Global Health Professor Scott Exam 1 review

OB Class 9/19
Chapter 4 – Job Satisfaction
Job Satisfaction  a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s
job or job experience
o Decrease in job satisfaction
Not liking boss
Not finding work interesting
Not liking their coworkers
Employees are satisfied when their job provides the things they value
o Value  things that the job consciously or unconsciously want to seek or attain
Value-Percept Theory  argues that job satisfaction depends on whether you perceive
that your job supplies things that you value
o Dissatisfaction = [ Values (want) – Values (have) ] x [ Value (importance)]
o People evaluate job satisfaction to specific “facets” of the job
Commonly assessed work values
o Pay – whether its enough, adequate , secure for normal experiences
o Promotions – whether satisfied with company promotion policy and frequency
(frequent, fair, based on ability)
o Supervision – feelings about their boss (competent, polity, good communicato)
o Coworkers – how they feel about coworkers ( smart, responsible, helpful, fun,
and interesting)
o Work itself – feelings about their work tasks (challenging, interesting, respected,
and make use of key skills)
o Altruism – helping others, moral causes
o Status – prestige
o Environment – comfort, safety
Formulas for all of the work values 
o Value Satisfaction = [ Value (want) – Value (have)] x [ Value (importance)]
Job Characteristics Theory  describes the central characteristics of intrinsically
satisfying jobs
o Variety  degree to which the job requires a number of different skills and
o Identity  degree to which the job requires completing a whole, identifiable
piece-of-work from beginning to end with a visible outcome
o Significance  degree to which work has a significant impact on the lives of
other people, particularly people in the world at large
o Autonomy  degree to which the job provides independence, freedom, and
discretion to the individual performing the work
o Feedback  degree to which carrying out the activities required by the job
provides employees with clear information about how well they are performing
Mood  states of feeling that are often mild in intensity, last for an extended period of
time, and are not explicitly directed or caused by anything
Flow  a state in which employees feel a total immersion in the task at hand
sometimes losing track of time
Affective events theory  workplace events can generate affective reactions –
reactions that can go on to influence work attitudes and behaviors
o Emotions  states of feelings that are often intense, last only a few minutes,
and are clearly directed at or caused by someone or a circumstance
Positive emotions joy, pride, relief, hope, love, and compassion
Negative emotions  anger, anxiety, fear, guilt, shame, sadness, envy,
and disgust
o Emotional labor  need to manage emotions to complete job duties
o Emotional contagion  one person can “catch” or “be infected by” the
emotions of another person
Chapter 5 -- Stress
Stress  defined as a psychological response to demands that possess certain stakes for
the person and that tax or exceed the person’s capacity or resources.4
Stressors  demands that cause people to experience stress
Strains  when demands tax or exceed a person ‘s capacity
Transactional Theory of stress  explains how stressors are perceived and appraised as
well as how people react to those perceptions and appraisals
o Primary appraisal  when people first encounter stressors
o Hindrance stressors  stressful demands that people perceive to hinder their
progress toward accomplishing personal goals
Role conflict  conflicting expectations people may have of us
Role ambiguity  lack of information about what needs to be done in a
Role overload  when the number of demanding roles that a person
holds is so high that the person simply cannot perform some or all of the
roles effectively
o Work Challenge stressors
Time pressure  strong sense that the amount of time that you have to
do a task is not quite enough
Work complexity  degree to which the requirements of the work ( in
terms knowledge, skill, and abilities) tax or exceed the capabilities of the
person who is responsible for completing the work
Work responsibility  nature of the obligations that someone has
towards others
o Nonwork hindrance stressors
Work-family conflict  special form of role conflict in which the
demands of a work role hinder the fulfillment of the demands of a family
Negative life events  number of life events are perceived as quite
stressful, particularly when they result in significant changes to a person’s
Financial uncertainty  refers to conditions that create uncertainties
with regard to the loss of livelihood, savings, or the ability to pay
o Nonwork challenge stressors
Family time demands  refer to the time that a person commits to
participate in an array of family activities and responsibilities.
