Review for Final Exam Notes: The final exam will cover all of the material since the last exam. The exam will also cover important information from the first exam, so it is a good idea to go over notes from earlier in the quarter. The exam will include mainly multiple choice questions, a few fill in the-blank, and maybe a diagram or two. Topics Geologic Time Know the difference between relative and absolute dating What is the stratigraphic record? Know the stratigraphic rules and laws we discussed: o Superposition o Original Horizontality o Inclusions o Cross-cutting relations o Lateral continuity o Unconformities There are 3 types! o Faunal succession How do we use fossils in stratigraphy? What is an index fossil? Understand how radiometric dating works and know the basic concepts (halflife, parent + daughter isotopes) Given a basic sample analysis of a rock, be able to calculate the age of the rock using the above method (just like was shown in the class lecture notes) What are the problems with radiometric dating? What is the geologic time scale? Know how it is structured (eon, era, etc.) Geologic Structures Know the types of deformation (ductile, brittle, elastic) and the forces involved (compression, shear, extension) Know the structures that result from different combinations of the above Understand the various components of folds and faults Know the 2 types of folds (anticline, syncline) and 3 types of faults (normal, reverse, strike-slip) Be able to recognize different types of folds and faults in a diagram Be able to recognize if a fold is upright or plunging on a map Domes and basins = circular structures resulting from ductile deformation Understand what strike and dip is and what it tells us Earthquakes and Tsunamis What is an earthquake? What’s the difference between focus and epicenter? What are the different types of waves involved in an earthquake? How do we measure and record earthquakes? What are the different scales used in quantifying earthquakes (Richter, Mercalli, Moment Magnitude) and how do they differ? Where are most earthquakes occurring on Earth? What is a tsunami? How does a tsunami form? (what generates tsunamis?) Weathering and Mass Wasting Know the two types of weathering: physical and chemical, and how they work. What is soil? What are the components of soil Why is soil important to society? How is physical weathering different from chemical weathering? How do we classify mass wasting events? Know how these mass wasting events are different: Slump, Creep, Rockslide, Rockfall, Debris flow, Earth flow, Mud flow, and Lahar Terms to know o Angle of repose o Turbulent/Laminar flow o Subsidence Water Know the four largest reservoirs of water on the earth (oceans, etc.) Understand the hydrologic cycle, its components and how it works What is a drainage basin? What is a drainage divide? What are the important factors in stream flow that determine velocity? Know these terms and be able to use them: floodplain, oxbow, channel, meander What is a flood? What is recurrence interval? How does urbanization affect flooding? Know these terms and be able to use them: unsaturated zone, saturated zone, water table, unconfined aquifer, confined aquifer, aquitard, discharge and recharge. What is the difference between porosity and permeability? Know what factors affect porosity and permeability in an aquifer. What is an aquifer? Know the difference between a confined aquifer and an unconfined aquifer. What is a cone of depression? Why does subsidence occur? What is saltwater intrusion and why does it occur? What is karst? How is it related to groundwater? How do caves form? 1. What is a sinkhole and why does it happen? Glaciers and Climate Change What are some natural causes of climate change? What are Milankovitch Cycles? o Know the three variations in the Milankovitch Cycles: Eccentricity (shape) of orbit Change in axis tilt (obliquity) Precession (wobbling of the axis) o Why do these changes in Earth’s orbit affect climate? What is the greenhouse effect? Be able to describe what is happening. What are some of the present-day climate issues? Why are they happening? Why are increasing concentrations of CO2 an issue? What are some of the potentially negative outcomes associated with climate change/global warming? Energy and sustainability What is a fossil fuel? What are the 3 types of fossil fuels? What are some environmental issues associated with fossil fuels? What is ecological overshoot and how is it associated with population? What can YOU do to live more sustainably? Why should you?