Photosynthesis and Respiration Grade 6 Life Science Lesson 29 Review Living things are divided into groups based on how they obtain energy. Producers and Consumers. What are the differences between producers and consumers? Producers are able to produce their own energy through: photosynthesis _____________. Consumers cannot make their own food. What do plants need for photosynthesis? 1. 2. 3. 4. Water Carbon dioxide Light Chlorophyll What are the similarities between producers and consumers? All producers and consumers use ___________ respiration to release energy. What do living things need for respiration? 1. Carbohydrates (Glucose) 2. Oxygen Respiration C6H12O6 Glucose + 6 O2 Oxygen 6 H2O 6 CO2 Water + Carbon + Energy Dioxide Respiration C6H12O6 Glucose + 6 O2 Oxygen 6 H2O 6 CO2 Water + Carbon + Energy Dioxide Photosynthesis C6H12O6 Glucose + 6 O2 Oxygen 6 H2O 6 CO2 Water + Carbon + Energy Dioxide Where does respiration take place? What is the nickname of mitochondrion? Energy House. Respiration It is the breaking down of sugar to produce energy where oxygen is present. Respiration takes place in the mitochondrion of cells. Today’s Lesson All the products are resulted from fermentation. What happens when there is not enough oxygen to stay alive? If there is no oxygen, cells takes another way to produce energy. It is fermentation. Reading 84 (1) Fermentation Fermentation occurs when cells release energy from food without using oxygen. There are 2 types of fermentation: Alcohol and Lactic Acid. Reading 84 (2) Video Clip Final Preparation Grade 6 Life Science Lesson 29 What is Science? (p.8) Science is an organized way of studying things and finding answers to questions. What are two types of Science? (p.8) 1. Physics: – Relationship between energy and matter 2. Biology: – Study of Living things What is scientific method? (p.9) The series of procedures to solve problems. Let us talk about “Scientific Method” in detail. Scientific Method Who uses it? Everyone uses it everyday. Even YOU!!! What is it? It is a way to solve problems. Do you have any problems to solve? Any of these sound familiar? Where are My Shoes? What should I have for lunch? What class do I have next? Did I do my homework for that class? What is the cure for cancer? What is the first step for the “scientific method”? 1. State the problem Scientists develop a question about a problem. They need to be very specific in defining what they are trying to explain or solve. 2. Gather Information Next they gather information about the problem/question. They can use: - books, magazines, reports - experts - your past experiences or prior knowledge 3. Form a hypothesis What you think the answer is based upon your gathered information and prior knowledge. It is an educated guess or prediction. We call it hypothesis. It begins with: I think … 4. Perform an experiment Every experiment has variable and control! A variable is something that changes. A control is something that does not change. Example: I think birds will like green more than others. 4. Perform an experiment Independent variable: the scientist changes this variable Dependent variable: part of the experiment that changes as a result of some other action, it is measured Control: the part of the experiment that is not changed by the scientist Example: I think birds will like green more than others. In this experiment, what is an “Independent Variable”? It is color of the feeders because it is changed by the person doing the experiment. In this experiment, what is an “Dependent Variable”? It is amount of seed eaten because it is changed by result of the birds’ favors and you can measure it. In this experiment, what is an “Control”? Everything else (except the independent variable). For example: - the location of the feeders - the kind of feeder used - putting the feeders out at the same time Our Experimental Design Controls Location of feeders Kind of seed Type of feeder Independent Variable Red Blue Green Dependent Variable Amount of Seed Eaten Amount of Seed Eaten Amount of Seed Eaten Worksheet For Example: Students of different ages were given the same jigsaw puzzle to put together. They were timed to see how long it took to finish the puzzle. Identify the variables in this investigation. What was the independent variable? • Ages of the students –Different ages were tested by the scientist What was the dependent variable? • The time it took to put the puzzle together • The time was observed and measured by the scientist What was a controlled variable? • Same puzzle –All of the participants were tested with the same puzzle. –It would not have been a fair test if some had an easy 30 piece puzzle and some had a harder 500 piece puzzle. Another example: An investigation was done with an electromagnetic system made from a battery and wire wrapped around a nail. Different sizes of nails were used. The number of paper clips the electromagnet could pick up was measured. What are the variables in this investigation? Independent variable: • Sizes of nails –These were changed by the scientist Dependent variable: • Number of paper clips picked up –The number of paper clips observed and counted (measured) Controlled variables: • Battery, wire, type of nail – None of these items were changed 6. Analyze data A key to experiments is observing what happens and writing it down. It may be charts, graphs, or written work. What did you find the answer to the question? It is OK if it turns out that your hypothesis was not correct. 7. Draw Conclusions Conclusion is a logical answer to question based on data and observation. Scientists share their experiments and findings with others. Report results Because they share their experiments and findings, scientists can learn from each other and often use someone else’s experiences to help them with what they are studying or doing. After scientist report the results of experiments supporting their hypothesis, the results can be used to propose a scientific theory. Developing Theories Theory is an explanation based on scientific knowledge. It is result of many observations and experiments. Worksheet Homework: Find out the variables and control from your experiment on worksheet.