Personal development activities include participation in formal
education programs, music lessons, sports-related training, hobbyrelated self-education, participation in local government, or volunteer
Positive life events  are sources of nonwork challenge stressors. For
example, marriage, the addition of a new family member, and graduating
from school are stressful in their own way.
How do people deal with stressors
o Coping  Coping refers to the behaviors and thoughts that people use to
manage both the stressful demands they face and the emotions associated with
those stressful demands
Behavior coping  involves the set of physical activities that are used to
deal with a stressful situation.
Cognitive coping  refers to the thoughts that are involved in trying to
deal with a stressful situation.
Problem-focused coping  refers to behaviors and cognitions intended
to manage the stressful situation itself.
Emotion-focused coping  refers to the various ways in which people
manage their own emotional reactions to stressful demands.
Stress  Chapter 5
o Physiological strains  illness, high blood pressure, etc
o Psychological strains  depression, anxiety, etc.
o Behavioral strains  alcohol and drug use, teeth grinding, etc.
Burnout  emotional, physical , and mental exhaustion resulting from coping with
stressful demands on an ongoing basis
Individuals in the stress process
o Type A Behavioral Patterns  people have a strong sense of time urgency and
tend to be impatient, hard-driving, competitive, controlling, aggressive, and even
Way people deal with stress
o Social support
instrumental support  which refers to the help people receive that can
be used to address the stressful demand directly.
Emotional support  refers to the help people receive in addressing the
emotional distress that accompanies stressful demands.
Class – Going over interview assignment
Difference between Organaizational and Interpersonal Behaviors (both are citizenship
behavior types)? Test
o Organizational – what youre doing on behalf of representing the company to
build its face and reputation
o Interpersonal – about what youre doing to help somebody else within the
o Affective
o Continuance
o Normative
Task types
o Creative
o Adaptive
o Routine
Counterproductive behaviors
Psychological withdrawal
Physical withdrawal
Class 9/19/2018
Chapter 4 – Job Satisfaction
Job Satisfaction vs Job Performance
o Job Satisfaction is internal (how you feel about the job) where as Job
Performance is an output (what youre doing)
 Job Satisfaction  a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s
job or job experiences
o It is based on both COGNITION (calculated opinions of your job) and AFFECT
(emotional reactions to your job)
 Affect colors cognition, and vice versa
 Factors that you value in your job (effecting job satisfaction)
o Pay
o Promotions
o Supervision
o Cowrokers
o Work itself
o Altruisim
o Status
o Environment
 Which of these are important to you is based on your perception
 Value- Percept theory
o Dissatisfaction = (V(want) – V(have)) x V(importance)
o This is perception of the individual
o Most important:
 Pay satisfaction
 Promotion satisfaction
 Supervision satisfaction
 Coworker satisfaction
 Satisfaction with the work itself
o The correlation ranking: work itself then supervision then coworkers then
promotion then pay
 The work itself is the most important for most people
 Job Characteristics theory
o Satisfaction with the work itself
 Meaningfulness of work
 Variety – Variety of tasks you do
 Identity – seeing the job through from start to finish
o Teamwork is rated lower on the sense of identity
o Seeing it through to the end ranks higher on sense of
 Significance – see a meaningful impact on the organization from
the work you did
o It’s bigger than you and the impact is greater than your
immediate sphere
 Responsibility for outcomes
 Autonomy  input into how you work and when you work
o This gets more and more important as you move along
your career
 Knowledge of results
 Feedback  once you complete a job, you get a sense of how well
you did
o You get this sense of how well you did from clients,
supervisors, coworkers
o Supervisor if for just for the task you did not and not
overall performance
o (Knowledge and skill) along with (Growth Need Strength) affects Satisfaction of
work itself
 These are qualifiers that influence particular individuals
 Growth need strength is more internal determination to pursue these
characteristics to make the job more satisfying
 Video example of Mr. Fireworks
o Deals with the daily operations and puts on the big shows at Disney
o Didn’t want to be stuck at a desk when he was younger
o Characteristics:
 Identity – he sees it through from getting the fireworks in the morning to
seeing the fireworks at night
 Autonomy – he gets to pick what type of fireworks he wants to choose
for the show
 Stephen Kellogg’s top 5
o Know why youre working
o Climb ladders that matter
o See that the grass only looks greener on the other side
o Understand the positive effects of your work
o Maintain your “soul”
 Hour-by-hour fluctuations in job satisfaction durng the workday
o Not always going to be steady state
 General states of feeling not typically directed at or caused by anything and not intense
enough to interrupt ongoing though the processes.
