Chapter 1 - Introduction

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Chapter 1:
Introduction
Dr Muhammad Bin Zulkipli
History of Machining
Figure 1: Classification of manufacturing processes.
Figure 2: Classification of material removal processes.
History of Machining
• Machining is a manufacturing process in which a sharp cutting tools is used to cut away material to leave the desired part shape. The
predominant cutting action in machining involves shear deformation of the work material to form a chip; as the chip is removed, a new
surface is exposed. Machining is most frequently applied to shape metals. The process is illustrated in the diagram of Figure 3.
• Machining is generally performed after other manufacturing processes such as casting or bulk deformation (e.g., forging, bar drawing).
The other processes create the general shape of the starting workpart, and machining provides the final geometry, dimensions, and
finish.
Figure 3: (a) A cross-sectional view of the machining process. (b) Tool with negative rake angle, compare with positive rake angle.
Advantages of Machining
• Machining is important commercially and technologically for several reasons:
 Variety of Work Materials:
Machining can be applied to a wide variety of work materials. Virtually all solid metals can be machined. Plastics and plastic composites can
also be cut by machining. Ceramics pose difficulties because of their high hardness and brittleness; however, most ceramics can be
successfully cut by the abrasive machining processes.
 Variety of Part Shapes and Geometric Features:
Machining can be used to create any regular geometries, such as flat planes, round holes, and cylinders. By introducing variations in tool
shapes and tool paths, irregular geometries can be created, such as screw threads and T-slots. By combining several machining operations in
sequence, shapes of almost unlimited complexity and variety can be produced.
 Dimensional Accuracy:
Machining can produce dimensions to very close tolerances. Some machining processes can achieve tolerances of ±0.025 mm (±0.001 in),
much more accurate than most other processes.
 Good Surface Finishes:
Machining is capable of creating very smooth surface finishes. Roughness values less than 0.4 microns (16 µ-in.) can be achieved in
conventional machining operations. Some abrasive processes can achieve even better finishes.
Disadvantages of Machining
• On the other hand, certain disadvantages are associated with machining and other material removal processes:
• Wasteful of Material:
Machining is inherently wasteful of material. The chips generated in a machining operation are wasted material. Although these chips can
usually be recycled, they represent waste in terms of the unit operation.
• Time Consuming:
A machining operation generally takes more time to shape a given part than alternative shaping processes such as casting or forging.
Non-Traditional Machining
• Non-Traditional Machining – Various energy forms other than sharp cutting tool to remove material, cutting tool did not touch the workpiece.
• Conventional machining processes (i.e., turning, drilling, milling) use a sharp cutting tool to form a chip from the work by shear deformation. In
addition to these conventional methods, there is a group of processes that uses other mechanisms to remove material.
• The term non-traditional machining refers to this group that removes excess material by various techniques involving mechanical, thermal,
electrical, or chemical energy (or combinations of these energies). They do not use a sharp cutting tool in the conventional sense.
• The non-traditional processes have been developed since World War II largely in response to new and unusual machining requirements that
could not be satisfied by conventional methods. These requirements, and the resulting commercial and technological importance of the nontraditional processes, include:
 The need to machine newly developed metals and non-metals. These new materials often have special properties (e.g., high strength, high
hardness, high toughness) that make them difficult or impossible to machine by conventional methods.
 The need for unusual and/or complex part geometries that cannot easily be accomplished and in some cases are impossible to achieve by
conventional machining.
 The need to avoid surface damage that often accompanies the stresses created by conventional machining.
Non-Traditional Machining
• The non-traditional processes are often classified according to principal form of energy used to effect material removal. By this classification, there
are four types:
 Mechanical:
Mechanical energy in some form other than the action of a conventional cutting tool is used in these non-traditional processes. Erosion of the
work material by a high velocity stream of abrasives or fluid (or both) is a typical form of mechanical action in these processes.
 Electrical:
These non-traditional processes use electrochemical energy to remove material; the mechanism is the reverse of electroplating.
 Thermal:
These processes use thermal energy to cut or shape the workpart. The thermal energy is generally applied to a very small portion of the work
surface, causing that portion to be removed by fusion and/or vaporization. The thermal energy is generated by the conversion of electrical
energy.
 Chemical:
Most materials (metals particularly) are susceptible to chemical attack by certain acids or other etchants. In chemical machining, chemicals
selectively remove material from portions of the workpart, whereas other portions of the surface are protected by a mask.
