Lec1 Introduction Process Control

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Week-1
Lecture-1
Introduction to Process Control…!!!
By
 Dr. Fiaz Ahmad,
 B.Sc, M.Sc Electrical Engineering,
 PhD Mechatronics Engineering
[Specialization: Power System
monitoring and Control]
1
Introduction
 Manufacturing
converts with the raw materials into
marketable products
 Industry is primarily responsible for this function
 Depending on the product being manufactured, a number
of unique processes are generally grouped into systems.
 Industrial Systems respond to
◦ Temperature
◦ Pressure
◦ Flow
◦ Level
2
Introduction





Manual control operations
With technological advancement, techniques were developed for
automated manufacturing operations that control a system with very
little human intervention
The computer now serves as a tool to assist in this operation
For large manufacturing facility computers are tied together
in a large network.
These networks are used to schedule and oversee
◦ Material ordering and routing
◦ Parts production
◦ Assembly
◦ Quality evaluation
◦ Testing and
◦ Shipment

The entire operation depends on the control of manufacturing
processes.

Technically trained personnel must be aware of these operations.
3
THE SYSTEMS CONCEPT

During control field infancy, industrial process systems were
limited to a number of simple motor control applications and the
devices were
◦ Magnetic contactors, electrical switch gears, gaseous tubes,
rheostats, and potentiometers generally

Developments in solid-state electronics and
microcomponent design have brought important
technological changes to the field.
◦ Microprocessors, programmable controllers, artificial
intelligence, and electronic devices

A person working with this type of equipment must
have an understanding of the complete system to be
able to locate faulty components when a malfunction
occurs.
4
THE SYSTEMS CONCEPT


The word system is defined as “an organization of parts
that are connected together to form a functioning
machine or operational procedure.”
In this respect, there is a wide variety of different
systems used in industry
◦
◦
◦
◦
Electrical power system
Hydraulic and pneumatic
Temperature systems
Industrial processes are also controlled by pressure, flow rate,
fluid level,, and transmission systems
5
THE SYSTEMS CONCEPT


Each industrial system has a number of characteristics
that distinguish it from other systems.
However, there is a common set of elements found in
each system like the terms energy source,
transmission path, control, load, and indicator.
6
Industrial Batch Process
7
Dual Compressor CNG System
8
Bottle Line Simulator
9
Nuclear Reactor
10
IAC-12-C3.4.3
11
12
Desired value
Controller
Final Control
Measuring
Element
Element
Process
inputs
outputs
13
Industrial control Classification

Motion & Process Control

Motion Control
◦ Automatic control system that controls the physical position or motion of
an object. E.g., Industrial robotic arm that performs welding operations
and assembly procedures

Three common characteristics of motion control systems
(servos, or servomechanisms)
1. Control type
1.
2.
the position,
speed or acceleration of a mechanical object
2. Controlling parameters measurement
3. Response time i.e., fraction of second

Examples are CNC machines, printing presses, office
copiers, packaging equipments and electronic pick & place
machines
14
Industrial control Classification

Process Control
◦ One or more process variables are regulated during the
manufacturing of a product.
◦ These variables may include temperature, pressure, flow
rate, liquid & solid level, pH, or humidity
◦ This regulated process must compensate for any external
disturbances that changes the variable
◦ Response time is typically slow, varies from few seconds
to several minutes.
15
Process Control: Categories


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Batch or Sequential Process
The process in which ingredients are sequentially prepared,
mixed, reacted, cooked, heated, or cooled, finished, and
packed—all in accordance with a time-sequenced schedule
worked out by a process engineer.
Continuous Process
In a continuous process, one or more operations are being
performed as the product is being passed through a process.
Raw materials are continuously entering and leaving each process
step.
Examples are paper, plastics, rubber, chemicals, hydrocarbons,
pharmaceuticals, food, etc
16
References

Industrial Process Control by Dale Patrick
17
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