o Mood effects work and vice versa
o Generally separated into positive and negative moods
 Emotions have a specific referent
o Positive : joy, pride, relief, hope, love
o Negative: anger, fear, guilt, sadness, disgust
o Positive emotions can trigger citizenship behaviors while negative emotions can
trigger counterproductive behaviors
 Emotional Contagion and emotional labor
o Think about the last time you went shopping…
 How friendly was the customer service rep
 How did that person’s emotional state make you feel
o Many times employees need to show emotions that they don’t feel
 EX: flight attendants, doctors, teachers
 Correlation between job satisfaction and job performance
o Moderate Positive correlation
 Correlation between job satisfaction and organizational commitment
o Strong positive correlation
Chapter 5 – Stress (Class)
Stress  a psychological response to demands where there is something at stake and
where coping with with the demands taxes or exceeds a person’s capacity or resources
o Some stress is actually good
Stressors  The Demands
Strain negative physical and emotional consequences of stress
Jobs that are more stressful
o High stakes
o In charge of other people
o Competition (Turnaround)
o Time you have to do the task
o Stressor-Stress-Strain Framework
o Stressors  Stress  Strain
Stressors (Work Hindrance, Work Challenge, Nonwork Hindrance,
Nonwork Challenge)
Hindrance  is a stressor
o Perceived as hindering progress toward personal
accomplishments or goal attainment
Trigger anxiety or anger (negative emotions)
Challenge Stressors
o Perceived as opportunities for learning, growth, or
Trigger emotions such as pride and enthusiasm
(positive emotions)
o Work Hindrance
Role conflict
Role ambiguity  probably the most common, linked to
Role overload
Daily hassles
o Work Challenge
Time pressure
Work complexity
Work responsibility
o Nonwork Hindrance
Work-family conflict
Negative life events
Financial uncertainty
o Nonwork Challenge
Family time demands
Personal development
Positive life events
Stressor-Stress-Strain Framework
Yerkes-Dodson Law Stressors
o Stress is a bell curve with performance on the y-axis and stress is on the x-axis
o There is a point where there is just enough stress to have you perform at
maximum performance but not enough stress that it hinders your performance
Transactional Theory of Stress
o Stress  Primary Apraisal (Is it stressful?  evaluate the significance and
meaning of stressors encountered)
Yes?  secondary appraisal (how can I cope)
No?  Benign job demand
Coping with Stress
o Coping  behaviors and thoughts people use to respond to stress
Behavioral  do something
Cognitive  in your head (look up)
o Types of stress
Problem-focused  an issue or assignment (look up)
Emotion-focused  what it takes for you to find out your internal
capacity to deal with stress
o Examples of Coping Strengths
Behavioral & Problem focused  working harder, seeking assistance,
acquiring additional resources
Behavioral & Emotion Focused  engaging in alternative activities,
seeking support, venting anger
Cognitive & problem focused  strategizing, self motivation, changing
Cognitive & emotion focused  avoiding, distancing, and ignoring;
looking for the positive in the negative; reappraising
Consequences of Stress
o Stress 
Physiological strains illness, high blood pressure, etc.