Mechanical Energy Processes
• Ultrasonic Machining (USM):
 Non-traditional machining process in which abrasives contained in a slurry are
driven at high velocity against the work by a tool vibrating at low amplitude and high
frequency. The amplitudes are around 0.075 mm (0.003 in), and the frequencies
are approximately 20,000 Hz.
Figure 4: Ultrasonic machining.
 The tool oscillates in a direction perpendicular to the work surface, and is fed slowly
into the work, so that the shape of the tool is formed in the part. However, it is the
action of the abrasives, impinging against the work surface, that performs the
cutting. The general arrangement of the USM process is depicted in Figure 4.
 Common tool materials used in USM include soft steel and stainless steel. Abrasive
materials in USM include boron nitride, boron carbide, aluminium oxide, silicon
carbide and diamond.
Figure 5: Tool area of ultrasonic machining.
Mechanical Energy Processes
• Ultrasonic Machining (USM):
Figure 6: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
photomicrographs of 0.64 mm (0.025 in.) holes drilled
into alumina by two different methods. (a) Ultrasonic
machining. (b) Laser beam machining.
(a)
(b)
Mechanical Energy Processes
• Process Using Water Jets: Water Jet Cutting
 Water jet cutting (WJC) uses a fine, high-pressure, high-velocity stream of water directed
at the work surface to cause cutting of the work.
 To obtain the fine stream of water a small nozzle opening of diameter 0.1 to 0.4 mm (0.004
to 0.016 in) is used.
 To provide the stream with sufficient energy for cutting, pressures up to 400 MPa (60,000
lb/in²) are used, and the jet reaches velocities up to 900 m/s (3000 ft/sec). The fluid is
pressurized to the desired level by a hydraulic pump.
 The nozzle unit consists of a holder made of stainless steel, and a jewel nozzle made of
sapphire, ruby, or diamond. Diamond lasts the longest but costs the most.
 Filtration systems must be used in WJC to separate the swarf produced during cutting.
Figure 7: Water jet cutting.
Mechanical Energy Processes
• Process Using Water Jets: Abrasive Water Jet Cutting
 When WJC is used on metallic workparts, abrasive particles must usually be added to the jet stream to facilitate cutting. This
process is therefore called abrasive water jet cutting (AWJC).
 Introduction of abrasive particles into the stream complicates the process by adding to the number of parameters that must be
controlled. Among the additional parameters are abrasive type, grit size, and flow rate.
 Aluminium oxide, silicon dioxide, and garnet (a silicate mineral) are typical abrasive materials, at grit sizes ranging between 60 and
120.
 The abrasive particles are added to the water stream at approximately 0.25 kg/min (0.5 lb/min) after it has exited the WJC nozzle.
Mechanical Energy Processes
• Other Non-Traditional Abrasive Processes: Abrasive Jet Machining
 Not to be confused with AWJC is the process called abrasive jet
machining (AJM), a material removal process caused by the action of a
high-velocity stream of gas containing small abrasive particles.
 The gas is dry, and pressures of 0.2 to 1.4 MPa (25 to 200 lb/in²) are
used to propel it through nozzle orifices of diameter 0.075 to 1.0 mm
(0.003 to 0.040 in) at velocities of 2.5 to 5.0 m/s (500 to 1000 ft/min).
Gases include dry air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and helium.
 The process is usually performed manually by an operator who directs
the nozzle at the work. Typical distances between nozzle tip and work
surface range between 3 mm and 75 mm (0.125 in and 3 in). The
workstation must be set up to provide proper ventilation for the operator.
 AJM is normally used as a finishing process rather than a production
cutting process. Applications include deburring, trimming and deflashing,
cleaning, and polishing.
Figure 8: Abrasive jet machining.
Mechanical Energy Processes
• Other Non-Traditional Abrasive Processes: Abrasive Flow Machining
 This process was developed in the 1960s to deburr and polish difficult-to-reach areas using abrasive
particles mixed in a viscoelastic polymer that is forced to flow through or around the part surfaces and
edges. The polymer has the consistency of putty. Silicon carbide is a typical abrasive.
 Abrasive flow machining (AFM) is particularly well-suited for internal passageways that are often
inaccessible by conventional methods. The abrasive-polymer mixture, called the media, flows past the
target regions of the part under pressures ranging between 0.7 and 20 MPa (100 and 3000 lb/in²).
