.
E) not used in the conditioning trials.
24. For the most rapid acquisition of a CR, the CS should be presented
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
shortly after the CR.
shortly after the US.
shortly before the US.
at the same time as the US.
shortly before the CR.
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25. Dan and Joel, both 4-year-olds, have been watching reruns of “Superman” on television.
Joel's mother recently found the boys standing on the garage roof, ready to try flying.
What best accounts for the boys' behavior?
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
shaping
delayed reinforcement
observational learning
immediate reinforcement
classical conditioning
26. In his classic study, Albert Bandura found that children exposed to an adult model who
behaved aggressively by beating up a Bobo doll
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
imitated the adult’s actions.
acted aggressively in the presence of other children.
behaved aggressively in the presence of their parents.
did not demonstrate prosocial behavior even when such behavior was modeled
later.
displayed little interest in the experimental situation.
27. Which of the following is true of positive and negative reinforcers?
A) Positive reinforcers decrease the rate of operant responding; negative reinforcers
increase the rate of operant responding.
B) Positive reinforcers increase the rate of operant responding; negative reinforcers
decrease the rate of operant responding.
C) Positive reinforcers increase the rate of operant responding; negative reinforcers
increase the rate of operant responding.
D) Positive reinforcers have no effect on the rate of operant responding; negative
reinforcers decrease the rate of operant responding.
E) Positive reinforcers increase the rate of operant responding; negative reinforcers
have no effect on the rate of operant responding.
28. Revoking the driver's license of a reckless driver is intended to serve as a
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
negative reinforcement.
positive reinforcement.
negative punishment.
positive punishment.
punishing reinforcer.
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29. Nikki has learned to expect the sound of thunder whenever she sees a flash of lightning.
This suggests that associative learning involves
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
negative reinforcement.
cognitive processes.
spontaneous recovery.
shaping.
continuous reinforcement.
30. Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as ________ is to ________.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer
primary reinforcer; secondary reinforcer
immediate reinforcer; delayed reinforcer
reinforcement; punishment
partial reinforcement; continuous reinforcement
31. The desire to engage in an activity for the sake of its own enjoyment involves
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
secondary reinforcers.
spontaneous recovery.
intrinsic motivation.
latent learning.
unconditioned stimuli.
32. Which of the following provides evidence that a CR is not completely eliminated during
extinction?
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
latent learning
partial reinforcement
spontaneous recovery
generalization
discrimination
33. The most crucial ingredient in all learning is
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
shaping.
modeling.
experience.
intrinsic motivation.
maturation.
Page 8
34. An event that increases the frequency of the behavior that it follows is a(n)
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
conditioned stimulus.
unconditioned stimulus.
reinforcer.
operant behavior.
discrimination.
35. By learning to associate a squirt of water with an electric shock, sea snails demonstrate
the process of
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
habituation.
spontaneous recovery.
classical conditioning.
observational learning.
operant conditioning.
36. In classical conditioning, the ________ signals the impending occurrence of the
________.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
US; CS
UR; CR
CS; US
CR; UR
US; CR
37. In which form of learning is behavior said to be influenced by its consequences?
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
observational learning
classical conditioning
operant conditioning
latent learning
insight
Page 9
38. The way slot machines reward gamblers with money best illustrates
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
spontaneous recovery.
partial reinforcement.
generalization.
shaping.
continuous reinforcement.
39. A fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only
after a(n)
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
specified time period has elapsed.
unpredictable time period has elapsed.
specified number of responses have been made.
unpredictable number of responses have been made.
specific number of rewards and punishments are applied.
40. The last time you came home after your curfew, your parents grounded you for the next
two weekends. Ever since then you have been careful to come home on time. The
change in your behavior is best explained by
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
classical conditioning.
observational learning.
habituation.
operant conditioning.
latent learning.
41. A dog's salivation at the sight of a food dish is a(n)
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
conditioned stimulus.
unconditioned stimulus.
unconditioned response.
conditioned response.
neutral stimulus.
Page 10
42. In classical conditioning, the
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
neutral stimulus is presented before the unconditioned stimulus.
unconditioned stimulus elicits the conditioned response.
neutral stimulus elicits salivation.
unconditioned stimulus is the same as the conditioned stimulus.
unconditioned response produces the conditioned response.
43. By directly experiencing a thunderstorm, we learn that a flash of lightning signals an
impending crash of thunder. This best illustrates
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
operant conditioning.
the law of effect.
observational learning.
classical conditioning.
generalization.
44. Shaping is a(n) ________ procedure.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
latent learning
operant conditioning
classical conditioning
observational learning
cognitive mapping
45. Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
UR; CR
CS; UR
US; UR
CS; US
NS; NR
Page 11
46. If the sound of an electric can opener causes a child to salivate because it has previously
been associated with the presentation of food, the child's salivation to the sound of the
can opener is a(n)
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
conditioned response.
unconditioned response.
conditioned stimulus.
unconditioned stimulus.
preconditioned stimulus.
47. The reappearance, after a time lapse, of an extinguished CR is called
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
generalization.
spontaneous recovery.
secondary reinforcement.
latent learning.
shaping.
48. The best evidence that animals develop cognitive maps comes from studies of
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
shaping.
generalization.
latent learning.
secondary reinforcement.
spontaneous recovery.
49. Which of the following is an unconditioned response?
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
playing jump rope
running through a maze to get a food reward
sweating in hot weather
clapping after a thrilling concert performance
getting money as a reward
50. The psychologist most closely associated with the study of operant conditioning was
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
B. F. Skinner.
Ivan Pavlov.
John B. Watson.
Albert Bandura.
John Garcia.
Page 12
Answer Key
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
C
B
D
D
C
D
B
B
B
D
E
D
A
C
B
B
A
E
D
C
A
D
C
C
C
A
C
C
B
A
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
B
C
D
D
A
D
B
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45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
D
A
B
C
C
A
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