Psychological strains depression, anxiety, etc
Behavioral strainsalcohol and drug use, teeth grinding, etc
Individual factors
o Not everyone reacts to stressors in the same way
o Some cope better: Hardiness
o Others cope worse: Type A Behavior Pattern
o Social support can also help manage stress
How important is stress
o Hindrance stressors have weak negative effect on job performance
o Hindrance stressors strong negative effect organizational commitment
o Challenge stressors have weak positive effect on job performance
o Challenge stressors have moderate positive effect on organizational
Organizational Stress Management Interventions – how can organizations help
o Primary – attempt to alter the source of the workplace stress by making changes
such as redesigning jobs to give employees greater flexibility or more decision
o Secondary – help employees better recognize and manage stress symptoms as
they occur
o Tertiary – help employees recover from stressful events
Question of the Day
o Why are some employees more motivated than others
Motivation  a set of energetic forces that originate within and outside an employee
(individual) that initiates work-related effort and determines its direction, intensity, and
o Direction
o Intensity
o Persistence
What motivates you?
o Positive spin  jobs, graduating with a summa cum laude
o Negative spin  not wasting tuition money, wanting to not fail
Herzerg’s Two-factor Theory
o Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Top to bottom (listed from top of pyramid to bottom)
Top Two parts of pyramid are motivators (achievement,
recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement)
o Self-Actualization
o Esteem
Bottom Three  Hygiene factors (interpersonal relations,
company policy/administration, supervision, salary, working
o Belonging and love
o Safety and security
o Basic physiological needs
More motivational theories
o Expectancy theory
Motivation is fostered when the employee believes three things:
Effort results in performance (Expectance)
o the ultimate outcome comes from the performance
Performance results in outcomes (instrumentality)
o If I perform well, will I receive outcomes?
Those outcomes are valued (Valence)
o Will the outcomes be satisfying?
Effort – expectancy  Performance – instrumentality Outcomes
(Expectancy) x Sum (Instrumentality x Valence)
Self-efficacy is a qualifier that increases the relationship between
effort and performance, it is a belief that a person has the capabilities
needed to execute the behaviors required for task success
Past accomplishments
Vicarious experiences
Verbal persuasion
Emotional cues
Self-efficacy strengthens the relationship between effort and
The outcome (either extrinsic or intrinsic) have to be valuable to YOU
Example: Katherine Switzer is the first woman to run in the Boston
The outcome she valued was to just finish the race but then
evolved to finishing the race so that people can see that women
can do it too
Incentives is also the carrot and the stick. There are extrinsic and intrinsic
o Goal setting theory
Goals are the primary drivers of the intensity and persistency of effort
Motivation is fostered when employees are given specific and difficult
Better than no goals, easy goals, or “do your best” goals
This theory focuses on the outcome and focusing on an outcome that is
both specific and difficult
Task performance goals up as goal difficulty goes up from easy to
moderate to difficult to impossible
Starts going down in the impossible range
Peak is right between difficult and impossible
Why does it work?
Triggers self set goals
Create task strategies
When does it work
Feedback is provided
Low task complexity
High goal commitment
There has to be some support systems in place
o Equity theory
Motivation is maximized when an employee’s ratio of outcomes to inputs
matches those of a comparison other
Key point: motivation is based on a relative assessment
Comparison others
o Internal  coworkers, supervisors, subordinates, CEO
o External: friends, neighbors
o Psychological empowerment
Truth, Justice, Ethics
Reputation  reflects the prominence of its brand in the minds of the public and the
perceived quality of its goods and services
o What does reputation depend on?
 Trust  defined as the willingness to be vulnerable to a trustee based on
positive expectations about the trustee’s actions and willingness
 Justice  perceived fairness of an authority’s decision making
 Ethics  degree to which the behaviors of an authority are in
accordance with generally accepted moral norms
o What is trust rooted in?