Figure 9: Abrasive flow machining.
 In addition to deburring and polishing, other AFM applications include forming radii on sharp edges,
removing rough surfaces on castings, and other finishing operations. These applications are found in
industries such as aerospace, automotive, and die-making. The process can be automated to
economically finish hundreds of parts per hour.
 A common setup is to position the workpart between two opposing cylinders, one containing media and
the other empty. The media is forced to flow through the part from the first cylinder to the other, and
then back again, as many times as necessary to achieve the desired material removal and finish.
Figure 10: The flow of media in abrasive flow machining.
Electrochemical Machining Processes
• Electrochemical Machining
 The basic process in this group is electrochemical machining (ECM). Electrochemical machining
removes metal from an electrically conductive workpiece by anodic dissolution, in which the
shape of the workpiece is obtained by a formed electrode tool in close proximity to, but separated
from, the work by a rapidly flowing electrolyte.
 ECM is basically a deplating operation. As illustrated in Figure 11, the workpiece is the anode, and the
tool is the cathode. The principle underlying the process is that material is deplated from the anode (the
positive pole) and deposited onto the cathode (the negative pole) in the presence of an electrolyte bath.
 The difference in ECM is that the electrolyte bath flows rapidly between the two poles to carry off the
deplated material, so that it does not become plated onto the tool.
 The electrode tool, usually made of copper, brass, or stainless steel, is designed to possess
approximately the inverse of the desired final shape of the part. An allowance in the tool size must be
provided for the gap that exists between the tool and the work.
Figure 11: Electrochemical machining (ECM).
Electrochemical Machining Processes
• Electrochemical Deburring
 Electrochemical deburring (ECD) is an adaptation of ECM designed to remove
burrs or to round sharp corners on metal workparts by anodic dissolution. One
possible setup for ECD is shown in Figure 12.
 The hole in the workpart has a sharp burr of the type that is produced in a
conventional through-hole drilling operation. The electrode tool is designed to
focus the metal removal action on the burr. Portions of the tool not being used
for machining are insulated.
Figure 12: Electrochemical deburring (ECD).
 The electrolyte flows through the hole to carry away the burr particles. The
same ECM principles of operation also apply to ECD. However, since much less
material is removed in electrochemical deburring, cycle times are much shorter.
A typical cycle time in ECD is less than a minute. The time can be increased if it
is desired to round the corner in addition to removing the burr.
Electrochemical Machining Processes
•
Electrochemical Grinding
 Electrochemical grinding (ECG) is a special form of ECM in which a rotating grinding wheel with a
conductive bond material is used to augment the anodic dissolution of the metal workpart surface, as
illustrated in Figure 13.
 Abrasives used in ECG include aluminium oxide and diamond. The bond material is either metallic (for
diamond abrasives) or resin bond impregnated with metal particles to make it electrically conductive (for
aluminium oxide).
 The abrasive grits protruding from the grinding wheel at the contact with the workpart establish the gap
distance in ECG. The electrolyte flows through the gap between the grains to play its role in electrolysis.
 Deplating is responsible for 95% or more of the metal removal in ECG, and the abrasive action of the
grinding wheel removes the remaining 5% or less, mostly in the form of salt films that have been formed
during the electrochemical reactions at the work surface.
 Because most of the machining is accomplished by electrochemical action, the grinding wheel in ECG
lasts much longer than a wheel in conventional grinding. The result is a much higher grinding ratio. In
addition, dressing of the grinding wheel is required much less frequently. These are the significant
advantages of the process. Applications of ECG include sharpening of cemented carbide tools and
grinding of surgical needles, other thin wall tubes, and fragile parts.
Figure 13: Electrochemical grinding (ECG).
Thermal Energy Processes
•
Electric Discharge Processes: Electric Discharge Machining
 Electric discharge machining (EDM) is one of the most widely used non-traditional
processes. An EDM setup is illustrated in Figure 14.
 The shape of the finished work surface is produced by a formed electrode tool.
The sparks occur across a small gap between tool and work surface.
 The EDM process must take place in the presence of a dielectric fluid, which
creates a path for each discharge as the fluid becomes ionized in the gap.
 The discharges are generated by a pulsating direct current power supply
connected to the work and the tool.
 The dielectric fluid ionizes at this location to create a path for the discharge. The
region in which discharge occurs is heated to extremely high temperatures, so that
a small portion of the work surface is suddenly melted and removed.
