chomp! chomp! This presentation is brought to you by Grammar Bytes!, ©2017 by Robin L. Simmons. Fragments, Comma Splices, and Fused Sentences How do I know if I have too little in a sentence ... And how can I tell if I have too much? You presentation will learn to This recognize covers avoiding complete sentence sentences, employ fragments, appropriate comma splices, punctuation, and and fused use subordination . . andsentences coordination A fragment, comma splice, and/or fused sentence item on an objective test might look like this ... Sample Item At the pizzeria, pizzeria, Jolene Joleneeavesdropped eavesdroppedon onthe the A argument at the next table, table,while table hot hotcheese cheese hot cheese B cascaded over cascaded overher herslice sliceofofpizza pizzaonto ontoher herbare bare C The comma between Is the lap. table and hot punctuation (or A. B. C. D. lack of at A, makes a it) comma C that splice, B an, or error option B fixes. incorrect? pizzeria; Jolene table while table whilehot hot pizza. OntoOver cascaded. No change is necessary. A s e n t e n c e m u s t h ave a subj ect , verb , a n d com pl ete thought . Andre practiced jump shots to impress Coach Nelson. Andre = subject, practiced = verb, and the thought = complete, so you have a sentence. Recognize a fr a gment w hen you see one. Andre As And Andre spun spinning spun spun the theball the ball the to ball to ball show show totoshow off show offhis his offoff skills. his skills. his skills. Now Finally there’s ! Ano Yikes Spinning ! Now≠the a subject, asoverb, you thought is not verb, so you have and stilla have complete a a fragment complete! ! fragment thought! . Recognize fused sentences and comma splices . Andre sank a perfect basket from half court court unfortunately coach’s turned. unfortunately the the coach’s backback waswas turned. Andre sank a perfect basket from half court, court, unfortunately coach’s turned. unfortunately the the coach’s backback waswas turned. Youcannot cannot You run join two together two sentences with sentences with noa punctuation! comma! Fix the er r or with a period and a capital letter . Andre sank a perfect basket from half court. court Unfortunately, the coach’s turned. unfortunately the coach’s backback was was turned. Swish goes the period! Fix the er r or with a comma and a coor dinating conjunction . Andre sank a perfect basket from half court court, but the coach’s wasback turned. unfortunately theback coach’s was turned. Be my FANBOYS — for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so. Fix the er r or with a semicolon . Andre sank a perfect basket from half court court; unfortunately, the coach’s turned. unfortunately the coach’s backback was was turned. Use the semicolon sparingly — 3 to 4 times per essay, max. Fix the er r or with a subor dinate conjunction . Andre sank a perfect basket from half court after unfortunately the coach’s back the was coach’s turned. back was turned. Reduce one of the two clauses to an incomplete thought. T hese ar e the subor dinate conjunctions. after although as because before even though if, even if in order that once provided that since so [that implied], so that than that though unless when, whenever where, wherever, whereas whether while Remember these gener al punctuation r ules w hen subor dinating one of the clauses in the er r or. Subordinate clause Main clause +Ø+ +,+ main clause. subordinate clause. Here’s our sample: Although Andre sank a perfect basket from half court, the coach’s back was turned. Andre sank a perfect basket from half court after the coach’s back was turned. Adding an Dropping unnecessary the comma after courtisislike like a comma grandstanding championship game ! is whenturnover a teammate open! Quick Test Directions: In the items that follow, choose the option that corrects an error in the underlined portion(s). If no error exists, choose “No change is necessary.” Show me you got game! Item 1 The dogs drooled drooledwhile whilewe weate ateslices slicesofofhot hot A pizza but pizza pizza, but butthe the thecat cat catfeigned feigned feignednonchalance nonchalance nonchalance even even even B C though we knew that she wanted a pepperoni. A. B. C. D. drooled. While pizza, but pizza, but nonchalance. Even No change is necessary. Item 2 Mary Ellen screamed, screamed,her herroommate’s roommate’spet pet tarantula crawled out of the bag of popcorn. A. screamed her B. screamed; because, her C. screamed screamed as asher her D. No change is necessary. Item 3 Running late with dinner, dinner,Elizabeth Elizabethfussed fussedwith with A seasonings and seasonings andwiped wipedspots spotsoff offthe the B glasses. While glasses. glasses while Whilethe thefamily familystared staredatattheir theirempty empty CC plates. A. B. C. D. dinner; Elizabeth seasonings, and glasses while glasses while No change is necessary. Item 4 Everyone scrambled off the lakeside patio. patio. When When the 10-foot alligator lumbered onto shore. A. patio patio when when B. patio; when C. patio, when D. No change is necessary. Item 5 The glass of iced tea promised thirst-quenching refreshment.Roseanne, refreshment refreshment Roseanne, Roseanne, however, however, however, had had had to to beat tobeat beat A BB Maria to the refrigerator refrigeratoras asthey theyraced racedthrough through C the front door. A. B. C. D. refreshment.Roseanne refreshment. Roseanne however; had refrigerator; as No change is necessary. Item 6 Warren wanted to make a good impression on Melody but Melody butthe thesoda sodaexplosion explosionthat thatsoaked soakedhis his shirt ruined their first meeting. A. Melody; but, the B. Melody; Melody; however, however,the the C. Melody, however, the D. No change is necessary. Item 7 Because of the hot sun, sun, ice icecream creamran randown downthe the A cone and cone andcoated coatedRandall’s Randall’sfingers, fingers,his his for tongue his tongue tongue B CC couldn’t keep up. A. B. C. D. sun; ice cream cone, and fingers, for fingers, forhis his No change is necessary. Item 8 Wanda took a deep breath and got ready to yell. yell. Because Paul Because Paul was was about about to to explain explain why why his his half half of of the rent would be late again. A. yell, because B. yell yell because because C. yell for D. No change is necessary. Item 9 After Simon bought roses for Emily, Emily, he hespotted spotted A Derek’s car in her driveway drivewayand andrealized realizedthat thatthis this B gesture would not repair the relationship relationshipororwin win C back her love. A. B. C. D. Emily. he driveway. And relationship; or No change changeisisnecessary. necessary. Item 10 Since Larry had studied for hours; hours;he hewas was relieved to find a big red A at the top of his grammar quiz. A. hours he B. hours. He C. hours, hours, he he D. No change is necessary. Grammar Bytes! provides additional handouts and exercises on fragments, comma splices, and fused chomp! sentences . Go to chompchomp.com ! chomp! The End.