 Disposition based meaning that your personality traits include a
general propensity to trust others
 Trust propensity a general expectation that the words,
promises, and statements of individuals can be relied upon
 Cognition based  rooted in rational assessment of the authority’s
 Trustworthiness  attributes of a trustee that inspire trust
 Ability  skills, competencies, and areas of expertise that enable
an authority to be trustworthy
 Benevolence  belief that the authority wants to do good for the
trustor, apart from any profit-centered reason
 Integrity  perception that the authority adheres to a set of
values that the trustor finds acceptable
 Affect based  depends on feelings towards the authority that go
beyond rational assessment
 Based more in emotion than reason
o Distributive justice  perceived fairness of decision making outcomes
 Whether decision outcomes, such as pay and promotion, are allocated
using proper norms
o Procedural Justice  reflects the perceived fairness of decision making
 Fostered when authorities adhere to rules of fair process
 One is voice, giving opportunity for employees to speak up during
decision making processes
o Interpersonal Justice perceived fairness of the treatment received by
employees by authorities
 Abusive supervision  sustained display of hostile verbal and non-verbal
 Respect and propriety fosters this
o Informational Justice  perceived fairness of the communication provided from
Justification and truthfulness foster this
o Prescriptive is how they should act
o Descriptive is how they tend to act
o Four stages
 Moral awareness
 Moral intensity
 Moral attentiveness
 Moral judgment
 Moral intent
 Ethical behavior (three above lead to this)
Chapter 8 Learning and Decision Making
Learning  reflects relatively permanent changes in an employee’s knowledge or skills
that results from experience
Decision making  process of generating and choosing from a set of alternatives to
solve a problem
o Three months to a year to perform satisfactorily
Why do some people learn better than others?
o Expertise  knowledge and skill that distinguishes experts from novices and less
experienced people
Types of knowledge
o Explicit knowledge  kind of information you think about when you picture
someone sitting down at a desk to learn
o Tacit knowledge  what employees can only learn through experience
Methods of learning
o Reinforcement  operant conditioning, we learn by observing the link between
our voluntary behavior and consequences
 Contingencies of reinforcement  4 specific consequences to modify
employee behavior
 Positive reinforcement  positive outcome follows a desired
 Negative reinforcement  unwanted outcome is removed
following a desired behavior
 Punishment  unwanted outcome follows an unwanted behavior
 Extinction  removal of a consequence following an unwanted
 Schedule of reinforcement  timing of consequences are important
 Continuous reinforcement  specific consequence follows each
and every occurrence of a desired behavior
 Fixed interval schedule  rewarded after a certain amount of
 Variable interval schedule  reinforce behavior at more random
points of time
Fixed ratio schedules  reinforces behaviors after a certain
number of them have been exhibited
 Variable ratio schedule  rewards people after a varying number
of exhibited behaviors
o Observation 
 Social learning theory says that people can learn through observing
 Behavior modeling  when employees observe a behavior, learn from it,
and repeat the behavior
 Attentional processes (learner focuses attention on the critical
behavior of others)
 Retention processes (learner remembers the behaviors of the
model once the model is no longer present)
 Production processes (learner must have the appropriate skill set
and be able to replicate the behavior)
 Reinforcement (learner must observe the model receiving
reinforcement and then receive it himself
o Goal Orientation  kinds of activities and goals that people prioritize
 Learning orientation  building competence is more important than
 Performance-prove orientation  focus on demonstrating their
competence so others think highly of them
 Performance-avoid orientation  demonstrating competence so others
will not think negatively of them
Methods of decision making
o Programmed decision  decisions that become somewhat automatic
o Intuition  emotionally charged judgements that arise through quick,
nonconscious, holistic associations
 Crisis situation
o Nonprogrammed decision  decision in a new, complex situation
o Rational decision making model  step-by-step approach to making decisions
that maximize outcomes by examining all available alternatives
 Identify the criteria
 Generate a list of alternatives
 Evaluation of all the alternatives
 Select the best alternative with the best outcome
Decision making problems
o Limited information
 Bounded rationality 
 Satisficing  choose first alternative
o Faulty perceptions
o Faulty attributions
o Escalation of commitment
Class 10/03/2018 Learning and Decision Making
Why are some employees better decision-makers than others? How do employees
recognize and mitigate the barriers to decision making
o It’s all about the learning and how it’s applied
Learning  permanent changes in an employee’s knowledge or skill that result from
o Distinguishing factor between experts & novices
Types of knowledge
o Explicit – relatively easy to communicate; can learn from a source (i.e. book,
 Read/Write will be highly scoring on the test taken earlier for class. It is a
category of how you learn the best; the other categories are kinesthetic,
visual, and auditory
o Tacit  more difficult to communicate; can learn through practice (i.e. doing)
 Kinesthetic will be highly scoring
 A lot of the information in new employee information will come from
o Video: Cirque Du Soleil Video (EXAMPLE)
 They already have athletic background and expertise before they even
go into to training
 It’s a lot of tacit learning in the training camp because they could only
learn it through experience
How do employees learn?