 The flowing dielectric then flushes away the small particle (call it a ‘‘chip’’).
Figure 14: Electric discharge machining (EDM): (a) overall setup, and (b) close-up
view of gap, showing discharge and metal removal.
Thermal Energy Processes
• Electric Discharge Processes: Electric Discharge Wire Cutting
 Electric discharge wire cutting (EDWC), commonly called wire EDM, is a
special form of electric discharge machining that uses a small diameter wire
as the electrode to cut a narrow kerf in the work.
 The cutting action in wire EDM is achieved by thermal energy from electric
discharges between the electrode wire and the workpiece. Wire EDM is
illustrated in Figure 15.
 The workpiece is fed past the wire to achieve the desired cutting path,
somewhat in the manner of a bandsaw operation. Numerical control is used
to control the workpart motions during cutting. As it cuts, the wire is slowly
and continuously advanced between a supply spool and a take-up spool to
present a fresh electrode of constant diameter to the work.
 This helps to maintain a constant kerf width during cutting. As in EDM, wire
EDM must be carried out in the presence of a dielectric. This is applied by
nozzles directed at the tool–work interface as in our figure, or the workpart
is submerged in a dielectric bath.
Figure 15: Electric discharge wire cutting (EDWC), also called wire EDM.
Thermal Energy Processes
• Electron Beam Machining
 Electron beam machining (EBM) is one of several industrial processes that use electron
beams.
 Electron beam machining uses a high velocity stream of electrons focused on the workpiece
surface to remove material by melting and vaporization. A schematic of the EBM process is
illustrated in Figure 16.
 An electron beam gun generates a continuous stream of electrons that is accelerated to
approximately 75% of the speed of light and focused through an electromagnetic lens on the
work surface.
 The lens is capable of reducing the area of the beam to a diameter as small as 0.025 mm
(0.001 in). On impinging the surface, the kinetic energy of the electrons is converted into
thermal energy of extremely high density that melts or vaporizes the material in a very
localized area.
Figure 16: Electron beam machining (EBM).
Thermal Energy Processes
•
Laser Beam Machining
 The term laser stands for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. A laser is an optical transducer that converts
electrical energy into a highly coherent light beam.
 A laser light beam has several properties that distinguish it from other forms of light. It is monochromatic (theoretically, the light
has a single wave length) and highly collimated (the light rays in the beam are almost perfectly parallel).
 These properties allow the light generated by a laser to be focused, using conventional optical lenses, onto a very small spot
with resulting high power densities. Depending on the amount of energy contained in the light beam, and its degree of
concentration at the spot, the various laser processes identified in the preceding can be accomplished.
 Laser beam machining (LBM) uses the light energy from a laser to remove material by vaporization and ablation. The setup for
LBM is illustrated in Figure 17.
 The types of lasers used in LBM are carbon dioxide gas lasers and solid-state lasers (of which there are several types). In laser
beam machining, the energy of the coherent light beam is concentrated not only optically but also in terms of time.
 The light beam is pulsed so that the released energy results in an impulse against the work surface that produces a combination
of evaporation and melting, with the melted material evacuating the surface at high velocity.
Figure 17: Laser beam machining (LBM).
Thermal Energy Processes
•
Arc-Cutting Processes: Plasma Arc Cutting
 A plasma is defined as a superheated, electrically ionized gas. Plasma arc cutting (PAC) uses a plasma stream
operating at temperatures in the range 10,000 °C to 14,000 °C (18,000 °F to 25,000 °F) to cut metal by
melting, as shown in Figure 18.
 The cutting action operates by directing the high-velocity plasma stream at the work, thus melting it and blowing
the molten metal through the kerf. The plasma arc is generated between an electrode inside the torch and the
anode workpiece.
 The plasma flows through a water-cooled nozzle that constricts and directs the stream to the desired location
on the work. The resulting plasma jet is a high-velocity, well-collimated stream with extremely high temperatures
at its center, hot enough to cut through metal in some cases 150 mm (6 in) thick.
Figure 18: Plasma arc cutting (PAC).
Chemical Machining
•
The chemical machining process consists of several steps. Differences in applications and the ways in which the
steps are implemented account for the different forms of CHM. The steps are:
1. Cleaning. The first step is a cleaning operation to ensure that material will be removed uniformly from the
surfaces to be etched.