o Reinforcement (operant conditioning process)
o Observation (social learning theory)
o Goal Orientation (Individual predispositions for learning)
Operant conditioning Process
o Antecedent  condition that precedes behavior
o Behavior  action performed by employee
o Consequence  result that occurs after behavior
Reinforcement/Operant Conditioning Process
o Contingencies of Reinforcement
 Increases desired behaviors
 Positive reinforcement (Consequence added for wanted
 Negative Reinforcement (consequence removed for unwanted
 Decreases unwanted behaviors
 Extinction (consequence is removed for wanted outcome)
 Punishment (consequence added for unwanted outcome)
Schedule of reinforcement
o Continuous  after every desired behavior, high potential level of performance,
e.g. praise
o Fixed Interval  after fixed time periods, average potential level of
performance, e.g. paycheck
o Variable Interval  reward given after variable time periods, moderately high
potential level of performance, e.g. supervisor walk-by
o Fixed Ratio  after fixed number of desired behaviors, high potential level of
performance, e.g. piece-rate pay
o Variable ratio  after variable number of desired behaviors, very high potential
level of performance, e.g. commission pay
o Identify the problem
o Is the problem recognized> has it been dealt with before
 Yes -? Programmed decision (intuition, “gut feeling”)
 No  rational decision making model
Rational decision making model
o Determine appropriate criteria for making a decision
o Generate list of available alternatives
o Evaluate the alternatives against criteria
o Choose the solution that maximizes
o Implement appropriate solution
Decision making challenges
o Limited information
o Faulty perceptions
 Perception: the process of selecting, organizing, storing, and retrieving
information about the environment
 Leads to useful but often distorted versions of reality
 Selective perceptions
 Projection biases
 Social identity theory
 Heuristics  mental shortcuts to get to a quicker decision based
on what we think we know and previous experiences
o Cognitive shortcuts that are used when making decsions
under uncertainty
o Availability  an assessment of frequency or probability
based on the ease with which instances or occurrences
can be brought to mind
o Anchoring and Adjustment  look at something really
quickly to figure it out
 A strategy for estimating unknown quantities
(starting with the known information and
adjusting away from that until it feels sufficient)
o Hindsight bias
o Framing Bias
 Tendency to make decisions based on how
something is phrased
o Faulty attributions
 Attributions refer to how we explain actions and events that occur
around us
 Fundamental attribution error  tendency to judge others’
behaviors as due to internal factors
 Self-serving bias  tendency to attribute own failures to external
factors & own successes to internal factors
 Assessments
o Consensus (did others act the same under similar
 Distinctiveness (does this person tend to act differently in other
 Consistency (does this person always do this when performing
this task
o Escalation of commitment
 Sinking ship (sunk costs)
 The decision to continue a failing course of action
 Gambling
 Holding onto stocks
 Business and real estate deals
 Staying in a doomed relationship
Both faulty perceptions and faulty attributions contribute to bias
Bounded rationality
o Boil problem down into something easily understood
o Generate a few solutions
o Evaluate alternatives as soon as we think of them
o Use distorted and inaccurate information to evaluate alternatives
o Choose an alternative
Learning has a moderate positive effect on job performance
o It effects task performance which effects job performance
Learning has a weak positive effect on organizational commitment
Why are some employees better decision-makers than others
o It’s all about the learning
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