2. Masking. A protective coating called a maskant is applied to certain portions of the part surface. This maskant
is made of a material that is chemically resistant to the etchant (the term resist is used for this masking
material). It is therefore applied to those portions of the work surface that are not to be etched.
Figure 19: Sequence of processing steps in chemical milling:
(1) clean raw part, (2) apply maskant, (3) scribe, cut, and peel
the maskant from areas to be etched, (4) etch, and (5)
remove maskant and clean to yield finished part.
3. Etching. This is the material removal step. The part is immersed in an etchant that chemically attacks those
portions of the part surface that are not masked. The usual method of attack is to convert the work material
(e.g., a metal) into a salt that dissolves in the etchant and is thereby removed from the surface. When the
desired amount of material has been removed, the part is with drawn from the etchant and washed to stop the
process.
4. Demasking. The maskant is removed from the part.
•
The two steps in chemical machining that involve significant variations in methods, materials, and process
parameters are masking and etching — steps 2 and 3.
Figure 20: Sequence of processing steps in chemical milling:
(1) clean raw part, (2) apply maskant, (3) scribe, cut, and peel
the maskant from areas to be etched, (4) etch, and (5)
remove maskant and clean to yield finished part.
Non-Traditional Machining Application Consideration
Table 1: Workpart geometric features and appropriate non-traditional processes.
Non-Traditional Machining Application Consideration
Table 2: Applicability of selected non-traditional machining processes to various work materials. For comparison, conventional milling and grinding are
included in the compilation.
Non-Traditional Machining Application Consideration
Table 3: Machining characteristics of the non-traditional machining processes.
Traditional Machining
•
Traditional Machining – Material removal by a sharp cutting tool, cutting tool touch the workpiece.
•
Turning and Related Operations
 Turning is a machining process in which a single-point tool removes material from the surface of a rotating workpiece. The tool is fed linearly in a direction parallel to
the axis of rotation to generate a cylindrical geometry, as illustrated in Figures 21 and 22. Turning is traditionally carried out on a machine tool called a lathe, which
provides power to turn the part at a given rotational speed and to feed the tool at a specified rate and depth of cut.
Figure 22: Generating shape in machining: (a) straight turning, (b) taper turning, (c) contour turning.
Figure 21: Turning operation.
Traditional Machining
•
Turning and Related Operations
Figure 23: Machining operations other than turning that are performed
on a lathe: (a) facing, (b) taper turning, (c) contour turning, (d) form
turning, (e) chamfering, (f) cutoff, (g) threading, (h) boring, (i) drilling, and
(j) knurling.
Traditional Machining
•
Drilling and Related Operations
 Drilling as in Figure 24, is a machining operation used to create a round hole in a workpart. This contrasts with boring, which can
only be used to enlarge an existing hole. Drilling is usually performed with a rotating cylindrical tool that has two cutting edges on its
working end. The tool is called a drill or drill bit. The most common drill bit is the twist drill. The rotating drill feeds into the stationary
workpart to form a hole whose diameter is equal to the drill diameter. Drilling is customarily performed on a drill press, although other
machine tools also perform this operation.
Figure 24: Drilling.
Figure 25: Two hole types: (a) through hole and (b) blind hole.
Traditional Machining
•
Drilling and Related Operations
Figure 26: Machining operations related to drilling: (a) reaming, (b)
tapping, (c) counterboring, (d) countersinking, (e) center drilling, and (f)
spot facing.
Traditional Machining
•
Milling and Related Operations


Milling is a machining operation in which a workpart is fed past a rotating cylindrical tool with multiple cutting
edges, as illustrated in Figure 27. The axis of rotation of the cutting tool is perpendicular to the direction of
feed. This orientation between the tool axis and the feed direction is one of the features that distinguishes
milling from drilling.
In drilling, the cutting tool is fed in a direction parallel to its axis of rotation. The cutting tool in milling is called
a milling cutter and the cutting edges are called teeth. The conventional machine tool that performs this
operation is a milling machine.
Figure 27: Two basic types of milling operations: (a) peripheral or plain milling and (b) face milling.
Figure 28: Peripheral milling: (a) slab milling, (b) slotting, (c)
side milling, (d) straddle milling, and (e) form milling.
Figure 29: Face milling: (a) conventional face milling, (b)
partial face milling, (c) end milling, (d) profile milling, (e)
pocket milling, and (f) surface contouring.
End of Chapter 1
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